Poverty in Washington D.C. and Its Effect on Education Poverty is described in many different ways and there are many different levels of poverty in which people live.
Some people think it is not having food, a place to live, money, car or a job. The United Nation??™s World Summit describes it as ???a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information??? (A Dollar a Day). The United States Federal Government describes poverty by two different ways, the poverty thresholds and the poverty guidelines. Most economists and social workers describe poverty by social definitions and statistical definitions.
Social definitions of poverty are described by some as having a lack of essential items such as food, clothing, water and shelter needed for proper living (A Dollar a Day). Most Americans described by the government as living below the poverty line, live in a home with air conditioning, cable television, a game system and cell phones. Poor Americans do not live in luxury but they struggle to pay for what some people call essentials. There are many poor households that have modern conveniences but it does not mean that one day they will not be the one in twenty-five that statistics say will become temporarily homeless during the year (Understanding Poverty). ???When people are unable to eat, go to school, or have any access to health care, then they can be considered to be in poverty, regardless of their income??? (A Dollar a Day). The Census Bureau reported in September that ???the number of Americans living below the official poverty line, 46.
2 million people, was the most in the fifty-two years the bureau has been reporting the figures??? (Soaring Poverty). Childhood hunger is at a high in America. Nearly one in five children cannot count on having enough to eat. Their bodies may not be thin, or there stomachs bloated like in other countries, but they are at risk just the same. They lack the energy to learn, grow and thrive.
In my research, I found, most embarrassingly, that the level of poverty is high in the back yard of The White House and who and what suffers the most are the children and their education. The focus of my paper will be on poverty and its effect on education in Washington D.C.. There is a growing consensus that the educational system in America is falling behind when it comes to educating our children for the future. While there is little doubt that we have many schools that are in need of improvement, the fact that our problems stem from underperforming schools and inadequate instruction is an over simplification of the problem (Poverty and Education). According to Jumpstart, an organization that strives to narrow the literacy gap between poor and higher income children, poverty is the single largest factor determining a child??™s failure in school (Poverty Hinders Education).
Poverty affects how children learn. Low income children have limited vocabularies and are less likely to be read to because they do not have the resources for books. By age four, children who live below the poverty level are eighteen months behind the norm for their age group and it is still prevalent through the age of ten (Children & Poverty). There is also a correlation between student performance and the poverty level of the schools they attend. This is reflected in the lower math and reading test scores that poor children have over the more affluent children within the same schools. Children from all income levels have lower test scores when they attend schools in low income neighborhoods.
Schools in more affluent neighborhoods have more resources and opportunities for fundraising to provide for educational enrichments that schools in poor neighborhoods cannot afford. ???It??™s all about having the right school environment and quality instruction, which sadly, is highly correlated with income levels at a school,??? noted Lai-Wan Wong, Director of Youth and Education (Student Performance). Students at high poverty schools are more likely to be minorities. High poverty schools have a larger percentage of students with limited English proficiency.
Hispanic students made up forty six percent of students at high poverty elementary schools and only eleven percent at low poverty schools. White students made up fourteen percent of students at high poverty schools and seventy five percent at low poverty elementary schools. Students at high poverty schools had lower average scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress in reading and math than those at low poverty schools.
They are less likely to graduate from high school and of the ones who do graduate only twenty eight percent enroll in a four year college compared to fifty two percent from low poverty schools (Percent of High Poverty Schools). The poverty guideline issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for 2012 in Washington DC for a family of four is $23,050 (table 1). Poverty in the District of Columbia remains higher than the national rate and in fact leads the country with one in five residents living at or below poverty as reported by D.C .Fiscal Policy Institute. Poverty can have effects in two ways, family poverty, when a family or individual live below the poverty threshold or neighborhood poverty, when families live in poor neighborhoods. The poverty rates are high in some D.C.
neighborhoods and the number of high poverty neighborhoods has also increased. Poor families often live in overcrowded housing, have poor health care or none, and suffer from poor nutrition. Low school performance, violence and teen pregnancy are some of the social problems that stem from poverty. The stress of poverty is also a contributing factor to child neglect and child abuse. Half of the children with cases of abuse and neglect come from the poorest neighborhoods in D.
C.. These findings confirm that poverty and the concentration of poor families in certain neighborhoods is a major contributing factor to many of the District??™s problems (Disparities in the District). Unemployment is one of the reasons there is much poverty in Washington. Unemployment in the poorest part of the District, which is just four miles from the White House, climbed to greater than twenty five percent in 2011.
This is higher than any United States metropolitan area with a labor force of comparable size as reported by the Department of Employment Services. The people that live in this section of the city do not have a high level of education. They often have legal problems or have been incarcerated.
These are some of the reason they are unemployable. Washington??™s mayor, Vincent Gray, stated in his State of the District speech, ???In some neighborhoods, one out of every three adults is unemployed??? (Unemployment Rate). Many of the new jobs recently created by the government require an education that is above that of the people living in these neighborhoods.
Of the working residents in Washington D.C., one-fifth makes less than eleven dollars per hour (Our National Embarrassment). This makes it extremely hard for residents to be able to afford housing in the second least affordable housing jurisdiction in the country (Out of Reach). All of this information is terrible news for Washington??™s residents and it is not surprising that our nation??™s capital has been plagued by crime and poverty for years. It is a tragedy that, in the shadow of our Capitol Building??™s dome, one in three children live in a family whose income is below the poverty line.
Poverty affects children and the way they learn in many ways. Children cannot learn if they are worried about where they are going to sleep or if they will have enough food to eat. The number of children who do not have proper medical care is one of the reasons the absentee rate is high in Washington??™s schools.
Abused or neglected children struggle to achieve success during their school years. Children that attend low performing schools are usually taught by less qualified teachers. Teens in poverty tend to engage in more at-risk behaviors such as drug and alcohol abuse, early sexual activity and violence (Poverty & the Effects). All of these factors can increase teenage dropout rates, which contributes to the cycle of poverty. These are some of the many reasons the schools in the District are failing.
Homelessness and poverty go hand and hand in Washington D.C.. There were more than fifteen thousand homeless in District last year. It was reported that ???On a single night in 2011, over sixty-five hundred people in the city were homeless??? (Homelessness and Poverty). Forty-one percent of the total homeless are made up of families. For families there are only one hundred and sixty emergency shelter apartments available.
The waitlist for emergency shelter is over six months and in March 2011 there were almost six hundred families on the waitlist. There are more than two thousand homeless youths over any given year and there are only eighty-two emergency shelter beds for them. There are many reasons why there is so much poverty and homelessness in The District of Columbia. It has the third highest poverty rate in the country. There are not enough high paying jobs and the unemployment rate was eleven percent in October 2011, much higher then the national percentage. There is not enough affordable housing and it is the second least affordable housing area in the country (Homelessness and Poverty). The absence of a stable housing environment has a devastating impact on the education of a child. Most homeless youths have difficulty staying at the same school for an entire year.
One half of homeless children attend three different schools in one year. When students change schools often, it is difficult for educators to identify their needs and ensure proper placement. Transportation can be an obstacle that can prevent a child from attending school. The family may not have a car or an address for bus transportation. Another large problem is the connection that is missing between the parent and guardian with the school. Parents play an important role in their child??™s education. Because homeless parents often feel ill equipped to assist their children they seldom help their children with school work. Often they are spending their time trying to find shelter, food, searching for employment and caring for basic survival needs.
In 2010, there were more than twenty one thousand underprivileged children living in Washington D.C. ???When they walk into the classroom, many didn??™t get sleep the night before, and they might be dozing during the day. They may not be able to focus because they??™re too hungry,??? said HyeSook Chung, executive director of D.C.
Action for Children, a nonprofit focused on awareness of D.C. youth issues. One in five students in Fairfax County said they had gone hungry at least once in the past month due to a lack of food in the home (Poverty Soars). Children were food insecure at a rate of almost ten percent of the year in 2010. In one percent of households with more than one child one or more of the children experienced the most severe food insecure condition measured by USDA, very low food security in which meals were irregular and food intake was below levels considered adequate by caregivers (Hunger in the United States). It does not have to be this way. There is enough food in this country for all the children and it needs to be made accessible to them.
Children in The District of Columbia are at risk for serious health problems that are caused from hunger, poor nutrition and inadequate physical activity. ???Poor nutrition and lack of physical activity are the second leading cause of preventable death in D.C.??? (Health and Wellness). Two thirds of K-8 teachers reported that most of their students rely on school meals as their primary source of food.
Lisa, a teacher in D.C., stated ???You do not need to ask which child is hungry, because you can see it in their eyes and their actions. They are tired and worry a lot about getting something to eat??? (Hunger in America??™s Classrooms). Studies have shown that a hungry child is a disadvantaged child. A child can not grow, develop or learn like other kids if they are hungry. They have trouble focusing and getting along with others.
They complain of headaches and stomach aches often. They fall way behind in every way. There are many issues that the children of the District face. In 2010, forty percent of households with children reported that they could not afford to purchase enough food to feed their family. It was reported that forty three percent of the District??™s children are obese or overweight and the estimated cost of health care for this is three hundred seventy-two million dollars and rising. The USDA recommends that people eat five fruits and vegetables a day but eighty one percent of the children do not.
The saddest statistic is that only about thirty percent of the children get the recommended sixty minutes of physical activity a day (DC Healthy Schools). The problem of obesity is widespread and growing rapidly according to the National Association of Children??™s Hospitals. The problem often starts in preschool so the child is overweight by the time he starts kindergarten. Certain minorities are more heavily affected by childhood obesity and its interference in their education. The highest prevalence of obesity in boys was found in Hispanic children. In girls, it was observed most frequently in African-Americans (Kids Being Overweight). Kids who are overweight often suffer from many effects that touch every part of life, including their education. Nemours Kids Health cites low self-esteem and depression as two common effects.
Overweight children are more prone to develop medical conditions such as Type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and heart disease. An overweight child who is bullied may resist going to school and be preoccupied while there. Obese children with low self esteem may give up on school work too easily, keeping them from their full potential.
All of these conditions can affect their school attendance and activities (Kids Being Overweight). Major health problems among our children directly impact schools and student learning. Academic achievement, student self-esteem, and well-being are intertwined. In Washington, the percentage of children who do not have health insurance is far lower than the national percentage according to the National Survey of Children??™s Health. Despite the high rate of health insurance coverage, however, many children have problems getting medical care. Access problems appeared especially hard for children with publicly funded insurance. Rates of office-based care among this group were below national levels. This group also had the highest rates of emergency department use with more than one in four children seeking medical help at least once per year.
There are many barriers that hinder D.C. youth from receiving health care in a nonhospital setting.
One factor is the uneven distribution of primary and specialty care providers across the district relative to need. Other barriers perceived by parents and adolescents are a lack of provider understanding of cultural and neighborhood issues as well as an availability of health care providers who speak languages other than English. These barriers were more pronounced in neighborhoods with lower income populations (Children??™s Health). Poor children are more likely to be admitted to a hospital and have longer stays, once admitted. Twice as many poor children have iron deficiency anemia than non-poor children. Poor children are two to three times as likely to have severe vision impairment. The most common illnesses diagnosed by physicians are asthma and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Can Poor Children Learn).
Each, untreated, causes serious academic problems. Poor children lose thirty percent more school days than non-poor children and it affects their academic achievement (Children??™s Health). It is well documented that the effect of stressors is cumulative. Children who have had greater exposure to abuse, neglect, danger, loss or other poverty related experiences are more reactive to stressors. Each stressor builds on and accelerates other stressors and slowly changes the student. It is the cumulative effect of the stressors that makes life miserable for poor children. Kids coming to school do not wear signs that say ???Caution! Chronic Stressors Live Here??? (How Poverty Affects Behavior). Stress has an effect on learning and behavior, and a trained professional should be able to recognize the symptoms in the classroom.
It is linked to over fifty percent of all absences and impairs attention and concentration. Stress diminishes social skills and reduces motivation, determination and effort. A child who comes from a stressful home environment tends to channel that stress into disruptive behavior at school. Most children, who are abused or neglected, struggle to achieve success during their school years. Students who have to worry over safety concerns underperform.
Schools in high poverty areas of the District tend to be located in more dangerous neighborhoods. Exposure to community violence, an unsafe home, neighborhood or a dangerous path to school, contributes to lower academic performance. It is common knowledge among teachers that many D.C. high school students either stay home or skip classes due to fear of violence (How Poverty Affects Behavior).
It was reported that ???the graduation rate for D.C. charter schools dropped nearly five percentage points??? for the 2010 school year (Graduation Rate).
Thousands of children were suspended from public schools in Washington and its suburbs last year. Children who were sent home for behavior problems included kindergarteners that were sent home for removing their shoes and throwing temper tantrums. Some schools have developed in-house suspension, where the goal is to teach the child appropriate behavior. A Washington Post analysis of data for thirteen of the region??™s school systems found that last year over six thousand elementary students were suspended for their behavior. For those students that are removed from school the effect is complicated.
They lose instruction time and fall behind in classes. They may be regarded differently by teachers or other children or may become self conscious. Ann Gregory, a Rutgers University assistant professor and education researcher notes ???I would be worried it would set in motion a negative trajectory that would gather momentum across the next years of schooling??? (Suspended from School). Even when low-income parents do everything they can for their children, their limited resources put kids at a huge disadvantage.
Many children raised in poverty enter school a step behind their well off peers. The cognitive stimulation that many parents provide is crucial and, as we have seen, poor children receive less of it than their well off peers do. Standardized testing shows a correlation between poverty and lower cognitive achievement. Although the effects of poverty are not automatic or fixed, they often set in motion a vicious and stubborn cycle of low expectations. Poor academic performance leads to low expectations, which spreads and undermine children??™s overall self-esteem. Research has shown that children who experience poverty have worse adult outcomes in terms of educational success.
They bear more children out of wedlock than children in higher income families. Children who grow up in poverty are at a high risk for becoming adults who live in poverty (Teaching with Poverty). There are ways to break this cycle. Since the beginning of public education, the goal was to teach children the three ???R??™s???- reading, writing, and arithmetic.
Today??™s educators need to address one more ???R??? and that is reducing the negative effects of poverty by becoming the central agency to educate the families and to help them take advantage of the programs available to them. Families face many barriers that often slow down the process for reaching out for help. Some of these barriers include lack of outreach and accessible information on programs available, transportation, burdensome applications, repeat visits and the stigma associated with applying for programs. Communities across the country are finding that pairing antipoverty strategies with schools result in positive student outcomes as well as improving the public benefits. Dealing with multiple agencies in different locations, requiring different application processes can be overwhelming for many families. Streamlining the process by allowing for central connection points for services will maximize outcomes (How Poverty Affects Behavior). More children will be helped when the government and communities make it easier for families to reach out for help.
Placing school based screening programs in high poverty neighborhoods would provide locations with which families are familiar and comfortable with (Reducing Student Poverty). Schools are ideal locations because they have access to poor students and their families. They are located in the neighborhoods in which families live. They are recognized and familiar community institutions and have established relationships with low-income students and their families. Schools are positioned to become effective connection points for a broad range of social welfare services. School based antipoverty programs could have a tremendous impact on the educations and well being of low income children in Washington. ???The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 2001 requires all school age youth, including unaccompanied youth, a free and appropriate education??? (Homeless Children). These rights include immediate enrollment, confidentiality, transportation and an equal education.
The McKinney-Vento Act is recognized as a milestone for the education of homeless children. Transportation to their school can cause more harm than good and continues to remain a barrier to homeless youth. Transportation is the number one barrier that homeless children and youth face when they attempt to enroll and attend school regularly (Education Barriers). In Washington D.C. there is additional support from the Homeless Children and Youth Program Inc.
Each school has an identified homeless liaison that receives quarterly reports from staff members and is responsible for providing assistance to homeless students and providing them support. A homeless student has rights that include immediate enrollment in school, confidentiality regarding homeless status, transportation assistance and a challenging, rigorous education equal to that of their peers (Homeless Children Youth Program). This program also assists with school supplies and school fee assistance. It provides parent training and referrals to other city services. Without enforcement of programs supporting and helping homeless youth, programs are ineffective and results are not maximized.
Also, without increased funding, enforcement, support and services will continue to decrease. This decline will have a devastating effect on homeless youth and their opportunity for education. It is important that homeless youth are accepted into a supportive and positive educational environment, without any stigma or prejudice, so that they may achieve their maximum potential (Homeless Children). In May 2010, The District of Columbia Council passed the Healthy Schools Act, a landmark law designed to improve the health and wellness of students attending D.C. public and charter schools. Now in its second year of implementation, the Healthy Schools Act is helping to improve the health, wellness and nutrition of the seventy five thousand children attending D.C.
schools. The act tackles two major problems in the District, childhood obesity and childhood hunger. It positions the District to become a national leader on health and wellness in schools. In doing this, the act improves nutrition by requiring healthier school meals with more fruits, vegetables and whole-grains.
It provides healthier options for foods sold outside the cafeteria, such as in school stores and vending machines. The act provides access to school meals, so that no child goes hungry, by providing free breakfast for all students, incorporating breakfast into the school day, and making lunch free for students who use to pay a reduced price. It encourages Farm to School programs to help students learn about and experience fresh, locally grown foods in their classrooms and in their school meals. It provides information to promote more physical activity opportunities to help get students moving throughout the school day and develop lifelong healthy habits. Strain is taken off the school budget providing funds for more health education to help students learn about nutrition, safety and overall personal health.
The Healthy Schools Act helps create more eco-friendly schools by encouraging school gardens, recycling programs, energy reduction initiatives, and testing for safe water and building materials. This all matters in The District of Columbia because poor nutrition and lack of physical activity are the second leading cause of preventable death in D.C.
(D.C. Healthy Schools Act). Washington D.C.
was the first in the nation to offer free breakfast for all school children (D.C. Hunger Solutions). Schools have implemented a variety of ways to bring school breakfast to the children. Many schools serve breakfast not only in the cafeterias but in the classrooms and after the bell in grab and go bags. By doing this, more low income children are starting the day with school breakfast, placing the district first among the states in participation.
Many families are living on very tight budgets and cannot afford to provide good breakfasts at home every day. Studies conclude that students who eat breakfast at the start of the school day show a general increase in math and reading scores. Children who eat breakfast at school, closer to class and test taking time, perform better on standardized tests than those who skip breakfast or eat breakfast at home. Schools that offer free breakfast to all students report decreases in discipline and behavior problems, visits to school nurses and tardiness, as well as increases in student attentiveness and attendance, and generally improved learning environments (FRAC). In its efforts to prevent childhood hunger and poor nutrition, D.
C. public schools have started serving an early dinner to students. The District is now serving almost ten thousand students in ninety nine out of one hundred and thirty schools. Officials describe the dinner initiative as having three goals: helping childhood hunger, reducing obesity and drawing more students to after school programs. Until this year, the food that was provided for after school programs was a small snack. This was not enough for children who spend up to ten and a half hours at school. Officials started hearing from principals and teachers that not only were many kids hungry for the last few hours of the day, but some of them were not eating at home.
???We knew that a lot of kids were only eating at school,??? said Jeff Mills, director of food services for D.C. schools (DinnerBell). Schools are being asked to address the health needs of children. A restructured school alone cannot satisfactorily address the multidimensional concerns of children and youth. To address the developmental needs of children and families in a comprehensive and preventive manner, schools and communities must coordinate services. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that existing health-service providers join schools in coordinating school programs to improve the health and education of children.
There are many different approaches in which this goal can be met. On the national level Comprehensive School Health Programs (CSHP) is part of school reform that seeks to reduce or eliminate health related barriers to student academic and personal success. These programs are developed to mitigate six high risk behaviors which are causing premature mortality and morbidity among our youth. These negative behaviors impact health and the resulting capacity for both personal and academic success during adolescence and adulthood. The six high priority risk behaviors are tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behavior, dietary behavior, physical inactivity and behaviors that result in unintentional and intentional injuries. Because these high priority risk behaviors arise from the interactions of persons and circumstances within and outside the student??™s school, it is important to enlist persons, agencies, and organizations, inside and outside of the school, to address these behaviors.
CSHP includes eight interdependent programs which are health education, health service, on site and or school linked, school environment, physical education and physical activity, food service program, worksite health promotion for staff, integration of community resources and counseling, psychological and social service (Comprehensive School Health Programs). These components provide additional opportunities, supports, and services that many students need to be successful. Washington D.C. has its own Health and Wellness Team that works to support the physical and emotional health of students.
The School Nursing Program ensures that each school in the District has full-time nursing coverage during the school year. School mental health and social services in schools are provided by school social workers, psychologists and counselors. Partner agencies have implemented evidence-based programs that target specific issues such as school culture and climate, substance use, self-confidence, and mental health. School based health centers bring the services of a doctor??™s office to schools so students can prevent health related absences. The centers are open during school hours and are staffed with health professionals. There are currently five centers in high schools and a community health center operating at an elementary school. The New Heights Teen Parent Program provides pregnant and parenting Washington students with the assistance, support and guidance they need to handle the responsibilities of raising a child and graduating from school.
In all of the high schools they have adopted a program called DOH??™s Wrap MC Condom where trained school staff provides condoms to students as part of a comprehensive health education program for students in grades nine through twelve (Health and Wellness). Washington??™s schools need to recruit and train the best staff they can. They cannot afford to let disadvantaged kids receive substandard teaching. The school district needs to start asking around the district and at conferences to find superior teachers, posting ads for teachers who love kids and love challenges, and by asking the existing good teachers ???How do we keep you here??? Recruiting great teachers is never easy, but it is possible if you know how to appeal to them. Top teachers crave a challenge and look for highly supportive administrators.
They continually strive to improve their skills and knowledge by participating in professional development program (Poverty & Education). Educators need to provide hope and support. Any student who feels ???less than??? cognitively is likely not only to struggle academically, but also to be prone to issues such as acting out, getting bullied or becoming a bully, having lower self-esteem, or having feelings of depression or helplessness. Teachers need to build supportive relationships, provide positive guidance, foster hope and optimism, and take time for affirmation and celebration.
Although the cognitive deficits in children from low-income families can seem daunting, the strategies available today are far more targeted and effective than ever before. Kids can succeed with the right interventions. Children may need extra help with their education for a variety of reason. It is not possible to list all the reasons because it will always depend on each individual child. What is important is the recognition that any number of different circumstances can affect different children??™s ability to learn.
Support may need to come from health, social work or certain voluntary organizations, as well as from within education field. Professionals with different areas of expertise should all work together to make sure any support any child gets is properly tailored to their individual needs. The child??™s needs may last for a short time, and the problem may be resolved easily or his or her needs might be very complex, and they may require additional support for a number of years. Whatever the child??™s needs, everyone involved should try to identify them as early as possible and provide the necessary support in a way that does not single out the child. As I sat and watched the movie Waiting for Superman, my heart was breaking for these children that live in poverty that is no fault of their own. The only thing that these students wanted was to better their education. Watching these parents and guardians, struggle to deal with bureaucracy that helps keep these children from attending the school of their choice is a wake up call for all Americans.
If there are more effective academically rigorous schools, for the children to choose from, it would help ease the stress for the families. Every child has the right to achieve no matter where they live. It should not rest on the name pulled from a box or from the number that rolls out of the bingo machine to determine what school you can attend. We must ensure that our children are able to attend the school of their choice. Education is the only way to break the cycle of poverty.
Washington has opened many new programs in the last few years to help break the cycle of poverty. There are free job training programs for residents eighteen and over. There are many new construction projects going on in the city.
To obtain a city contract the contractors that are hired need to hire city residents to work on their projects. This program promotes the need for more training programs in the poorest sections of the District. The city has built more affordable housing units for low income families and the participation in the Housing First programs has doubled in the past two years. The District has implemented many new programs to help with poverty in their schools. Making sure that the students are fed and have access to health care is a major barrier that they are well on their way to overcoming.
Having school based central locations for social services has made it easier for families to sign up for benefits. There are many barriers that we as parents, educators and governments must overcome to help the people that need it the most. If we work together as a whole we can overcome anything.
It has taken many years for the system to break and it will take many years to fix it.Works CitedAdach, Jen. “Ending Hunger in the Nations Capital.” DC Hunger Solutions: Home. N.
p., 31 Jan. 2011. Web. 28 Mar. 2012.Benson, Karl. “Student Performance Linked to Poverty of School Population.
” Greenline. N.p., 4 Oct.
2011. Web. 14 Mar.
2012.Can Poor Children Learn More Through Improving Their Schools. Rep. N.p., n.d.
Web. 21 Feb. 2012. .Children & Poverty.
DC Action for Children, n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.”Childrens Health in Washington D.C.
” Rand. N.p., n.d.
Web. 29 Mar. 2012.Coleman, and Jensen. “Hunger in the United States.
” World Hunger Notes Homepage. N.p.
, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.”D.C.
Healthy Schools Act.” D.C. Healthy Schools Act. N.p., n.
d. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.”A Dollar a Day.” ThinkQuest : Think.
com, Oracle Education Foundation, Projects. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2012.
“Education Barriers for Homeless Youth.” National Network For Youth | NN4Y |. N.p., n.d.
Web. 20 Feb. 2012.Gartner, Lisa. “Poverty Soars for DC MontCo Students.” Washington Examiner. N.p.
, Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.Homan, Timothy R.
“Unemployment Rate in Washingtons Ward 8 Is Highest in US.” Bloomberg. N.p.
, 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.”Home – DC Public Schools, Washington, DC.
” DC Public Schools, Washington, DC. Health and Wellness, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2012.”Homeless Children and Youth Program.
” N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2112.
.”Homelessness and Poverty.” The Washington Legal Clinic for The Homeless. N.p., n.d.
Web. 21 Feb. 2012.”Hunger in Americas Classrooms.
” Share Our Strength Teachers Report. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2012.
Jensen, Eric. “How Poverty Affects Behavior and Academic Performance.” Teaching with Poverty in Mind.
N.p.: n.p., n.d.
N. pag. , Policy, and Professional Development for Educators. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.
Nefer, Barb. “Kids Being Overweight & How It Affects Their Education.” LIVESTRONG.COM. N.
p., 8 Dec. 2010.
Web. 29 Mar. 2012.”Poverty & the Effects on Child Education.” EHow.
Demand Media, n.d. Web. 05 May 2012.”Poverty and Education – The Challenge of Improving Schools.” Open Education. N.
p., 1 Apr. 2009. Web. 6 Feb. 2012.???Poverty Guidelines 2012??? 26 Jan.2012.
Web. 6 Feb. 2012. Asp.hhs.
gov”Poverty Hinders Education, News-press.com.” The News-Press. N.p., 14 Sept.
2010. Web. 6 Feb. 2012.”Poverty and Education-The Challenge of Improving Schools.
” Open Education. N.p., n.d. Web.
21 Mar. 2012.”Rates of Homelessness and Shelter.” Institute for Research on Poverty, 14 Oct.
2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2012.Rector, Robert, and Rachel Sheffield. Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About Americas Poor. Rep. N.p., 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.Rolland, Stacy. “Disparities in the District of Columbia: Poverty Is Major Cause.” DC Fiscal Policy Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.St.George, Donna. “Suspended from School in Early Grades.” Washington Post. The Washington Post, 12 Mar. 2012. Web. 21 Mar. 2012.Tavernise, Sabrina. “Soaring Poverty Cast Spotlight on “Lost Decade”” The New York Times. N.p., 13 Sept. 2011. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.Tech. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Comprehensive School Health Programs. Web. 29 Mar. 2012. .Turque, Bill. “Dinner Bell Follows Class Bell at Some D.C. Schools.” 19 Oct. 2010: n. pag. Washington Post. The Washington Post, 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2012.Waiting For Superman. DVD”Why Offer School Breakfast Free to All Children” Food Research & Action Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2012.Table 1|Persons in | ||Family/household |Poverty guidelines ||1 |$11,170 ||2 |15,130 ||3 |19,090 ||4 |23,050 ||5 |27,010 ||6 |30,970 ||7 |34,930 ||8 |38,890 |For families/households with more than 8 persons, add $4,950 for each additional person(2012HHSPoverty Guidelines)Annotated BibliographyHoman, Timothy R. “Unemployment Rate in Washingtons Ward 8 Is Highest in US.” Bloomberg. N.p., 30 Mar. 2011. Web. 13 Mar. 2012.Unemployment Rate in Washington??™s Ward 8 is Highest in U.S. In the southeast section of Washington D.C., only four miles from The White House, is the ward eight section of the city that has a poverty rate of thirty five percent. It has almost double the rate of eighteen percent that the city has as a whole. The people that live in this section of the city have not received a high level of education. They often have legal problems or have been incarcerated. These factors put them at a disadvantage that many cannot overcome. There are many that are unemployable because of these reasons. Vincent Gray, the mayor of the District, stated ???The District is home to the haves and the have nots.??? The unemployment rate is the highest in the United States in the poorest sections of Washington D.C.. The mayor reported in his State of the District Speech that, ???in some neighborhoods one out of every three adults is unemployed.??? The creation of new jobs has not helped the people in these neighborhoods because many of the jobs created require a higher level of education than the people who live there have. The unemployment rate in the ward eight section of the city is over twenty five percent, compared to about nine and a half percent for the entire city. The average income is around forty four thousand dollars for ward eight compared with the District??™s one hundred and fifteen dollars. Much work needs to be done in this section of the city. Outreach programs need to be made available in the neighborhoods for peoples to take advantage of them. Washington D.C. is our nation??™s capital and we must be proud of it and its people. Annotated BibliographyTurque, Bill. “Dinner Bell Follows Class Bell at Some D.C. Schools.” 19 Oct. 2010: n. pag. Washington Post. The Washington Post, 25 Jan. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. Dinner Bell Follows Class Bell at Some D.C. Schools Washington D.C.??™s public schools are now feeding over ten thousand children three meals a day. Free and reduced price breakfast and lunch have been served for years in the District??™s schools, but now the District has started providing an early dinner for almost a quarter of its total enrollment. Officials heard from many of their administrators that many kids were hungry for the last few hours of school and that many of them were not eating at home. This program comes at a time when the concern for childhood poverty is at its peak with a rate of forty three percent for black children. A Gallop poll conducted for the Food Research Action Center found that families with children did not have enough money to buy food at least once between 2008 and 2009. The dinner program has three goals it hopes to attain. It should help reduce rates of obesity, childhood hunger, and increase the number of students attending after school programs. It is also part of a broader effort to upgrade the quality and nutritional value of the food intake of students. The District piloted the program at a few schools before implementing it at full scale. The cost of the program is about 5.7 million dollars for a school year. Washington D.C.??™s School and Nutrition Program have many new initiatives to help student hunger in their city. The federal government needs to help shoulder some of the financial burden along with the city to keep this program running in the District. Private business needs to join inand help ease the cost for the city. We must all support this program to make sure that no child is hungry!Annotated Bibliography”Education Barriers for Homeless Youth.” National Network For Youth | NN4Y |. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2012.Education Barriers for Homeless Youth Homelessness has a devastating impact on education for children. Students that are homeless often do not have the proper school or medical records that are needed to be placed correctly in the classroom. ???More than one half of homeless children attend three different schools in one year.??? It is difficult for teachers to correctly identify a student??™s needs when they change schools as frequently as homeless children do. Transportation becomes a problem that will prevent a child from attending school. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act was established to eliminate some of these barriers that keep homeless students from attending school. This act requires that all schools appoint a liaison to work with homeless students and their families. In many parts of the country schools are very limited in their resources and as a result many homeless families are not being served. The government at the state and local level need to be more aware of the lack of funding that prevents implementation of the program. There is documentation of schools having a lack of interest in enrolling unaccompanied children because they ???just don??™t want these kids, and will try to avoid implementing the law.??? There needs to be some accountability for the programs the government establishes to help the homeless children. We need to make sure that families have access to programs that are available to them. I believe, by inserting school based screening programs, we would be able to help these children to grow up to be productive adults instead of promoting the cycle of poverty by ignoring the problem.