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Category: General

Political Science

April 14, 2017 • admin

Jazmine Farias
Political Science #70096
August 20, 2012
Thinking about Politics
While I was growing up politics didn??™t really matter to me or it really didn??™t concern me. To me it just seemed like a topic only grown up or adults had to worry about it. It didn??™t really hit me till I entered High School in 2008 and students will be walking around campus with a ???VOTE OBAMA??? shirt and I remember thinking to myself who is this Obama guy and why should I vote for him, and from there politics became a topic I wanted to learn about, and i was very interested into knowing more and more about politcs and the history but really didn??™t get into it untill later. Through out my high school years I would consider myself as a democrat because my family was, but I didn??™t really know what that meant till I reached my senior year in high school and we learned about it in my Government class. That??™s when I realized I believe in the total opposite except in some occasion. If it wasn??™t for the family, schooling/education, and religion politics wouldn??™t be a big issue to me.
Recently I went on people-press.org and to see where I stood in the political spectrum and to find out what witch one of the 9 typologies I fit into best. According to the quiz I took on people-press.org it said I was a Main Street Republican, witch to me is pretty accurate except on certain issues such as immigration. Some of the things that makes me a Main Street Republican is that im strongly opposed to abortion and same sex marriage. Also that I am completely confident that hard works pay off and that I am supportive of the governments effort to protect the environment (www.pewresearch/typology/test). What I didn??™t agree on and what didn??™t make me a happy camper was people-press.org said I was generally negative about immigration and I am mostly opposed about social welfare program, witch im not there always that one something that makes me go from that one side to the other in the political spectrum and because of the whole immigration issue makes me lean toward the blue side because my Hispanic heritage and my family.
My family was never a political one. They never really talked about politics to me well I was growing up. What I did know about my family was that they are democratic and that has to do with us being part of the middle class and struggling with this recession. Since my family Is democratic I always considered myself one as well because of there influences. When I became a senior in high school that??™s when I was old enough to understand the different between the democratic and the republicans.
Schooling and education is how I was introduced to all the political talk. If it was not for school I would be oblivious to the political world. Schooling is what helped me understand the difference between the democrats and the republicans. Education is what helped me to understand how politics all stared. I may not be a master into knowing it all, but if it was not for an education I would have never realized its importance to all of our American lives, and how great it is we have the ability to vote based on what we believe in.
Religion plays a big major factor in how I view politics. I am a very strong Christian and based on what I believe in is where I stand in the political spectrum and what I will vote for when it come to elections. Relgion has influnced me to vote for the things I believe are right. Such as pro life and pro marriage.

Categories: General

The Journey of Ibn Fattouma

April 13, 2017 • admin

1. Explain the government of M ashriq.
One thing that was overtaking in the government was poverty and slavery. If a poor person was sick then they did not have any doctors to heal them so they had to rely on the strength from within themselves to get better. Also the thought of nakedness played a huge role. Everywhere you look there are people either completely naked or half naked like in loincloths. One more thing that I noticed was that there was a presence of a hierarchy and there was an overlord that ruled over all and had the upper hand when it came to governmental decisions.
2. Explain the religion on Mashriq.
One thing I saw that played a big part in the religion was the land of idolatry which is where they traverse to take on prayers and learn more about the gods. Another thing I found very interesting was the idea of punishment. When Fattouma enters the inn and asks if he is allowed to pray in his room, he is told that he might risk punishment which I guess is what happens if you pray when not commanded to do so. This shows how in the Islamic culture people idolize their rules and regulations and have to abide by them no matter the time or setting
3. Explain the social structure, focusing on the relationships between men and women, and the family unit.
On top there is the overlord, then the advisors, the commoners, and then the slaves. This chapter mostly focused on Arousa and her relationship with Fattouma. She was a slave and got to know him. At first her father asked if he admired her and while astonished and confused with this question, Fattouma suddenly has her in his arms which shows that the father has most of the say in the family and can give over her daughter to anyone he pleases fit. Later on the Overlord wont allow them to marry and Fattouma has to rent him which reminds us back to when his other wife was taken by the government which further proves my point that there is a hierarchy and the overlord gets most if not all of the say.
4. Though he finds happiness in Mashriq, what inner conflict does Qindil continue to have How does he deal with it, and what is the result
When Qindil finds Arousa, she is completely naked and tempting, which in his culture is strictly forbidden and can get severely punished for it. He wants to cover up her nakedness which fixs the problem but he still has to deal with the problem of all the people in the town being poor. Weve seen that from him in the first chapter, the whole reason he went on the quest was to heal his homeland from poverty and other cruel things.
Please answer these questions in complete sentences. Be thorough in your response.

Categories: General

Political Risk

April 13, 2017 • admin

The United States operates in a global economy and is considered number one in the world in terms of international trade and investment. International business decisions are often made with a focus on the market that businesses operate in, however, the trap they find themselves in is one of making decisions ignorant of the events could impact the international risk. Risk identification is the first step in limiting financial losses. The risk factor information complied below comes from articles and the simulation.
Listed below are just a few of the numerous risks involved with international business:
??? Exchange Rate Risk – Affected by government exchange controls, availability, and the exchange rate could be different tomorrow,
??? Political/Sovereign Risk – The stability or instability of foreign governments which can negatively affect profits, and maintenance of favorable relations with the United States,
??? Transaction Risk – Associated with the potential gains and losses on a given transaction susceptible to foreign exchange rate movements,
??? Translation Risk – Accounting-based risk stemming from the translation of financial statements from one currency to another.
Of the items listed above the two biggest international investment concerns are Exchange Rate Risk and Political Risk.
Exchange Rate Risk
Exchange Rate Risk involves coordinating cash settlements from two different banks and two different currencies at the same time. The exchange rate can change day to day and in some cases minute by minute. In foreign exchange trading, this action requires a high degree of communication and cooperation between those banks. The remote possibility exists that the foreign bank could go bankrupt or close.
In the year 1999 there was concern that as the banking institutions internal clocks changed over to year 2000 that the banks, US and foreign, would stop communicating. This did occur and international business went on as usual.
Political Risk
The danger of political risk is the risk that revolution or other political conditions could result in a loss. This could include in any of the following: political violence, civil unrest, insurrection, social unrest, terrorism, or war; governmental expropriation/confiscation of assets; or inconvertibility of foreign currency.
Conclusion
As with any venture, knowing the risks beforehand is an important factor in operating a successful international business. Know the rate of exchange before transferring money. Study the county the business wants to sell its product in paying close attention to whom is in power, how involved is the government and is there any political unrest. Knowing these factors will help lower the companies risk and losses.

Categories: General

The Journey of a Labor Relations Specialist

April 13, 2017 • admin

|
The Journey of a Labor Relations Specialist |
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|
Lena Lockhart |
3/24/2013 |
HRM 330
Georgia Katsianis

In the quest to pursue fair and ethical choices in the workplace, there is a career that is more important than most. This would be the Labor Relations Specialist. The labor relations Specialist has many skills that are used to pursue these things in the workplace, and many duties to attend to, in order to reach the goal. Knowing what those skills and duties are is the beginning of the journey, and the beginning of dealing with problems that may arise during that journey. |

Table of Contents
Introduction??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦.2
Skills??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦..2 ??“ 3
Job Duties??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦.3 ??“ 5
Common Issues Facing Labor Relation Specialists??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦..6
Education and Training Requirements??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦6 ??“ 7
Conclusion??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦7
Works Cited??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦??¦8

Introduction
In the workplace, there are many problems that can arise from many different areas, and there are special employees that are there in order to help smooth the way through those problems. The people that do this special job are called Labor Relations Specialists. There are many different titles to this position such as Industrial Specialists, Labor Relations Managers, or Labor Relations Consultants. Regardless of the title that this specialist has, there are similar skills that each one has to have in order to do their job correctly.
Skills
The Labor Relations Specialist is someone that helps to negotiate between an Employer and his employees before, during, and after Union Contract is finished. A Labor Relations Specialist must have many skills and the education that teaches those skills under their belt in order to be effective. Having these skills will enable the negotiation to run as smoothly as possible, and also help to calm the high tension that arises out of conflict in the workplace.
Good verbal and nonverbal communication skills are a must in order to work well with others in this position. Speaking frankly, honestly, and with finesse will help to get the two opposing sides talking and working together to create compromises that will benefit both the employer and the employee. When someone in this position fails to speak clearly, misunderstandings can arise, which can lead to a breakdown during negotiations. Speaking well is not the only thing necessary in order to communicate well. Knowing how to listen intently, to hear things between the lines, is also a must. Listening to the problems between the two sides is imperative in order to know just what may be being said behind the scenes. Many times, demands made from either side are created out of angst, and are simply ways of trying to send a clear message to the other side that things are not all they are cracked up to be, and this can be missed if listening is not taken seriously.
Negotiation skills are exceptionally important in order to bring the two opposing parties together on the different subjects in the contract negotiations. There are many different aspects of being a great negotiator, and according to Negotiations.com, there are 10 factors for effective negotiation.
1. Know what you want
2. Know the other side
3. Consider the timing and method of negotiations
4. Prepare point by point
5. Offer benefits for accepting your offer
6. Frame your negotiation around one or two key points
7. Know your BATNA (Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement)
8. Prepare options for mutual gain
9. Listening is the most powerful negotiation skill
10. Use the power of the draft
Critical thinking skills are another important aspect of being a good Labor Relations Specialist. Knowing how to spot a hidden problem and how to address that problem are exceptionally important. Being able to think ahead of the game and figure out ways to address a problem creatively are vitally important to this profession because the whole premise of this position is to help two sides find compromise. This skill requires analyzing and evaluating information that was gathered by observation and communication between the two parties involved. Doing this at least proficiently is mandatory in order to be effective in this position.
Having the skills and knowledge to be able to write company policy is very important to this position, as laws, legal codes, rules and regulations are the basis for each policy. Having the skill of not only writing these policies, but putting them into effect and making sure that all parties involved have a working knowledge of each policy is mandatory. Being able to correctly explain what any particular policy means is important to the general welfare of all involved, so that misunderstandings do not arise in the future.
The art of persuasion is very important in the daily goings on of Labor Relation Specialists. ???The successful leader must master the elements of the art of persuasion including (1) an understanding of people, (2) the effective use of words, and (3) the ability to manage conflict.??? (Manning 2009) Being able to sway people in one particular direction is exceptionally important during any negotiation, whether it be a sale or a Union Contract negotiation, and anyone that is involved with a contract negotiation needs to have this skill set.
Decision making is another skill that is required in order to perform the duties required by a Labor Relations Specialist. Knowing how to judge what is needed and how to be creative enough to make decisions that will work with today??™s society is just another integral part of this position. Decisions are made in many areas, such as company policy, Union policy, disciplinary actions and health and safety.
Job Duties
There are several different job duties that a Labor Relations Specialist must perform on a regular basis that are vital to the successful negotiation and daily workings of any company utilizing a specialist. These job duties can vary depending on whether or not the Labor Relations Specialist works in the Public or Private sector.
The first duty that should be considered is the actual negotiation of a Union Contract. This is something that every Labor Relations Specialist has to participate in. This can be an individual or a group, but generally, groups are only used in exceptionally large corporations that have multiple Unions. The reason for the group is because there can be more than just the company at stake. Some companies have multiple Unions within one organization, and this makes it even more difficult for the Labor Relations Specialist to be able to keep track of all that is going on within the negotiation itself. The contract has to address the issues of the Union that is acquiring it, and also has to find some sort of common ground within the different Unions themselves, and not just of the company. This can be a daunting task, and because of this, many companies have teams of Labor Relation Specialists that each handles a different aspect of the contract negotiations and of policies. Coming to an agreement during the Collective Bargaining Agreement is of the upmost importance.
The Labor Relation Specialist must be able to assess the impact of the Union proposal for both the private and public sector, in order to make sure that the company or government entity involved is not being taken ???for a ride???, so to speak. This is important, because while the employee wants the most they can get from their contract, the company in question has to be able to pay for those amenities that are in the contract. Many companies today have to shut their doors because the employees want more than the company can afford to give. This is where the Labor Relation Specialist must use their power of persuasion to make sure that there is a legitimate compromise between both the employer and the employee.
While being a part of the Collective Bargaining Unit is a huge part of the Labor Relations Specialist job, this is not the only thing that they are required to do during their career. There are many other aspects of the position that most people do not consider when thinking about this type of position.
One of the things that a Labor Relations Specialist does is to investigate and evaluate complaints that are presented in the form of a grievance. When a grievance is filed with the Union, it is part of their job to look deeper into the problem to see if there is really an issue, and whether or not it affects either the Union Contract, or company policy. This can be done in a variety of ways, but generally, a grievance is filed, and there is a time frame that the employee has to file that grievance, usually 5 business days after the altercation. This time frame allows the employee that is grieving an action or policy an opportunity to think through what is going on, and gives them time to contact the appropriate person or persons involved with the grievance procedure.
Once this grievance has been filed, the Labor Relations Specialist will present it to the appropriate authorities within the company, to try to work out the problem before it becomes a bigger issue. Usually, the Plant Manager and Human Resources are contacted, to give them the opportunity to address the issue at a lower level of concern. If this does not handle the problem, then the grievance procedure continues to a meeting with the Labor Relations Manager in order to solve the issue. This gives both parties an opportunity to work on a resolution in order to bring harmony to the situation.
If this does not address the issue, or if the issue involves more than one person, and arbitrator is brought in to help mediate, and this becomes a 3rd step meeting, that goes on permanent record. This can be done on the company premises or at the Arbitrators office, whichever is easier for both parties involved. The Labor Relations Specialist will assist by gathering evidence for both parties, so that a fair and equitable decision can be made. Helping to mediate in order to help reconcile differences between an employee and their employer is an important part of the Labor Relations Specialist daily duties and should not be taken lightly.
Policy is important to any business, and a good Labor Relations Specialist must be able to write effective policies on a variety of subjects, including attendance, health and safety. Knowing how to do this well helps to keep misunderstandings to a minimum, because there will be no gray areas for people to make a mistake in.
Being able to write good policy can be even more important when it comes to companies that have more than one Union under the same roof. This is because the negotiations may be different for each on many different things, and it is the responsibility of the Labor Relations Specialist to not only write the policy, but to understand it, so that they can work with more than one group at a time, and know what is expected according to the contract that each person is a part of, and the effect it may have on each different contract, and employee.
While company policies must be maintained properly, the Union Contract must also be followed in order for a harmonious working environment to continue. In order to keep this environment going on a regular basis, a Labor Relation Specialist must be able to monitor the day to day goings on in the company to ensure that the rules of the Union Contract are being followed by the management side of the company.
A Labor Relation Specialist must have the ability to produce and submit written reports of various types. These reports can range anywhere from reports due to Union officials, company reports on how well the union and company are cooperating together, or reports that are produced for governmental studies. These can also be reports that are mandated on the basis of Equal Opportunity Employment, new hire forms, and minority compensation forms. Knowing how to write these reports properly is critical.
Many Labor Relations Specialists have been called to testify in court hearings as expert witnesses related to labor relations or labor contracts. This can be the defining factor in a case whether or not an employee or employer wins, and what the court hands down as a verdict.

Common Issues Facing Labor Relation Specialists
One of the biggest issues that a company faces today is attendance. Companies today write policies about attendance in order to protect themselves from loss of profit. When people are absent, this cuts into profit, and so rules must be enforced pertaining to attendance. Most policies about attendance give a time frame that is acceptable for absenteeism, and once that time frame has been exceeded, disciplinary action must be taken.
The Labor Relation Specialist must be savvy to the attendance policy in order to be able to monitor the disciplinary action being taken, to ensure fairness. This can be a huge issue, because in Union positions, it has been usual practice that Union members will use their available time that they have to be absent. The problem with this lies in the fact that while most people keep track of their time off, in order to keep from being reprimanded, there will be those that go over the limit, and then face various different methods of discipline, up to, and including termination.
Discrimination is also a problem that faces many companies today. A labor relations specialist must be able to decipher whether or not there is a valid issue facing an employee, by investigation into the matter. They must be able to understand how to address the issue with management, should there really be an issue. This is imperative because the opportunity to sue a company for discrimination is very easy to do, but not always easy to win. This can cost a company so much financially that it could bankrupt the company trying to cover its legal fees.
Education and Training Requirements
There are different levels of labor relations specialists and different levels of education that someone interested in holding this position must consider before taking on this career. ???Most labor relations specialists are college graduates. Many of them have bachelors degrees in labor relations, personnel work, business administration, or liberal arts. Some have masters degrees in labor or industrial relations. Some kinds of jobs in labor relations require law degrees. It usually takes between four and seven years of full-time study beyond the high school level to complete the necessary training, depending on the degree and the kind of job. Some labor relations specialists start out in the larger field of personnel work and move into labor relations after gaining several years of experience.??? (Careers, 2013)
Once a degree is being obtained, it is a good idea to add to the degree by joining a professional association that caters to the Labor Relations Specialist. There are organizations out there that cater to the Human Resources part of the this position, such as the Society for Human Resource Management, and these groups often have student chapters that can be joined while still attending college.

Another way to help develop skills and experience is to take on an internship with a local company or government office. This can give real world experience to a student, that can then be transferred to a resume??™ as work experience. This may be something that can be acquired through the degree program.
???Obtaining certification in the area of human resources (HR) can show prospective employers that one has amassed a certain level of work experience and expertise in HR principles; some employers also request certification. The Society for Human Resource Management offers three levels of certification for both bachelors- and masters-educated HR professionals.
Many mid-range or upper tier labor relations positions require significant experience and graduate degrees. Masters degree programs in employment and labor relations emphasize coursework in conflict resolution, negotiations and labor law. Some companies also consider candidates with law degrees.??? (Education portal 2013)
Conclusion
The Labor Relations Specialist has many duties that are vital to keeping everyone happy in a company, whether they are the employer or the employee. These duties range from office work, to investigation of issues brought to their attention, to labor contract negotiations. Company policy is also important to the Labor Relations Specialist, as this is how companies maintain the status quo.
In order to perform this job successfully, a labor relations specialist must be educated, and have skills that require more than just an education, such as critical thinking and persuasion. These skills lay the groundwork for a happy experience from both ends of the spectrum in business. Having a working knowledge of how to acquire the skills necessary is a good start for someone considering this career.
There are many issues that face a Labor Relations Specialist today, and this is the reason that this profession has grown over the years. What once was something that could be handled in short order has now become something that must be addressed with the legal ramifications in mind.

Works Cited
http://www.negotiations.com/articles/negotiating-skills/ accessed 3/23/2013
Manning, G., the Art of Leadership, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2009. .
http://careers.stateuniversity.com/pages/584/Labor-Relations-Specialist.html accessed 3/23/2013
http://education-portal.com/articles/Labor_Relations_Specialist_Career_Information_Becoming_a_Labor_Relations_Specialist.html accessed 3/23/2013

Categories: General

Political Problems for Newmont Mining Corp. in Indonesia

April 13, 2017 • admin

The political problems faced by Newmont Mining Corp. operating in Indonesia is a classic example of the problems faced by foreign firms operating in other countries when there are any alterations in political regimes thus requiring the firm to adapt a new and/ or different political strategy. Since the political and legal landscape in Indonesia has been very inconsistent where it went from having a centralized government to a decentralized one, it was naturally not easy for Newmont, as they used to work directly with the central government rather than deal with the different local governments. With the legal system of Indonesia taking an unfavorable turn for Newmont with the change in the political system, it is fair enough to say there was little that Mr Lahiti could do to help the company retrieve itself from the mess. The fact that Newmont was charged 8,2 million dollars in back pay of taxes for waste materials is not justified itself as their contract exempted them from paying any tax on mining waste materials during the time of their establishment. However, the hefty amount of money Newmont paid for establishment of employee programs and community development projects was a worthy move as such programs can escalate the positive image of a company in the society. In spite of such steps taken by Newmont, it is very unfortunate that local groups wanted more from them. However, as Newmont faced unfavorable environmental environmental concerns due to their operations, I believe that there was much more they could have done to resolve such problems. Much of the damage caused to the environment by Newmont were inevitable as they were operating in the mining industry. However , Mr Lahiti could have helped Mother Nature in other ways, possibly by planting trees in the cities, sponsor other environmental campaigns etc and more importantly, excessively promote such operations so as to gain a favorable image in the public eye. As far as the illegal mining is concerned, the steps taken by Mr. Lahiti was a worthy one, however he also could have taken an alternative step whwre he could have joined forces with the government to strengthen the law and establish more strict and severe measures against illegal mining in the company.

Categories: General

What is the perfect man

April 13, 2017 • admin

What is the perfect man

Introduction

After seeing a film, different people have different opinions. There are many films describing the Second World War, many of which emphasize on the inhumanity of Nazi. Those films are filled with sanguinary scenes which express the slaughter. In ordinary people™s impression, the Second World War is horrible memory especially for the Jewish people. The audiences are convulsed by the bloody scenes again and again.

However, not all of the directors choose the same angle, there is a director choosing to use another angle to reveal the War and to produce a film called Life Is Beautiful. It has less to do with the Holocaust but more to do with the human feelings and the beautiful relationship between a husband and his wife, a father and his son. After watching the film, some audiences may be happy and some may be sad. But no such a piece of art has ever before combined laughter with tears of sadness in and after the movie. The writer does not know what feelings the audiences have after watching the film Life Is Beautiful, but she feels really sad. And she also finds the qualities of a perfect man from the actions of the hero Guido. A successful image for a husband and father is presented by Guido perfectly.

A perfect man should not only be successful in career, but also pay more attention to building a harmonious family with family members and should be the reliance and spiritual mainstay for his wife and the protective god for his child.

?. Anatomy of the Film Life Is Beautiful

A. The Creative Background and Main Plots of the Film

The film Life Is Beautiful selected its material from the Jewish life in concentration camp of Nazi , which was the most remarkable picture in the World War ?.

In 1930s, in Italy, a carefree Jewish bookkeeper named Guido starts a fairy Tale life by courting and marring a lovely woman from a nearby city. When Guido moves from the country to a large Tuscan town where he falls in love with a school teacher Dora. But she is already engaged to another guy, and Guido uses his humor and wisdom to court his princess by popping up at unexpected times. Dora abandons her fiance and chooses Guido.

Then the film jumps ahead to the last months of the war. Guido is married to Dora and they have a son called Giosue. Guido and Giosue are sent to a concentration camp because of their Jewish origin. Dora, who deeply loves his husband and voluntarily follows him, but is sent to another part of the camp. Although the men and women are separated in the concentration camp and a child is in great peril. Guido finds his special ways to communicate with Dora and to hide Giosue. In an attempt to hold his family together and help his son survive the horrors of a Jewish concentration camp, Guido imagines that the Holocaust is a game, and the grand prize for the champion is a real tank.

Finally, at the end of the film, little Giosue cheers: I really win the tank. Then he and his mom are rescued by the American solider.

Life Is Beautiful is an important film; it is triumphant, timeless and sublime. It manages to entertain and educate the audiences with its potent combination of humor, poignancy, wisdom and dignity. Roberto Benigni has taken pure honor and turned it into a love story between a man and a woman,between a father and his son. As an actor, Benigni manages with his wise and simple performance to make the audiences laugh in the tragic situations.

B. The Different Angle between the Film Life is Beautiful and Other Films Describing the Jewish Lives during the World War?

There are too many films describing the lives of Jewish during the World War ?, in which Schindler™s List directed by Steven Spielberg is the most famous one. After watching the film Life Is Beautiful, the author found that it has less to do with the Holocaust and more to do with the human feelings and the beautiful relationship between a husband and his wife, a father and his son. The Holocaust provides the ultimate context that brings and highlights the story and adds yet another deep dimension to the movie. No such a piece of art has ever before combined laughter with tears of sadness in and after the movie.

The film helps in bringing the audiences to a state of mind away from reality, focusing on the feelings generated by forgetting about all external events and developments of the war. Despite that, the movie does not fail to point out an element of the Nazi psychology demonstrated by the doctor who was obsessed with riddles. Life is really beautiful as you watch Guido™s relentless efforts to make a lovely exciting experience of the concentration camp to his son. You get exhausted just watching him going through his painful day and make you smile as he speaks to his son and makes him laugh.

C. What a Family Should Be

A family begins with a man and a woman, each created in the God™s image. A family should be a place where you can go, no matter what you have done wrong and still be loved by your family members. In a family, the man plays the most important role, he is the reliance and spiritual mainstay for his wife and the protective god for his child.

As everyone knows a man should earn to support his family. There is no doubt that family should be in the most important position in everyone™s mind. The family unit begins when a man shall leave his father and mother and he cleaves to his wife. This is a presentation of the man™s commitment to his wife. Thus they become one flesh. How two people become one is a great mystery in life. When two people create a new family, it means they are born again. And the marriage helps us understand how a family life should be. The couple should be loyal to each other. The husband serves his wife by giving his life for her. This does not mean he becomes her servant and jump at her every beck and call. Rather, he serves her by loving her—-be her reliance and spiritual mainstay. He loves her more than himself. He admires her talents and abilities and praises her. Not only does he tell her that she is a treasure for him, but he tells other people what a wonderful wife he has.

To make your family more happy, take a long look at what is preventing you from having this ideal family relationship. For many families, there™s just a fixed pattern of non-communication when schedules differ and watching television absorbs the little time they might have together.

And in the family, father should be the protective God for his child. After the birth of child in the world, the man plays his role as a protective god. No matter what happens, he would love and protect his children. The prodigal son left his home, squandering all his money, yet, when everyone else had turned away from him, his father still welcomed him home with open, loving arms.

?. The Qualities of Perfect Man

As a perfect man, in other words, a successful man, he should not only be successful in career, but also maintain his family to be happy and harmonious. Any defects of the two sides is hard to acceptable for a perfect man. Man has been endowed with many titles: leader of the society, manager of the company, son of parents, reliance for wife and protective god for children.

A. The Whole Image of a Man

The image of man is indeed a kind of responsibility. A kind of responsibility towards society, towards wife and towards children. First and up most, as a man, he should play an important role in the society which can be called social responsibility. To some degree, man™s social image influences his development of career and future.

Everybody plays different kinds of roles during different periods all through his life. And different roles endue them with different responsibilities. It™s no doubt that man is requested to undertake more in the society, many of them are considered to be the ridgepole and mainstay and should be ready to contribute to the country all the time. At the same time, they are also the mainstay of the family, he should take care of parents, wife and children. So everyone belongs to the family as well as the society.

B. Man™s Social Image and Responsibility

Men are endowed with more power in the society, at the same time, they should face more pressure. In our country, the important positions almost belong to men, they are key leaders and representatives of the country. In the companies, men also play important roles, they are managers, directors or principals. In fact, responsibility is equal to pressure. The more important position he has, the more pressure he undertakes. In traditional thoughts, man should pay more attention to the development and advancement of the society.

How to contribute to the society? Not all of the men are leaders of the country or managers of the company. As an ordinary man, just doing what he can do is all right. Everyone has his certain position and responsibility. Not only should the leaders and managers pay attention to the development of the society, but also everyone should tries his best to contribute to the society.

C. Man™s Family Image and Responsibility

People belong to the society, and more directly, people belong to family. An integral family consists of a man and a woman, in other words, of husband and wife, of parents and children. And different family members play different roles in the family. In the former section, we have discussed that the man plays an important role in the society. In the writer™s point of view, the man™s family image and responsibility is more important to them. A perfect man should not only be successful or great in the society, but also tries his best to make his family members happy.

It™s well known that only one single people can™t compose a family. No matter how successful the man is in the society, he is also a failure without an integral family. A perfect man should pay more attention to building a harmonious family with family members and should be the reliance and spiritual mainstay for his wife and the protective God for his child, but should not just be successful in career.

Love is supernatural, when two persons fall in love with each other, they will begin to compose a new family for their own. An ideal husband can give his wife the feeling of safety and credibility. When a man is married, many of his faults will be exposed day by day. The husband should be capable as well as practical, and at the same time be considerate for his wife. Namely, an ideal husband should do well both in career and family. Moreover, he should also be the reliance and spiritual mainstay for his wife.

In family education, women are considered to be more important. They take care of the children and educate them since the babies are born. But in the writer™s opinion, father could not keep away from family education. It™s reported that most of the Nobel Prize winners are influenced by their fathers deeply since their childhood. The image of father is considered to be important in the formation of the children™s personality. With the accompany of the father, the children will become more tough and more brave. To be a successful father and the protective god for the child is also an essential qualification for a perfect man. So as a man, he should pay attention to teaching the children.

?. Some Negative Phenomena and Their Solutions

A. Which Is More Important, Family or Career?

Nowadays, under the fast development, the adults pay much attention to their career and neglect the communication with family members. When asked about their opinions of career and family, people always respond differently. Some people consider it more important to pursue their career, while there are always other people who argue that family should be the most important one in one™s life.

It goes without any question that career plays a key role in our life. In the first place, career can give us an aim to live on. Without career, much of our living time will be certainly wasted. What™s more, career can provide us with a means to live on. Most of the people get their income from a job. On the other hand, family is also an indispensable part of life, as many people will admit it. Family is always regarded as a place where people can escape from troubles in life. In addition, people can obtain a sense of belonging from family. Without it, anyone will feel lonely and desperate.

Nowadays, it is a society filled with money and power, many people, especially the men pursue them at all costs. In order to get more money and dominating power, many men spend most of their time in working and not caring about their family members. In their eyes, family can be regarded as a hotel or just a place to rest. But in fact, no matter how rich a man is , he can only live for several decades. It™s said that the significance of the life is not measured by the length but the depth that counts.

In the writer™s opinion, career and family are not in opposition to each other. Rather they can be combined with each other so that one™s life can become better and better. Therefore, it™s not a choice between right and wrong, but one between ideal and practical. It™s no use to spend much more time in working instead of caring about family members. No matter how successful a man is in the work, he is still a loser if not having a happy family. Perfect family life is the final goal for everyone.

B. Marriage™s Being Not Only for Love, but for Benefit

How much money do you have Do you have a beautiful house What™s the brand of your car These questions are familiar to us and they are frequently used in daily life. Nowadays, when two persons fall in love with each other, they should pay much attention to the reality. In some occasions, many lovers can not get married only because of lacking the martial support.

In last generation, people get married and create a new family just because of love. But people™s attitude towards love and family has changed gradually with the developing of the society. Many people hold the idea that money is much more important in marriage than emotion. Everyone has his own idea towards marriage and love, we should not criticize their opinions. We can not but admit that love and marriage can™t last long without the material support. But this doesn™t mean that benefit is more important than emotion. People should establish the right attitude towards the relationship between love and benefit.

It™s well known that family is the final arrangement for everyone. The biggest difference between home and hotel is that hotel is just a place for people to rest while home is full of love. So the family needs all the members to manage for it™s not the business for one single person.

C?The Children™s Becoming Indifferent and Rebellious, Not Wanting to Communicate with Parents

Nowadays, more and more parents find that their children become indifferent and rebellious. Facing such problems, the parents always blame the children and criticize the teachers. In their opinions, they have spend much money in supporting their education and the responsibility for training the children have been passed to the schools and teachers. So if the children become rebellious, the parents will blame the schools and teachers immediately. Most of them doesn™t realize that it™s the defects of the family education. And it™s also the defects of the whole Chinese family education. Talking about the defects, we can summarize them as the following points:

Firstly, doting on the children and neglecting the education of non-intelligence elements.

To love the children is the essentiality of the parents, but cosseting is the original love creating by the human beings. The doting degree of Chinese parents towards their children is situated in the first several places all around the world. Such kind of love is abnormal in the human beings. In such condition, the abnormal love will be enlarged and such ignorance will be changed into chains, and favor will be changed into trap. The strict Chinese parents™ neglecting the education of non-intelligence element is another terrible phenomenon besides cosseting. In this aspect, according to their own thinking mode, many parents snuff out the children™s non-intelligent elements including mentality, emotion, volition and interest. Three or four years old or even earlier, children are forced to learn Chinese characters, recite poems and practice mathematics. Playing is the nature for the children while ignored by the parents. The children™s self-respect, self-confidence and the ability of creating is destroyed by learning dead knowledge blindly and passively under the orders of the parents. However, child is indeed the child, no matter how many excuses in their hearts to hate such kind of teaching mode, they couldn™t find any excuse to defy their parents. They could only obey the parents who give in to the Chinese traditional culture.

Secondly, ignoring the establishment of the personality of independence. There is an interesting story about education focusing on the differences between Chinese and Western family education. When a Chinese child gives his drawing to the parents, he will ask: You see, is my picture like or not In the same case, the foreign child will ask their parents: Is my picture good or not Although there™s only little difference in using several words., in fact it has large distinction. In the same condition, there are two different answers, then two kinds of educational manners and thoughts are obvious.

It™s well known that the Chinese people are wise since ancient times, but it™s also well known that they lack the abilities of creating, variation and competition. Parents are the first teachers for the children, but if the teachers are educated in such an abnormal way, their old thoughts haven™t been changed with the development of the society. When the task of education turns into their responsibilities, what kind of result the next generation will face is distinct. The children haven™t been trained to own the personality of independence in such malignant circulation. In the writer™s opinion, the Chinese children have penetrative understanding and feeling , it™s not the fault of the parents, but the defect of Chinese family education system.

Thirdly, father is far away from the family education. In Chinese traditional culture, men are considered to support the family, they are free from the children™s family education. In the childhood, without the help of father, the children will become timid. But there is another phenomenon in other families that men really take part in family education, but the methods are not advisable. They hold the idea that good children are trained by the stick. It is a terrible transmigration that the children are trained by caning and they will use the same methods to train their children after being parents.

The parents should find problems from themselves instead of blaming the children and teachers. Family is the responsibility for every member, men should not be free from family education. In fact , father plays a more important role in the formation of the children™s personalities. Men have been endowed with many crowns in the world , but the crown of father should be the most important one.

D. Some Useful Methods for the Fathers

The writer pays more attention to the image of a man as a father and the audiences can learn some useful methods from the hero Guido. The Jewish people have their special ways to train their children. As everyone knows that Jewish people are the most wise people in the world. The population of Jewish people shares only 0.2% of it in the world, however, owns nearly 20% in the Nobel prize winners, which wins respect from other people. It has deep connection with their education style, especially their family education. From the film Life Is Beautiful, the audiences can learn some different ways to teach their children.

As a Jewish father, Guido uses his specific ways to educate Giosue. Firstly, be humorous. Guido always makes his son laugh in the daily life. He knows what an important role laughter plays in their life. Being optimistic is a traditional mentality for the Jewish people. Let™s first talk about the distinctive charm presented by the humor from Jewish people. As it is known to all, Jewish people suffered from countless crucifixion and tribulation, being homeless for a long time, they were annealed by such living conditions and humor was the unique return. Too many sufferings had they undergone, long lasting tears and moan could not relieve their misery, only laughter can protect them and only laughter can dispel bitterness. The Jew cries to God, but smiles to the people of the world; smiling on the face, but crying in the bottom of their hearts. So their laughter is filled with thick sadness and full of irony and criticism towards life. They make fun of themselves using their own laughter, purifying their soul, alleviating pain and sufferings, entertaining mind and body, pursuing dignity of life. No matter how terrible the condition is, the Jewish people always find ways to make fun of the condition. Just like Guido in the concentration camp, he can make his son happy all the time. If the writer were the little Giosue, she would have the idea that the life of the concentration camp is just a game for it™s full because it™s full of funs and interesting things.

Secondly, be wise. In the movie, the hero Guido™s intelligence is obvious. When little Giosue was tired and wanted to give up the competition, Guido just used several clever sentences to let him stay there voluntarily and happily. Jewish people™s intelligence is well known, they move here and there and do not settle in a fixed place. Thanks to the continuous moving, they can learn new knowledge from other people and keep them advanced all the time. Jewish people appreciate the idea that wisdom is more important than knowledge, they consider the person who just masters knowledge and lacks wisdom as a fool ass who carries a lot of books. In Jewish people™s opinion, such kind of people do not have ability to use the knowledge to practice even though they are full of knowledge. If someone keeps on learning all kinds of knowledge while does not digest it, it is just like someone owning many books while not using them ,both of them are wasting. So Jewish people know that wisdom should be used. When they move to a new place, they just merge themselves with the local people and learn advanced knowledge and techniques from them. The history of their moving is just the history of their advancing. Jewish people have the ability to change knowledge into wealth, so it is no doubt that they can turn up as rich every time. The wisdom makes them grow up again and again. Guido knows the importance of the intelligence, and it affects little Giosue step by step.

Thirdly, interest is the best teacher. When the children are young, they do not know the importance of learning. Only interesting things can attract their attention, Guido knows what Giosue likes, so he tells a lie. He tells Giosue that the life of the concentration camp is just a funny game and the winner will get a real tank as prize after the game. After watching the film, the audiences may think that it is the lie that protects little Giosue, but on the other hand, we can say that it is the interest that saves him. Suppose little Giosue does not like the tank and is not interested in playing game, he would not take part in the game with his father. Interest is the best teacher, it is just the children™s desire of something. Only when he has desire, he will try his best to get things he likes, and he will feel happy instead of feeling tired.

Last but not the least, the power of example is great. When Jews teach their children, they always encourage them to settle a model to follow. They think that parents and family members are the direct models for their children, so they pay much attention to getting on well with each other. The relationship between the husband and wife sets the stage for children to behave in a family. If the mother shows respect for her husband, the children will respect their father. If the husband cherishes his wife, the children will honor their mother. In the movie, Guido shows his deep love to Dora, even in the concentration camp, Guido tries his best to let Dora know how much he loves her. In that case, Giosue knows what an important role his mom plays in the family. Jewish people also teach their children to love their mother. And they think that the good relationship between the parents is the best example for the children to know the importance of the family.

Conclusion

There is no doubt that we ordinary people belong to the society, but more directly we belong to the family. Nowadays, with the development of the society, people pay more attention to the social image and responsibility, especially for the man. In many people™s opinions, a successful man should be successful in career. The writer admits that a person who succeeds in the career should be admired by others. But a really perfect man should not only be successful in career but also own a happy family.

In this world, there is a kind of occupation which is round-the-clock, he who takes part in it will never retire. He should work day and night, leave, laziness and rest are not allowed. Furthermore, he will never be paid, he should earn salary from other places and spend here. In the world, there is a kind of crown which is lifelong, he who will never be deprived since coroneted. However, sometimes it brings him responsibility instead of glory. This kind of occupation, this kind of crown is man. A perfect man should pay more attention to building a harmonious family with family members and he should be the reliance and spiritual mainstay for his wife and the protective god for his child, but should not just be successful in career. -H

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Categories: General

The Jehadi

April 12, 2017 • admin

Omar walked through the crowded streets of Chandini Chowk in Delhi. At the very heart of Old Delhi, the Chowk was a significant historical and social center. Teeming with local bazaars selling all kinds of goods: from trinkets to vegetables, from books to pirated CD??™s and DVD??™s of the latest bollywood flicks and all kinds of local delicacies and mysterious concoctions. The Chowk was also extremely popular with locals and tourists alike. It was also an economically significant area. Omar heard the usual din you would find at a Bazaar. Women haggling, shopkeepers creating a vociferous din, children scampering about, ???white-skins??™ peering at goods, old men talking politics…the usual bazaar scene. The Chowk was rightfully situated in the heart of Old Delhi. And this was where Omar was about to strike. Like a myocardial infarction, Omar intended to ensure Delhi would never quite be the same again??¦
A few hundred meters away, RAW Agent 707 stood looking for someone suspicious??¦someone who looked like a suicide bomber. The RAW had gathered information that, on the 4th of September, 2011, the Mujahedeen had planned an attack somewhere in Delhi. Several agents were similarly stationed all over the city looking for suspects. The suspect was a tall man, about 6 feet 2 inches tall. Built medially, he was rumored to walk with a very slight limp, so slight that it was almost impossible to detect. And this is exactly why Agent 707 had been stationed at one of the most difficult places to police. His hawk like gaze observed and analyzed every single detail around him. He had proven himself countless times during numerous infiltrations and recon operations. Moreover, patriotic fervor was imbedded into him so deeply that from the age of 7 he knew he would surrender himself to the defence of his country. His dedication was boundless and he felt a burning rage against these militants…anarchists in his mind. And the top brass knew that even though Chandini Chowk would be difficult to police (It was impossible to note every face and notice someone??™s behavior)??¦they had selected the right man. They knew that if they had to entrust that swarming area with one man it had to be Agent 707. For Agent 707 was a man who burned with wrath of God if he felt that his country were to come to any harm whatsoever. ???If the eyes are the window to the soul; then grief is its door,??? thought Agent 707 as his keen eagle-like gaze scanned the crowd. Indeed, he was looking for a man whose eyes had an unnatural resolve, almost Satanic in its quest for destruction. Someone who was far too detached from the merriments of the Bazaar??¦someone who seemed isolated and far too withdrawn. A difficult task by all standards indeed.
Yes, Omar was the man who Agent 707 was looking for. But little did either of them know about the other??™s presence. Omar was thinking about his job at hand. A young man of 27, he was a native of Srinagar. He barely remembered much of his childhood, except the day the militants came. He was nine years old at that time. He remembered his parents being gunned down??¦the militants carrying him away. It was just that day that his best friend, Rahul was about to come back from Mumbai. The two of them were inseparable…they were brothers in everything they did, hand in glove in every prank at school. And yet they were adored by all. As charming as Balram and Krishna, the two children could almost be considered local celebrities. But then came the militants. They took him across the border to Pakistan. And there it was where his training began. He hated his teachers. They were brutes. If he didn??™t finish his endurance course on time they kicked him in the mud. If he didn??™t remember some passage from his academics he was whipped. But this was where he learnt how the Hindus had wronged every Muslim in India, how every life he took was not murder but the sacred will of God. And over time Omar became a fanatic. A killing machine who killed without remorse; a Jehadi, Allah??™s own warrior who took part in the Great Battle to restore the honour and pride of every Muslim.
Agent 707 looked on. Still no sign of anyone strange or different. It was getting extremely hot??¦11 o??™ clock, just when the bazaar reached its peak. He stifled a yawn and suddenly his eyes fell on Omar. Omar fit the description of the suicide bomber??¦a man who walks freely to his doom, effortlessly brushing aside all his worries??¦or as he was made to believe, to the great halls of Allah where the noble and the great were honoured. Except that this man was not quite free. A slight limp, extremely difficult to notice plagued him. His sixth sense convinced him that this was the man. Years of training had attuned him to know exactly who he was looking for even though hadn??™t laid eyes on that person before. His senses heightened at the sight of the prey. Stealthily brushing through the crowd and tailing Omar, he stalked his prey like a tiger on the hunt. He would use his firearm if necessary. He just needed to be sure this was the man and not some stupid heartbroken youth.
Omar felt the adrenalin course through his veins, egging him on, reminding him of the greatness and the glory he would soon achieve. He reached the centre of the Chowk??¦he looked all around. People who had wronged his community??¦members of his community who had wronged themselves by accepting their oppression. A grim laugh escaped him and he shouted out his war cry: ???Allah Oh Akbar!??? ready to pull the detonator.
The Agent 707 pulled out his firearm and taking aim pulled the trigger twice. Two bullets got dislodged into Omar??™s body??¦Omar felt his hand go limp. He was so close to pulling the detonator but he could feel the blood pouring over his body. The babble of the whole crowd had subdued as they all turned towards the Jehadi.
Agent 707 dove towards the bomber to ensure he was no longer a threat. And as he did the only thought that rang through his head was: ???If you believe that God creates miracles, then you have to believe the Devil has a few up his sleeve too.???
A month later Agent 707 was honoured with an award for saving the lives of hundreds. However all he could feel was a torrent of memories of him playing with his best friend Omar in the beautiful gardens of Srinagar, twenty years ago.
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Categories: General

Political Philososphy

April 12, 2017 • admin

Political Philosophy

One major area of study under the broad umbrella of philosophy is political philosophy. Political philosophy is always searching for a solution to the problems that burden societies of that time. From the Ancient Greeks to the modern day Americans, there are questions that need to be asked and answered as to why laws, and the people who create/enforce them, are a part of society. As well as ways to better the society so that the needs and wants of every individual within it are satisfied.

Political philosophy, like most other areas of philosophy, was first recorded by the Ancient Greeks. This is not to say that they were the first to propose questions and theories based on societal structure and ones place in that society. The ideas would have been floating around through verbal communication, as Plato did not suddenly wake up one day and began to write the Republic. Before Plato there were Pre-Socratic philosophers, such as Anaxagoras that asked questions, stated theories and shared ideas that often came into conflict with political leaders. Which makes sense as what could annoy those who govern more than the suggestion that they might not be as wise as themselves, and the people they governed, imagined With the following that many ancient philosophers attained, those in government would find ways to imprison the philosophers or in Pythagoras??™ case, burn down his institution. This treatment began new political thought such as; What is just and unjust Where is one??™s place in society How is a law justified Returning to Plato??™s book, within it he defended a ???well ordered authoritarian state, presided over by a ???philosopher king??™.??? . However this view was rejected by Plato??™s successor, Aristotle, with his own writing, Politics. Aristotle believed that all constitutions that run a state can be judged true (good) or perverted (bad). A true state is one where they aim for a common good. While a perverted one is where they aim for the good of a select group or those who rule.

After the Greek philosophers came the time of the Roman philosophers, due to Rome??™s conquest of many countries a few hundred years B.C.E. These earl Roman states followed an Aristotle (Greek) way of governing, known as the polis way. Polis meant ???city-state??™ as all the citizens of the state ran all affairs and had their input into societal debates. With the beginnings of Roman Catholicism, the church began to play a key part in politics with its own philosophy on what is morally right and wrong. St. Augustine was a well known philosopher during the 4th century B.C.E., and is still well known for his book The City of God. One of his views was that one was not a member of his/her state, but was either a member of the City of God or the City of Man. His views on complying with laws were straightforward, ???Obey the state until the state requires you to do something which is directly against God??™s law.??? .

Chronologically, the next philosopher who had a major impact on political thought would be Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527). During his time all cities of Italy were run by some form of sovereignty which led to Machiavelli??™s book The Prince. This book outlines the possibility that many ???new princes??™ must step on others or due immoral things so that he may come into power. Which begs the question is the cost of a few immoral actions worth the improvement of a whole society My personal philosophy on this subject would agree in saying that a few immoral actions are worthwhile if the end result is better for everyone as a whole, whether it be a group of people, society or the human race. I justify this by using an example, is it not worth killing one man/woman who is currently and continually killing countless men/women

The social contract is a concept that people have, at some given point in history, agreed to give up some rights to a government or each other and in turn maintain social order. Without the social contract Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) says that there is only the State of Nature, a time when men were always living in fear of other men, and thus never being able to socialize with one another as a fear that the other would not trust the other man. In the Hobbes; writings he described what life would have been like in the State of Nature;
???In such conditions, there is no place for industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no Culture of the Earth, no Navigation, nor the use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no Instruments of moving and removing things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.???
Similar accounts on the State of Nature have been recorded by John Locke (1632-1704) as well. However Locke??™s version is not as grim and there is a social aspect to the way men/women lived while in the State of Nature. A third philosopher on the subject of the social contract is Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), a man often blamed for starting the French Revolution. His idea is that the social contract began when a General Will came forth ending the State of Nature. This General Will is the will of the majority of a society, even the minorities are apart of the General Will as their, ???reason for joining the new state of the Social Contract in the first place was the possibility of acting with others, not against them.??? . From this I feel that Rousseau is saying that being a part of a society means that everyone within it only strives for the good of the majority. Even if minorities are coerced, it can be justified that their actions are for the good of the General Will, and benefits the new society which the minority agreed to join. I agree that a society will advanced positively as long as the majority or General Will is followed. There will always be minorities that oppose the majorities, and until they become large enough that they start a revolution and become a majority, than their views are only that of their own, and not the General Will??™s.

Currently we see many instances that prove politics have not solved all possible problems that hamper down current societies. Problems such as the treatment of people belonging to minority religions in a country are very apparent in everyday life. Example, a majority of the people may claim that a given religious people should not be granted leaves from work on certain days considered religious only to the minority. From that stems laws or rules that suit those religious needs of only the majority. In a philosophical debate such as this one I would support that all religions stay separate from the governing of a society. However, I may be a minority on that subject, and since I believe that a society should be run based on the majorities ???General Will??™, than my view on that subject would be disregarded. Philosophical debates within politics should always be a part of the governing bodies, as it opens new doors to ways that a society could be run, and if we keep opening these doors than one day we may just walk right into a beautiful utopia for which we all can call home.

Works Cited

???The New Encyclop?dia Britannica, Volume 9, s.v. ???political philosophy???
???J.S. McClelland, History of Western Political Thought (New York: Routledge, 1996), 114
???Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Part 1, Chapter 13)

Bibliography

???The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ???Political philosophy???; available from http://www.iep.utm.edu/p/polphil.htm; Internet; accessed 20 November 2008
??? T.M. Knox, Hegel??™s Philosophy of Right (New York: Clarendon Press, 1967)
??? Bertrand Russell, Wisdom of the West (New York: Crescent Books Inc., 1990)

Categories: General

“Jane love” in the imperialism

April 12, 2017 • admin

“Jane love” in the imperialism.

Introduction

Jane Eyre was created in the middle of 19th century. It is always a classical love story in people™s hearts. Charlotte Bronte also became very famous all over the world because of it. Jane Eyre was figured as a great woman,who was chaste, well-informed and strong-willed. She lived in the bottom of the society, suffered enough from tribulations, however, she was stubborn, aggressive and brave to seek for her happiness and fairness. So her spirits was admired by people too. People never changed such kind of thought that it is just a love story, but after reading many times the writer got a lot of new views about it. According to the created time of the work, Britain began to expand to the outside rapidly and develop colonization. And at that time the imperialistic colonization was not only the expansion of the territory and pillage of the source, but also the ideological colonization. At that time, as the ideology, the cultural source played an important part in the colonization and in the imperialistic condition, as one of represents of ideological novel, Jane Eyre was inevitably to advance to the cultural empire. Charlotte Bronte™s Jane Eyre that was created in this period implied strong imperialistic colour. There are full of the antagonism between suzerain and colonies, the superiority of the empire and discrimination to the colonies. The imperialistic flavour in this novel exhibited all kinds of the cultural characters in the period of the imperialism. As one of the representative works in the period of British colonization, Jane Eyre was a very great work of the love stories. From a love story to the reflection of the imperialism, Charlotte Bronte was at pains indeed, the love was difficult to escape from the affection of the imperialistic consciousness because in the period of the imperialism people™s live was related with the imperialistic consciousness in some degree.

I. Some Treatise 0n the Imperialism

In terms of the widest meaning, the imperialism refers to the structure of some empire, so if some country expanded its control to one or more neighbouring countries, the imperialism became one side in that period. According to the common meaning, Edward Said thought the imperialism was some metropolis centre of the control which ruled the distant possession it was a practice, a theory and a attitude, and the course was also different from colonialism which indicated migration and colonization in the distant possession.(Edward Said, 55) But generally speaking, the word imperialism as a public policy which through the way of the stratagem and politics to get the advantages of the economics and conquer the colonies appeared until 1880th. Before that time, the word empire , especially in Britain indicated a process that the Europeans expanded to the colonies on the flag of beneficent”the colonies were not occupied, but accrued. In the middle of 19th century, the word imperialism was described for the government and the policy of Napoleon III who appointed the emperor for himself. Till 1870, the word was used in the British parties who slandered for each other. But after 1880, the imperialism became all kinds of political, cultural and economical reasons among European countries. It was obviously an aggressive policy.

The imperialism is that a country conquers and robs to another country, from Rome period to today, it has a very long history and the most obvious represent is that the historical power on its back is the plenty of the materials, the wide markets, and the cheapest labours are needed by the competitive economical system of the west countries. At the same time, the ideology supplied the important support to the imperialism and made it lay the foundation on the cultural and political advantages of the imperialistic countries. The strong ideology and the bureaucracy system moving all over the world was the reason why the imperialism was different from colonialism. The imperialism kept up the kind of systematic hegemony by a lot of ways, which included the slavery, the civilisation, and modernization in the politics, law, religion, health and education. After World War II, the imperialism had new patterns which not leaned to the hostility, operation and arms race of the countries in Europe, but aimed at the economical relation between first world country and third world country. This kind of new stage of the colonialism became the research object of the post-colonialism finally.

II. The Deep Relations of the Imperialism, the Colonialism and the Culture

There is a simple way to explain the close relation among the imperialism, colonialism and culture: making phrases respectively with the word culture by the words imperialism and colonialism, two phrases have formed”Cultural Imperialism and Cultural Colonialism. The two phrases can explain the deep relation among the imperialism, the colonialism and the culture very well.

In order to give a perfect explanation of Cultural Imperialism to the learning world, there were a lot of savants had made good explanations of Cultural Imperialism. These explanations also embody the close relations of them. they mastered Cultural Imperialism according to the meaning that the economic was the pioneer and the culture was the aim and defined it according to the meaning of the culture was the pioneer and served for the economics and politics. Some savants thought that Cultural Imperialism was medium imperialism and some others believed that it was a national culture in place of another one. Hans J. Morgenthau thought that it was a policy which is not by the way of conquering the territory and controlling the economic lives, but conquering and controlling people™s mind. According to his ideas, if a country carried out the policy of Cultural Imperialism to conquer the main people™s mind, further to rule the whole country, it was better than by the way of military affairs.

From above these, I can say that the colonialism permeates in every stage of the capitalistic development. Cultural Colonialism is a policy that the west countries aggress undeveloped countries and make them lose the national culture; conquer the people™s hearts of these countries and make these countries become the colonies and half-colonies. Cultural Colonialism is a form of the colonialism, but Cultural Imperialism is a behaviour that a country forces to another country in cultural value idea, it is the succession and development of the Cultural Colonialism under the new history.

The imperialistic consciousness needed the culture to spread and the culture needed a lot ways to spread too. As one of the ways, the novel played a great role in spreading of the imperialistic consciousness and Charlotte Bronte™s Jane Eyre was the representative work of the kind of the novel.

e Imperialistic Consciousness Embodied in the Background of Jane Eyre

Culture aggression is one of the ways that the imperialistic countries conquer the colonies, as the production of the culture, Jane Eyre includes many factors of the imperialism.

In the middle of 19th century Britain began to expand to the outside rapidly, most of the British revel in the dream of the White Myth. As one of the represents of ideological novel, Jane Eyre was inevitable to advance to the cultural empire. Charlotte Bronte™s Jane Eyre is one of the most important loops in the narration. In the novel, the antagonism between suzerain and colonies, the superiority of the empire and discrimination to the colonies permeated in it and pervaded pure and simple imperialistic flavour.

IV. Main Ideas of the Explanation and Analysis about Jane Eyre

A. The Mad Woman in the Attic.

In the Jane Eyre, empire eagle with the White Myth hovered in the air of Caribbean”the birthplace of Bertha Mason. She was Rochester™s wife and also one of the most important characters in the novel. As the woman born in colony, Bertha Mason was the variety in the high-system empire, the wedding between Rochester and she was not accord with the basic benefit of the empire. For the pureness of the empire, the wedding should be overset and the variety should be cleared off too. In this novel, the combat began with Jane broke into Thorn field, end up with Bertha Mason™s destruction, the illegal family composed by Jane and Rochester defeated the legal family composed by Bertha Mason and Rochester. The imperialistic ideology offered reasons for Jane™s wedding which from illegal to legal. In these reasons, as first world woman Jane formed strong contrast with Bertha Mason who was third world woman.

As the same as all the colonialism of the time, there was a trend existed in suzerain Britain that was all the despicable behavior of human being that they had known ascribed to colonial. In the Jane Eyre, Bertha Mason was a humble, devilish and cruel Creole. In order to confirm Creole™s truculence, through numerous descriptions, the novel repeatedly narrated the cliche that hags ate the meat and drank the blood of human being in the West Indies. Jane arrived at Thorn field before long, she experienced the fear in the midnight and heard Bertha Masons laughter This was a demoniac laugh”low, suppressed, and deep”uttered, as it seemed, at the very keyhole of my chamber door. Mason came, I heard thence a snarling, snatching sound, almost like a dog quarrelling. In the course of rescued Mason, the author emphasized purposely The flesh on the shoulder is torn as well as cut. This wound was not done with a knife: there have been teeth here. The last night before Jane and Rochester walked into the church, Charlotte finally let Jane saw Bertha Mason™s face in the dream at the first time, It seemed a woman, tall and large, with thick and dark hair hanging long down her back. I know not what dress she had on: it was white and straight; but whether grown, sheet, or shroud, I cannot tell. Fearful and ghastly to me, I never saw a face like it! It was a discoloured face”it was a savage face. I wish I could forget the roll of the red eyes and the fearful blackened inflation of the lineaments! The face was purple: the lips were swelled and dark; the black eyebrows widely rose over the bloodshot eyes. It reminded me the foul German spectre”the Vampire. In the novel, Charlotte described Bertha Mason Like this In the deep shade, at the farther end of the room, a figure ran backwards and forwards. What it was, whether beast or human being, one could not, at the first sight. It grovelled, seemingly, on all fours; it snatched and growled like some strange wild animal: but it was covered with clothing, and a quantity of dark, grizzled hair, wild as a mane, hid its head and face. Under the author™s pen, Bertha Mason could not be distinguished difficultly that she ever was a wild beast or a person, even was a wild beast covered with clothing , led a bestial life”inhuman, sluttish and crazy.

Compared with Bertha Mason, Jane was shaped to a new female of the empire in the novel”aggressive, strong and ambitious. She was well-informed, strong-willed

And militant when she was a child. But most important, there concealed an unusual heart under her mediocre look. She liked to dream and desired passion. The trace of the strength was carved on her face and the thought flied to here and there the entire world. The mind rippled The rock standing up alone in a sea of billow and spray; the broken boat stranded on a desolate coast; the cold and ghastly moon glancing through bars of cloud at a wreck just sinking. These chimeras made Jane desired to become famous, she believed The real world was wide, and that a varied field of hopes and fears, of sensations and excitements, awaited those who had courage to go forth into its expanse, to seek real knowledge of life amidst its perils. In the novel, Jane certainly was full of fight, struggled against the life bravely, and sought after the ideal steady; she was the knight of the empire in the period of blood and fire. (Charlotte Bronte,34-41)

These descriptions above, the author made an opponent relation: the antagonism between human being and the beast, the lunatic and the brain, the world and the hell. In this antagonism, we could discern western intelligentsia™s imperialistic consciousness. In the course of built the cultural system for themselves, they subconsciously oppressed the unknown variety that related to Europe. Therefore, the third world women were colonized constantly and built a powerless and homogeneous community. They were only acted as the potential victims of the special culture and social economic system of the colony. Compared with first world women, they were foreign. As Memoranda Mohan what he pointed out, this is a narration of the dual colony so that made a contrast between the juvenility of third world women and the maturity of first world women. Third world women were poor, uncultured, and traditional and they were willing to be a conventional housewife. But the western women were rich, educated, modern and they could decide what things they could do .They also could control the sex and the body about themselves.

But this argument was pulled down by feminists completely. Vampire Bertha Mason was not only looked down upon, but also sympathized. The most famous feminism work was The Mad Woman in the Attic, its authors were two American female savants, and they were Gilbert, Sandra M. and Susan Goober. In this book, they thought the mad woman was just a side of the concealment, anger and insanity in Jane™s heart. Both of them were sisters who oppressed by the male. It was Rochester forced Bertha Mason walked up to the madness. But J.Spivak said that the cultural hegemonism was produced in the period of imperialism. A sufficient rewrite of literature could not get the flourish from the refraction and the fracture of the imperialism, because it was pretended to be a jurisprudence of the principle and the only truth by the foreign things.

Bertha Mason was not a mad woman actually, but she had to be in the novel for the affection of the imperialistic consciousness of the time. She was the variety in the high-system empire, so she should be cleared off. In the novel, she was described to be inhuman, sluttish and crazy, even a wild beast and the empire did not need a woman like her, so in the condition of the imperialistic consciousness, Bertha Mason became a mad woman was not accidental.

B. Religion Hero

After hovered in the air of Caribbean, empire eagle flied to Asia and looked into the distant India with the White Myth. At this time, as the religion hero, Saint John sallied. He was a raptor who filled with crazy religious devotional and venturesome spirit and cherished a glorious dream of imperialism. He said My vocation, my great work, my foundation laid on earth for a mansion in heaven, my hopes of being numbered in band who have merged all ambitions in the glorious one of bettering their race”of carrying knowledge into the realms of ignorance”of substituting peace for war”freedom for bondage”religion for superstition”the hope of heaven for the fear of hell. It is dearer than the blood in my veins. It is what I have to look forward to, and to live for. ; As his disciple I adopt his pure, his merciful, and his benignant doctrines. I advocate them: I am sworn to spread them. Won in youth to religion, she has cultivated my original qualities thus”From the minute germ, natural affection, she has developed the overshadowing tree, philanthropy. From the wild stringy root of human uprightness, she has reared a due sense of the Divine justice. Of the ambition to win power and renown for my wretched self, she has formed the ambition to spread my Master™s kingdom; to achieve victories for the standard of the cross. So much has religion done for me; turning the original materials to the best account; pruning and training nature. But she could not eradicate nature: nor will it be eradicated till this mortal shall put on immortality. The vow looked like Christian religiosity and goodness: helped the behindhand nation to improve their nation and so-called wild culture.( Charlotte Bronte, 78-90) But in fact, it caused by the Religion exclusionism. It was well-known that Christianity was a strongly exclusive religion and the Christians often looked down upon the other religions. In the course of expanding to the outside, they thought themselves had the obligation to rule and rescue the other culture, and took themselves attached to the language system of the empire so that they could clear away the colonial people to resist them and preach the salvation power of the empire.

On the other hand, there always existed the dualistic antagonism between the suzerain and colony in the idea of the westerner: the empire was the ego and centre of the noumenon, politics and culture, but the colonies were foreign. Therefore, under the author™s pen, India was a fiendish area where only had the burning sun of east, the desert of Asia and the brutal clan and the coloured were savage, ignorant and superstitious, there nation was inferior and it needed to be domesticated. Through this difference, the colonists found the right reasons for robbed the cultural source from the eastern countries and built a cultural empire for the western countries. As Edward Said what he said that there existed an opponent language pattern that is the politics, economic and the cultural ideas of the suzerain and the politics and the culture of the fringe countries, they were dualistic antagonism. In this pattern, the fringe countries were only the weak foil of the strong myth of the suzerain. Faced to the cultural hegemony, they just derogated for themselves and the power politics fabricated a kind of east myth so as to reveal the supreme superiority.

The author disparaged the east countries, even described them mistakenly. But to Saint John, the author was filled with the affirmation and respect: he was strong and austere, to the other people and himself, he always insisted the consistent principle. Because of the duty of the priest, he gave up fell in love with Miss Oliver and the temporal lure, but devoted himself to the civilized career of the empire. In the wild India, his health was destroyed and his life was also threatened greatly. However, he still was intrepid and filled with the zeal of the preacher. He did not intend to release the emotion and instinct so that people could get free from the degenerate and slavish status from the holy commandment and rational control. On the contrary, he insisted on doing the ascetic, self-regulating, difficult and continuous works and desiring to die in the course of his philanthropy. Finally, when Saint John died, the author thought that he exploited the way to the Asia for the empire and presented the beautiful anthem to Saint John through Jane He entered on the path

From this part, in some degree, we could found that Charlotte Bronte not only did revel in the physical benefit of the empire, but also was absorbed in the cultural career of the empire that by the centre of the religion expansion. Her ideas accord with the cultural expansion stratagem of the empire and she wanted to prove the right of the imperialistic: made the heretics become human beings, treated themselves liked the purposes.

Compared to Bertha Mason, Saint John was the hero of the empire and he was the person that the empire needed. So in the condition of the imperialistic consciousness, he was the best pioneer of the empire who full of passion, power, faith and piety.

Conclusion

Culture is a stage, it is not only an elegant and calm sanctum but even possible become a battlefield. The culture sometimes records the secrets of all the conflicts all over the world. Indeed, as the reflection of imperialistic consciousness in culture, Jane Eyre was filled with the world conflicts of that time. It mainly included the conflict between the empire and colony, and formed a cultural battlefield between them. Charlotte Bronte emphasized again and again that her success and fascination was due to her distinctive individuality, strong passion and abundant imagination .she think the world that she created just existed in her heart. But the implicit language condition of the suzerain and the imperialistic mentality in her work reflected the author™s idea. As a citizen in the first capitalistic country and biggest colonial suzerain of that time, the author was full of the passion and ambition to build a cultural empire and created a White Myth. -H

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Categories: General

The Japanese Education System in Constrast to the American Education System

April 12, 2017 • admin

The Japanese Education System in Contrast to the American Education System

Notes for Question Number One:

??? Similarities:
+ ???Children go to elementary school for 6 years ??¦. junior high for 3 years…??? p.116
+ both Japanese and American children go to school during similar hours, ???8:30-3:00pm???. p.116
+ School is from Monday-Friday, but Japanese children sometimes have school on Saturday.

??? Differences:
+ Only have a two-week vacation before the next ???school year??? starts.
+ Periods are 50 minutes long.
+ ???Japanese students are in school about 240 days, compared to 180 days for most American students.??? p.116
+ Academic Japanese curriculum( social studies, mathematics, science, health, art, and physical education.
+ Vocational Japanese curriculum( different text books, less time spent on studying, trains the students for the job they want that does not require college.
+ Students stay in one classroom all day.
+ ???Japanese students take very difficult entrance exams to get into high school and college.??? p.7a
+ Students attend juku, or cram schools which you may go to everyday for 3 hours to study for entrance exams.
+ ???Some Japanese youths dislike the system??¦produces such stress that a desperate student will commit suicide rather than try and fail.??? p.15
+ ???February and March when exams are given is sometimes called juken jigoku, or ???exam hell??™.??? p.119
+ ???Students sometimes attend the same school for elementary, junior high and senior high school.??? p.7
+ Students are responsible in the duty of cleaning classrooms, desks, et cetera; thus, there are no janitors in Japanese schools.
+ Teaching techniques are fairly different: the Japanese are more ???drills and repetition??? learners, rather than the American class participations and discussions.
+ Some Japanese classes involve ???picking flowers, catching frogs and insects, raising rabbits, and watching falling stars.??? p.2

Notes for Question Number Two:

??? Integral:

+ Kumis are often together for years, sometimes all the way through high school, too.
+ Kumis are meant to make the students feel integral.
+ In the U.S. we don??™t stay in our homerooms all day.
+ ?????¦most Japanese youth enjoy school and value the time they have to be with their friends, whether in class, walking home, or attending cram school.??? p. 32
+ The students in a kumi may also ???take part in athletic activities, musical events, or overnight field trips.??? p. 3
+ ???In many junior highs, for example, kumis take part in choral competitions: each kumi chooses a class song, practices it for several months, and presents it as a part of a long singing contests. In high schools, there is an annual Cultural Festival, where the kumis perform skits.??? p. 3
+ ???They also participate in special events that teach them group loyalty.??? p.3
+ There is NO crime in Japanese schools.
+ Working as a team, these lessons ???teach Japanese students to work together and to take pride in their kumi and their school.??? p.3

??? Clubs:
+ ???At many schools, a student can join only one club a year and must stay in that club for the whole year. This rule teaches the students to be committed, to see themselves as part of the group, and to develop strong relationships.??? p. 3
+ ???Club activities include sports such as basketball, baseball, tennis, and swimming.??? p.3
+ Art and music clubs don??™t meet as often, maybe once a week rather than several times a week.
+ ?????¦spend a lot of time making friendships that will last a lifetime and be useful in one??™s career and private life.??? p. 32

Notes for Question Three:

Involvement of Parents:

+ ???Most parents will do almost anything to help their children get a good education.??? p. 2
+ It??™s mostly Japanese mothers that are actively involved with their child??™s education.
+ ???Most mothers help their children with their homework, encourage them to study for many hours, and urge them to attend juku.??? p. 2
+ ???Mothers also visit their children??™s class, or invite teachers to their home to learn how their children are doing in school.??? p.2
+ ???Some Japanese mothers get so involved in their children??™s education that the Japanese calls them Kyoiku Mama, which means ???education mother??™ in Japanese.??? p.2
+In most cases, the parents are willing to pay the large amount of money for their child to attend the best schools, juku, and/ or college.
+ In some schools, teachers have like a tea or brunch with the parents of a student as they inform the parents about the progress or no progress of their child.
+ Teacher visitations are usually once a year.

Importance:

+ ???Children who do well in school are generally thought to be fulfilling their obligations to the family.??? p. 15
+ ???Education is held in high regard and is seen as a critical element in achieving a better life; it is supported by strong parents.??? p. 32

Categories: General