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Month: April 2017

Political Parties

April 11, 2017 • admin



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What are political parties and pressure group Do they play a part in democracy in a country A political party is a political group that typically seeks to control government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and tiresome to seat them in political office. Parties contribute in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions. Parties regularly espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with precise goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
A pressure group is perceived as structured group that seeks to pressure government on their legislation or policy but does not vote candidates for election. Pressure groups are important part of a strong democratic nation (Strike 2001). Indeed the unrelenting and rapid expansion of pressure group activity and contribution in the political process is often looked as a sign of growing political association among many thousands of people. The purpose of pressure groups is to make the people in power to make decision which will ogre well the pressure groups depending on pressure groups main purpose for their being. Pressure groups are not after authority of political office, but try to influence decisions made by people who hold this political power (Dunn 2002). In present Pressure groups plays an important role in policies made between the the main elections. In some instances pressure groups are able to have sufficient support and supporters to, which help in forcing the government to write off or make changes in legislation. However, pressure group includes churches and Charities, businesses and trade associations, trade unions and professional associations. Think tanks of various complexions, and so forth. Although some pressure groups were set up for the specific purpose of influencing government, many pressure groups exist for other purposes and only engage in politics as a secondary or associated activity. For instance, the primary purpose of the AA and RAC is to provide motoring services to their members. Nevertheless, they also lobby government over issues such as motoring taxes and road safety. This also applies to what are undoubtedly the most powerful pressure groups in the UK, major businesses, whose political influence is largely exerted away from the glare of publicity. Pressure groups are organizations that seek to exert influence on government from outside. They do not therefore put candidates up for election or seek in other ways to ???win??™ government power.
What the community and the society need in general must be provided. Politicians must take action in order to fulfill the need of their constituents who put them into power. These are what constitutes the values, believes and attitudes of the society in general. Majority of the people are involved the reforms which affect the society positively whether if its constitutional or having laws and order which is efficient and just to every person in community irrespective of political affiliations or religion. this can seen in changes which are vital to the community like improved public transport, expansion of our police forces, reform of the welfare system ,improved education, improved national health and protection of the environment which is the responsibility of the government.
When there is political basis in which in which a certain pressure group is advocating the government will tend to be attentive to their inquiries. If the agenda of the pressure group is a political liability and not a political asset irrespective if it??™s a sound idea it will be always be not supported . One of the key areas in which parties operate is that of the formulation of policy program. At a local level, parties are of imperative importance during an election. Local party cohorts are crucial in getting out and cheering people to actually vote. It is these party faithful who deliver leaflets, organize local phone-ins, organize transport etc. The participation of such people is crucial for a party but it is also a major part of ensuring that an election is run effectively and fairly – an important component of a democracy.
Parliamentary committees are also part of the party instrument. It is these committees that scrutinize potential government legislation or actions. These committees need able and open minded members. The assortment process of parties for an election or potential candidates for Parliament is implicit in this process and goes back to the role played by parties at a local level. In this sense, parties organize the business of Parliament (Dahl 2004).
Followers of liberal democracy reason that it??™s main elements [which include regular competitive elections based upon universal adult suffrage, government accountability to parliament and ultimately to the electorate, the rule of law and freedom of speech and assembly] make for a relatively efficient and representative political system. However liberal democracies when looked more critically using theoretical frameworks based around the ideas of Marxism, Elitism, Corporatism and the New Right and we shall find also that conclusions about pressure groups and democracy also vary according to the analytical frameworks used to analyse pressure group activity.
In the theoretical framework of democratic pluralism states are assumed to be neutral arbiters [or impartial referees] evaluating the claims of a vast number of possibly competing pressure groups in harmony with the national interest (Katz, et al 2002). States are assumed to attempt to symbolize the interests of societies as a whole rather than the interests of a narrow ruling class or ruling elite and pressure groups are said to make important contributions to the democratic process.

Thus whereas political parties represent the general interests of voters across a range of issues pressure groups provide for the representation of citizens??™ views on particular issues regarding their own personal well-being [as in the case of sectional groups] and/or to their particular causes for concern [as in the case of promotional or cause groups.]As a result of the resources at their disposal pressure groups can represent individuals more effectively than they could do themselves, a point which may be especially appropriate to more disadvantaged individuals such as the poor or the disabled and to minority groupings such as immigrants.
It is possible that pressure groups can address controversial issues which political parties might initially seek to avoid and likely also that as new issues reach the political agenda new pressure groups can be formed to address these issues .Pressure groups enable their members and supporters to participate more fully in the political process on a continuing basis between general elections and this is likely to enhance political understanding and thereby to strengthen support for the liberal democratic system as a whole. Functions of the pressure groups are varied and they carry out a range of functions. These include: Representation, Political participation, Education, Policy formulation and Policy implementation
Pressure groups provide a mouthpiece for groups and interests that are not adequately represented through the electoral process or by political parties. This occurs, in part, because groups are concerned with the specific rather than the general. Whereas parties attempt to broaden their appeal, trying to catch (potentially) all voters, pressure groups can articulate the views or interests of particular groups and focus on specific causes. Some have even argued that pressure groups provide an alternative to the formal representative process through what has been called functional representation.
However, questions have also been raised about the capacity of groups to carry out representation: Groups have a low level of internal democracy, creating the possibility that they express the views of their leaders and not their members. The influence of groups on government does not always reflect their membership size or their popular support, as discussed later.
Pressure groups have become an increasingly important agent of political participation. Of UK citizens, 40??“50 per cent belongs to at least one voluntary association, and a large minority (20 per cent) belongs to two or more. Moreover, a range of pressure groups, mainly outsider groups, seek to exert influence precisely by mobilizing popular support through activities such as petitions, marches, demonstrations and other forms of political protest. Such forms of political participation have been particularly attractive to young people. However, the capacity of groups to promote political participation has also been questioned. Group membership does not always involve contribution. There is a tendency for modern groups to become ???chequebook groups??™. Examples include some of the largest groups, such as the National Trust and Friends of the Earth.
Much of what the public knows about politics it finds out through pressure groups of one kind or another. Many pressure groups, indeed, operate largely through their ability to communicate with the public and raise political consciousness. Groups therefore often devote significant resources to carrying out research, maintaining websites, commenting on government policy and using high-profile academics, scientists and even celebrities to get their views across. An emphasis is therefore placed on cultivating expert authority.
However, the effectiveness of groups in stimulating political education has also been questioned. Pressure groups are every bit as biased and subjective as political parties, and there are few checks or constraints on what a pressure group spokesperson may say. Although pressure groups, by definition, are not policy-makers, this does not prevent many pressure groups from participating in the policy-making process. In particular, pressure groups are a vital source of information and advice to governments.
Many groups are therefore regularly consulted in the process of policy formulation, with government policy increasingly being developed through.
Nevertheless, questions have also been raised about the role of groups in formulating policy: Only a small body of privileged groups involved in policy formulation. Many have argued that groups should not influence the policy process because they are not elected and so are not publicly accountable. The role of some pressure groups extends beyond trying to shape the content of public policy to playing a role in putting policy into practice. The best example of this is the National Farmers??™ Union (NFU), which works with the Department for Rural Affairs (Defra) in implementing policies related, for example, to farm subsidies, disease control and animal welfare.
Not only do such links further blur the distinction between groups and government, but they also give the groups in question clear leverage when it comes to influencing the content of policy. However, questions have also been raised about the role of groups in implementing policy: Some have criticized such groups for being over-close to government, and therefore for endangering their independence. Others have argued that policy implementation gives groups unfair political leverage in influencing policy decisions.
Politics, and consequently politicians, invariably have to take action to what society in general and individuals purposely want out of their community. These are the values and attitude that society in general has (Adler 2000). Most of them are involved in reform of the electoral system constitutional change better and more efficient law and order; an expansion of our police forces an improved public transport system reform of the welfare system improved national health and education systems better protection of the environment greater government responsibility.
A government is likely to pay attention to any of the values or the interest/pressure groups if there is a political basis to do so. If the prop up for one is an electoral liability (even if it is a sound prospective policy) then it is probable that such support will not be forthcoming. One of the key areas in which parties operate is that of the formulation of policy program. At a local level, parties are of imperative importance during an election (Chomsky 1992). Local party cohorts are crucial in getting out and cheering people to actually vote. It is these party faithful who deliver leaflets, organize local phone-ins, organize transport etc. The participation of such people is crucial for a party but it is also a major part of ensuring that an election is run effectively and fairly – an important component of a democracy.
Parliamentary committees are also part of the party instrument. It is these committees that scrutinize potential government legislation or actions. These committees need able and open minded members. The assortment process of parties for an election or potential candidates for Parliament is implicit in this process and goes back to the role played by parties at a local level. In this sense, parties organize the business of Parliament (Arnstein 2000).

Adler, M (2000). We hold these truths. NY: Macmillan
Arnstein, D. (2000).???Democracy and the arts of schooling???. Albany: SUNYP
Chomsky, N (1992). Deterring democracy. NY: Hill.
Dahl, Robert A, (2004). On Democracy. New Haven: YUP.
Dunn, J (2002). Face of the future. Cambridge: CUP.
Katz, M, et al. (2002) Search for Common Ground. New York: TCP,
Strike, Kenneth A. (2001).Reflections on restructuring. AJE, 30(2), 259.

Categories: General

The Italian Renaissance

April 11, 2017 • admin

The Italian Renaissance
Art was an important part of the Italian renaissance, where artists were using the ???rebirth??? of classical paintings. So towards the end of the Middle Ages, attitudes began to change, which was about the 1400s. The Romans were beginning to think about the world around them, instead of only thinking about the next life (Blashfield 47). Explorers such as Christopher Columbus wondered what lay across the oceans. Also Italian churchmen and scholars saw amazing ancient buildings all around them and took an interest in the classical world of Rome and Greece (Blashfield 47). This was also the period in which the Romans began to spend their money on beautiful buildings, sculpture, artwork, and scholarship. This also brought the idea of this period be called the ???Renaissance??? because of the ???rebirth??? of classical learning (Blashfield 47). This new concentration of wealth and power in the cities led to new configurations of the social class that had wide-ranging effects across the face of Europe during the Italian Renaissance (Italian Renaissance). So that meant what social class you were in decided on if you could afford the ???new??? founded wonders. In the Italian Renaissance society consisted of five classes in general, which varied in nature and number depending on which area of Italy you were in (Italian Renaissance). In the five classes that the society had, at the top were the hierarchies, who were the old nobility and the merchant class that had traditionally ruled the cities. Below them were the emergent capitalist and banker class that identified with the lower classes and wished to become as powerful as the top class. Below them were the less wealthy merchants and trades people and below them, were the poor and destitute that was made up of one fourth to one third of the urban population in Italy during the Renaissance. However even the poor and destitute had a class beneath them, which were the domestic slaves, though few in numbers, they represent the first attempts by post-classical European society to institute slavery as an economic practice (Italian Renaissance).
When the Christian faith started to spread around, it called for a new art form that could communicate the essence of God and spirituality, since they called the Roman art inadequate, with its emphasis on man and nature. So gradually the Romans of the middle ages had inherited highly sophisticated arts from ancient Greece and had adapted them for their own purposes, such as developing highly stylized, abstract art that used symbolism more than images from the visible word (Bonomi 81-83). The Romans were already especially gifted as architects, as they had invented a method of building walls using what they called the ???brick-and-mortar??? method. They also perfected the use of the arch as a doorway, a window, and used as roof support. They also showed modesty, straightforward, and honest artistic portrays (Bonomi 81-82).
Most of the famous artists of the Renaissance either grew up or worked in Florence. Among some of them were the painter Masaccio; a revolutionary innovator with an acstere, realistic style. Fra Filippo Lippi who made frescoes (wall paintings on wet plaster) and was known for his decorative style. More famous artists in Florence were Fra Angelino who painted colorful, complex frescoes. Domenico Ghiriandajo another fresco painter who taught Michelangelo. There were also sculptors such as Lorenze Ghibeti, the creator of the Florentine Baptistery??™s bronze doors (Bonomi 82-84). Thought of, as one of the greatest painters in Venice during the Renaissance was Titan, who had apprenticed with the Bellini sons. Titan developed an expressive style using many layers of brilliant colors. Titan reds were so notable during his time that the word ???titian??? has come to mean a rich shade of auburn (Bonomi 84-85). Another famous sculptor was Michelangelo Di Lodovilo Buonorroti Simoni, who had apprenticed under Domenico Ghiriandajo. He was known for his ???terribilita??? ??“ his awesome power. He had completed his first masterpiece at the age of 25, which was a marble sculpture, called the Pieta??™ that is now on display in St. Peter??™s Basilica in Rome. The masterpiece called Pieta??™; made pilgrims from all over the Christian world flock to admire this gleaming figure of the virgin Mary cradling the corpse of her crucified son. After that he went on to create a statue of David in the Galleria Dell Academia, Florence, and a marble statue of Moses in the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome. Even though he was a great sculptor, his life consisted of frequent drunken brawls, jail terms, and a murder he had committed over a bet on a tennis match (Bonomi 84-85).
Some of the more common famous artist that people know; include Raphael, Leonardo Da Vinci, Pablo Picasso, and Vincent Van Gogh. Raphael was born in 1520. Popular with the popes of the period, he was able to decorate the Papal apartments of Julius II, and continued to do so under Leo X; and following Bramonte, served as architect of St. Peter??™s. He is credited with revolutionizing portrait painting because of the style he used in the portrait of Julius II. Also he designed the ???cartoons??? that are on the tapestries of the Sistine Chapel (Artist of the Italian Renaissance). Vincent Van Gogh was born in Holland in 1853. He worked at many jobs, such as at an art gallery, a school, a bookstore, as a preacher, and at last, he became an artist. After he got deeply depressed he painted one more gloomy painting, it was called Wheatfield with Crows, and the sad thing was that after he had finished the painting he killed himself by shooting himself. Lastly one of the most common people know was Leonardo Da Vinci who was born in 1452, in an Italian town called Vinci. He also lived during the Italian Renaissance. Even though Vinci was a great artist, he had become famous because he was also a sculptor, a scientist, an inventor, an architect, a musician, and a mathematician. His most famous works were the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and The Virgin of the Rocks (All About Art).
So since the Renaissance began in Italy, some of the world??™s greatest western painters, architects, and sculptors have come from Italy, including Giotto, Donatello, Titian, Bernini and many others. So that meant the Romans would play a key role in the development of Western architecture, using techniques such as the arch, dome, and vault to build larger, more structurally sound buildings. So it is safe to say Italy has been a birthplace and center of the arts for centuries, and shaping art movements throughout Europe and the world. The famous museums in the Italian cities such as Florence, Naples, Rome, and Venice house internationally renowned art collections. So with all this on Italy??™s back they are still the center of all the arts in the world, and still produce some of the famous artists we know today (???Italy,??? Culture Grams 311).

Categories: General

Zhuge Liang and Leon

April 11, 2017 • admin

Zhuge Liang and Leon?,: ,


As is well known to us, both The Romance of the Three Kingdoms and The Godfather are the perfect and outstanding works in the literary history, both in their own histories and the whole river of human history.

When Friedrich Engels referred to The Human Comedy which is the great works of Honore de Balzac, he said that what he had learned from it was much more than all that from any professional historians, economists and statisticians.

From this comment, we can say a real great works is not only a book for people™s entertainment, but also a guide to people™s life. The book will express all kinds of aspects of human society and spirits, give people the strongest influence and right guidance. The romances of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms and The Godfather are the books like that.

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms uses the letters to describe a long history of the three kingdoms period. It introduces not only the historic matters simply, but also uses all kinds of means such as quoting poets to add others™ comments on these matters and characters in that history. The brilliant tactics and magnificent phenomena of wars lead us into a series of military banquets that give us much edification in dealing with matters in our daily life. If Sunzi™s Military Strategies is the greatest works of military affairs, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms is the completely and excitingly practical works of these military stratagems. Until today, these tactics that have been referred to are being used and going to be used in modern life, work, economic and military competition.

The Godfather is the typical works of America in the end of 1960s. At that time, America was trapped in chaos. In 1969, America launched an unprecedented bombard to Vietnam, but it seemed that America didn™t get any obvious advantages more than Vietnam. In the same year, some reports disclosed the fact that an American infantry slaughtered more than 450 Vietnamese villagers, which caused people to doubt the rationality of the war. The manhunt in a bar by police in New York resulted in the new century of striving for the homosexual rights. A senator escaped from traffic accident after causing troubles and made others die. A series of matters happened. The Godfather just stepped into the bookshop at that time, as an advanced flag leading a stirring literary resolution which called for rebuilding a new social and law system. The Godfathers used their own ways and wisdoms to build a new set of laws for survival, which overthrew the old and so-called democratic society. In and out the line of words there shines the flame of wisdom.

Referring to the two outstanding works, we can™t help introducing the two positive figures of them?¬–Zhuge Liang and Corleone. In fact, the two characters are very different. One is the loyally military counselor; the other is the king of the underworld. One may feel very strange to connect them together as the obverse figures.

So what is the definition of the positive figure? According to most people™s view, it is these characters that represent the righteous part, are supported by authors, and stand for the values of most people. Zhuge Liang and Corleone just belong to this kind of characters. Zhuge Liang assisted Liu Bei who represented the lineal Han Dynasty loyally. What Corleone protected was the poor people abandoned and threatened by the so-called democratic society. Both of them used their wisdom to build their own kingdoms. As the positive figures, they have many similarities. Originating from two different works which were written in different periods and backgrounds, the two figures are depicted in different ways.

I. The Portrait of Zhuge Liang in The Romance of the Three Kingdoms

The lifetime of Zhuge Liang shines the legendary colors. Just as the incarnation of deity, he owns inexhaustible wits and tactics. From his appearing in Chapter 37 to his passing away in Chapter 104 of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, almost all the 67 chapters run around him. It seems that the history of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms is more like his autobiography. The following two parts will be spared to describe some depictions and stories about Zhuge Liang, from which we can easily learn about the theme of this character.

A. The Image of Zhuge LiangWhile Liu Bei meets Zhuge Liang the first time, the author uses the aspect of Liu Bei to depict the appearance of Zhuge Liang like this: the height of Zhuge Liang is about 1.70m; his face is like the beautiful and perfect jade. He wears the black scarf on his head and a piece of chock made of the feathers of cranes. He is so handsome, spirited like the divinity.

Just several sentences depict a typical intellectual figure and express his perfect wisdom by suggestion.

B. Zhuge Liang™s Deeds

a. The Country™s Tripartition Foreseen at Longzhong

Before Liu Bei sees Zhuge Liang by his own eyes, all the comments on him are from others. For example, Zhuge Liang compares himself to Guan Zhong and Le Yi who were both the famous talents in Chunqiu and Zhan Dynasty. While the others suspect that he just showed himself off, Sima Hui, a famous wise man, gives him the following comments: he is alike Jiang Ziya who reconstructed Zhou Dynasty and Zhang Zifang who boomed Han Dynasty. Until the third time Liu Bei visits Zhuge Liang, he and the readers sense the perfect wisdom and are fully convinced.

In fact, although Zhuge Liang has great fame in his hometown, he is only a farmer before Liu Bei meets him. Never experiencing the outside world, he speaks out the temporary situation easily and concretely. In the north, Cao Cao abducts the emperor to control the ministers. He owns more than 1 million soldiers. In the south, Sun Quan has taken the north bank of Changjiang River which has advantageous physiognomy. If Liu Bei wants to build his own kingdom, he should catch the heart of the common people; seize Jinzhou state as his beachhead and capture western part of Sichuan to become the great power which can compete with Cao Cao and Sun Quan. In a small piece, Zhuge Liang analyzes the situations clearly and divides the world into three parts. It could be said that all the following stories of the three kingdoms happen according to Zhuge Liang™s analyses.
b. Using the Tactics to Arrest Meng Huo for Seven Times

In the third year of Jianxin, Meng Huo–the king of the southern part of China launches war to Shu (the kingdoms led by Liu Bei and his son Liu Chan). Although there are generals who resist aggression bravely, plenty of cities are lost. Zhuge Liang and Meng Huo carry out a grueling match of intelligence and courage.

Zhuge Liang has confronted Meng Huo for seven times. During this period, he and his army experience the poison of Lu River (which is full of poison because of the hot weather), the danger of Xi™er River, and the threat of four poisonous springs- deaf, dead, black and soft springs. They execute a series of stratagems such as stratagem of sowing distrust or discord among one™s enemies, use enemy™s power to get rid of another enemy, advance secretly by an unknown path , block the enemy™s retreat and then destroy him, and so on. They make the pontoon bridge of bamboos, manufacture the artificial animals and lay the land mines. Zhuge Liang wins the battle for seven times and Meng Huo and his people pay allegiance to Zhuge Liang loyally.

c. Zhuge Liang Submitting Two Pieces of Memorial on Going to War

The people whom Zhuge Liang assists are Liu Bei and Liu Chan (who are regarded as the legitimately imperial descendents of Han Dynasty). Being deeply grateful for Liu Bei™s appreciation of his ability and trust, Zhuge Liang wants to unify the three kingdoms into Shu and complete the utmost task of resuming Han Dynasty. After accomplishment the south campaign that suppresses the insurgence of Meng Huo, Zhuge Liang gets the unprecedented reputation and support. At the same time, Shu reaches its prime time. Taking the advantage of the favorable situation, in the fourth year of Jianxin, Zhuge Liang submits two pieces of Memorial on Going to War for launching the war to Wei. Setting aside the results of the two expeditions, and only paying attention to the two articles, especially the former one, we find it represents the faithfulness of a large number of patriots and has been handed down along with the change of dynasties and society.

The main contents of the first one are as follows: first, being thankful for Liu Bei™s trust, Zhuge Liang teaches Liu Chan with sincere words and earnest wishes– getting well with loyal officials and drifting apart the treacherous ones are the reason why the early Han Dynasty was prosperously brisk. On the contrary, getting well with the treacherous officials and drifting apart the loyal ones are the reason why the later Han Dynasty was overturned. Secondly, Zhuge Liang gives the reasons to launch the wars to Wei. Thanking for Liu Bei™s appreciation and trust, authoring the right only less than the emperor at his dying moment, Zhuge Liang is determined to get rid of the insurgent troops–Wei and Wu to resume the government of Han Dynasty.

d.Zhuge Liang Dying Mournfully at Wuzhangyuan

Until the twelfth year of Jianxin, when Zhuge Liang dispatches the troops from Qi Mountain to attack Wei, he feels the death is coming. Although he is on the position of Prime Minister with the tremendous right only less than emperor, he deals with all the military matters and political affairs by himself. Because of this kind of tiredness, day by day, he catches the serious illness gradually. Owning to the countless tactics, stratagems and kinds of knowledge, Zhuge Liang dies mournfully after falling to pray for increasing his lifespan by witchcraft, without realizing the dream of unifying the kingdoms. His death makes Shu lose its pillar and it symbolizes its declining.

II. The Portrait of Corleone in The Godfather

Corleone who is called respectfully as godfather is one of the underworld hegemonies. He experiences the frustrations and suffers the heavy burden from the so-called democratic society. There shines the contradictory flames–he is the leader of Mafia, but he loves making friends with others; he controls a lot of armies but would like to preach as a real godfather. Backed by the useful experience and wisdom in his growth, he builds up his own kingdom.

A. Corleone™s Image

He is a fat and short middle aged man with black skin. Being always reasonable and never having any happiness, anger, sorrow and pleasure written on all over his face, he often smiles while he talks about something concerning problem of life and death, which makes others frightened.

B. Corleone™s Stories

a. How Did Corleone Become a Godfather

While he is only a twelve-year-old boy, he lives in an odd small village called Corleone in Italy. After the members of the reactionary gangs kill his father and decide to send him to death, he escapes to America under the help of his family and lives in a relative™s family. Here he and the son of that family become good friends. For a long time, he lives in a peaceful life as well as the other usual people. Until one ferocious man named Fabrizio(who is a member of reactionary gang, using violence to extort money from the residents and shops)makes him lose his job and wants to rob his money that he earns by life, he analyzes calmly and gets the idea that Fabrizio has no accomplice and he kills him finally. This matter directly gets rid of the threat from Fabrizio; at the same time, it makes Corleone succeed in getting the high prestige among the neighboring residents. In the following years, people gradually beg help from him and pay him a certain number of money. The series of matters send him to the road of godfather. He begins to invert the tribute and taxes in olive oil import. As his olive oil steps into the usual Italian shops, his underworld grows stronger gradually. In the period of alcoholic prohibition, he makes a fortune by offering his trucks to alcoholic business men. Along the cancellation of alcoholic prohibition ban, his underworld kingdom suffers the vital attack. In order to revive his kingdom and get more money, he sends the cooperative sign to Tommasino on mutual helps and benefits. The latter™s refusal results in the 1933 war. Corleone uses his famous calmness and perfect tactics to gradually defeat him. This war not only sends more money and benefits to Corleone but also helps him establish his position firmly in the underworld as a godfather. During his growth, Corleone gets one pet phrase: one life, one destiny. The sentence also becomes a sign before he goes on a vital attack against the enemy.

b. The Solution to the Problem of the Funeral Home Operator

Americus Bonasera, whose name is the same as the adventurer who finds the American land, trusts America and its so-called democratic system. However, while his daughter is hit to serious injury, the criminals are beyond the arm of the law, only because their family own more and stronger power and influence. At the end of his rope, he begs the help from Corleone. Before that moment, he always looks down upon Corleone and his group. He regards them as a group of desperados and daredevils. Even though he falls back on Corleone, and his voice cannot avoid the contempt and arrogance. Using his arrogant voice and tone, he tells Corleone that he would like to pay anything to him if Corleone kills those two criminals. All of these actions make Corleone angry; as he says what he wants while he helps others only originates from making friends with others. He asks those people to express their friendships and loyalty while accepting his aids, because he believes he might need others™ aids. But he finally forgives Bonasera and orders his fellows to deal with this problem quickly when Bonasera shows his friendship. These two persons get an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth™s revenge that they are hit to lose their original appearances. Corleone™s hired roughneck escapes from the scene in the stolen cars.

This is Corleone. Anyone who shows his friendship, no matter whether he is rich and poor, could get Corleone™s ardent aids. In order to achieve his goal, Corleone uses his own kinds of means including violence and crime to resolve all the disputes.

c. The Meeting for Redividing the Orbits of the Underworld

During the period that Corleone is sick, his first son Santino as his convincing assistant is killed by his opponents–the other three underworld groups. The situation is so urgent that Corleone has to get up from his sick bed to hold an underworld peace meeting. This meeting certifies that Corleone is a born politician, speaker and tactician. On the surface, his actions express that he gives in the front of other groups, but he gets the peace and his third son Michael–his successor™s safety. In the inner world, he designs a flawless tactic which would ask all the people who hurt his son, destroy his family and rebel him to pay the same expense. All of these are hidden secretly in his presentational retirement.

His speech at this meeting like any famous leaders™ in the history would be remembered by people. Why we manage our own world is just because it is our own world and our own matters. We have to unify together tightly to resist the others™ interference.

d. The Death of CorleoneWaiting for his son Mike who returns home, Corleone decides to fall back on the backstage. He arranges the whole kickback plan for his son and becomes an advisor.

But it is so sorrowful that the God doesn™t give him enough time to see his plan carried out and its complete victory.

That happens on a sunny day. Corleone is watering his vegetables (after he authors his right to his son, he lives as a common old farmer). It becomes hotter and hotter. While his grandson is running to him in the golden sunshine, he sees Azrael who hands him in the lights. In the last several minutes in his life, he only says one sentence as follows: life is so beautiful. It is not only because of the satisfaction of his success, but also because of the infatuation of the life.

III. The Comparison of Depiction of the Two Figures

Following the above introduction and depiction of Zhuge Liang and Corleone, we can easily find that these two great men own many similarities because of their greatness and also many differences because of their own backgrounds and cultures.

A. Similarities

a. Their Wisdom and Self-confidence

Before Zhuge Liang decides to assist Liu Bei, as a common farmer, he has showed the gifted wisdom and self-confidence. Never being a politician or taking part in wars, he uses only several sentences to analyze the temporary situations clearly and concretely in that period. At the same time, he suggests that Liu Bei to size Jinzhou and the western part of Sichuan to build his kingdom to match with Cao Cao and Sun Quan. The following historical developments prove his prophesy. During his several decades of political life, he uses his countless tactics and knowledge to defeat his enemies again and again. In people™s mind, he is a living divinity. Using his omnipotent abilities, he brings about a radical change in the existing state of affairs to build a strong power for Liu Bei. When he is alive, the enemy dare not invade Shu, when he dies his statue threatens the enemy.

Compared to Zhuge Liang, Corleone™s wisdom is gradually expressed during his growth. He gets the experiences and lessons from life and struggles. Although he loves preach, he doesn™t mind settling the controversial by wars. He carefully calculates three big wars by himself. Never concealing his real thoughts, never using unnecessary threats, he does every thing calmly and cautiously. His incomparable wisdom helps him win every war beyond enemies™ thoughts. As he steps onto the godfather™s road, he understands one truth–one life, one destiny–which also becomes a pet phrase and axiom.

b. Their Insistence to Deal with Problems by Themselves and Make Others Sincerely Convinced

It is known to us that Zhuge Liang, who performs as an emperor in fact, is the Prime Minister of Shu. Liu Chan, the second emperor of Shu calls him Prime Minister Father. But in fact, however, no matter the affairs are big or small, he handles them by himself.

Like Zhuge Liang, Corleone takes up matters personally. All the affairs of his group should be reported to him and people must wait for his order. Anyone who wants to get aids from him can be received warmly, no matter whether he is rich or poor.

They are the born politicians. In the wars, both of them understand that psychological offense is the best tactic. That™s why Zhuge Liang has the stratagems of arresting and setting free Meng Huo for seven times, and why Corleone projects suggestion that cannot be refused before every negotiation.

The personality is not only the expression of their pursuit of perfection but also the expression of over suspicion. At the same time, it is both the reason of their successes and the mortal factor of their failures. Zhuge Liang dies from over tiredness, and Corleone nearly loses his whole kingdoms during the war.

c. Their Sad Deaths

No matter how great a person is, he can™t escape from death. It is the final destiny of human beings and the basic principle of natural laws.

Zhuge Liang and Corleone finally die. There™s no doubt that their deaths have the sorrowful coloring.

Zhuge Liang cannot wait for the coming of the northward expedition™s triumph, and Corleone also dies with the love of life and the anxiety of his family and group.

It seems that both western and Chinese authors believe if there were no death, there would be no life alive. Corleone and Zhuge Liang can™t be caught up with moat fellows. If they were still alive, the history would not be changed. It is contrary to the human historical development. So they have to die and die mournfully. Then the descendents can have the reason to explain the worship of them, and generations and generations of talents are born to create new historical and social situations.

B. Differences

a. Their Obviously Different Images That the Authors Created

From the above, we can easily find the appearances of them are obviously different.

Zhuge Liang is a very handsome literati. This kind of definition keeps with the ancient Chinese criteria of appreciation of the beauty. In Chinese culture, the wise literati is respected by all the people, who is always regarded as having a handsome face and could keep out thousands of soldiers and horses. Going to the school and studying hard are regarded as the ambitious action to succeed. There is an old saying: there are golden houses in the book, there is abundant rice in the book, and there are beautiful women in the book. Zhuge Liang is wise as well as handsome like an incarnation of perfection.

On the contrary, Corleone is only a common, fat middle aged man with a keen pair of eyes. It accords with the expression of western democracy and liberty. People in the western countries believe everyone is born to be equal. So it is believed that ordinary people can get success by their own abilities and hard works. Corleone is just one outstanding representative of numerous successes. He escapes from an Italian village to America and here he establishes his own underworld kingdom by his caution, calmness and tactics.

If Zhuge Liang is called a living divinity, Corleone is the hero grown from struggles.

b. Their Utterly Different Status

One is the Prime Minister of Shu-the legitimate descendents of Han Dynasty and what he does is for the state and the people. For the state, he assists Liu Bei and Liu Chan to expand their kingdom and strengthen the national power to unify the three kingdoms and to rebuild Han Dynasty. For the people, he works hard to establish a complete and perfect political and governmental system, ensuring the stable situation and life for the people.

The other is the king of the underworld. In his world, the traditional legitimate social system is of no value. All the laws need to serve his benefits. In order to achieve his goal, he does balk at paying the price of violence, crime, murder, bribery, and so on.

One symbolizes the positive power and the other symbolizes the evil. One is the incardination of justice; the other is the speaker of crime in popular recognition.

All of these distinctions originate from the fact that the Chinese defend the traditional law system and the westerners advocate subverting the inequitable traditions to create a new world.

c. Their Different Pursuits

Because of their utterly different status, their pursuits are far different.

As a loyal Prime Minister, Zhuge Liang has always been dreaming of unifying the three kingdoms to rebuild Han Dynasty and repay Liu Bei for his respect and appreciation of his abilities. He was concerned about his country and people. It could be said that his political life is full of busy running about how to strengthen his country and make his people live a happy and peaceful life.

Since he is only a little boy, Corleone is in the chase of the Italian local reactionary gangs. When he becomes a young man he suffers the starvation and privation. He kills ruffians and is almost killed. All of these realities make him grow rapidly and push him to seek for benefits and latent benefits.

One lives for collective and the other for his own interests. Western and Chinese value orientations are so different that we are unable to judge which one is better. What we can say is both of them have their advantages.


It is very surprised that although a number of historians and literati argue that western and Chinese literary works are far different, so far as the positive figures are concerned, there are many common characteristics.

For example, Zhuge Liang and Corleone are both the talented persons with calm thoughts and cautious actions. Every problem may be solved when they control them in the hand. A small tactic in their mind can defend thousands of soldiers and horses.

That accords with people™s worship of the heroes. With characteristics of wit and calmness, only their several words may decide thousand people™s lives and the following historical process. Compared to religious figures, they are the real omnipotent God in daily life.

Of course, originating from different cultural backgrounds, they are necessary depicted as different figures.

As a character in ancient Chinese literary works, Zhuge Liang needs to be up to meet Chinese traditional loyal morality and the criteria of beauty. He has to live and die all for his country and people, because only this can be regarded as the highest spiritual state.

While Corleone appeared in the 1960s in America, the society asked him to be a leader who calls for people to overthrowing the so-called democratically social system in order to rebuild a new real democratic social system. What he needed to do is live for himself and live for his own benefits. That is in line with the temporary situations in America in that period and the American spirits of democracy, liberty and equality.

Western and Chinese literary works express the universalities and distinctions, which reflects to the idea that the whole human culture originated from the same ancestors and developed into different orientations in different social and historic situations.

In order to carry forward Chinese culture, the young generation should learn from and communicate with other cultures, keeping the similarities, getting rid of their weaknesses and following their strong points. -H

Categories: General

Political Participation Difference Between 2008 and 2012 Election

April 11, 2017 • admin

Political Participation: What changed between 2004 and 2008 elections
There are many factors that changed the way voters saw the government as well as reasons some voting habits changed. One of which was the fact that in 2008 President Obama had a much more diverse and in some cases younger support group. Another major reason the elections where completely different was aslo due to the ongoing global war on terrorism and where the two wars were headed.

One difference between the 2004 election and the 2008 election is youth voting. There was roughly 23 million youth voters under the age of 30 during the 2008 election. This is a 3.5 million increase from 2004. Obama received his strongest support from the 18-to-29 year-old voting. The young voters are a much more diverse group of voters than the majority of elderly voters. Although there were voters with and without college experience who had different views, but one view they all had in common was they showed lots of support for the Democratic candidate Obama. This was due to the fact that Obama targeted youth voters and President Bush did not as much in 2004. [1]

There was also a large rise in the voting by the African American population, to the tune of about a 5 percent increase. A rise in the Asian voting as well by seven percent. While the Caucasian voting percentage stayed steady to within one percent. This allowed Obama to access voters in all race and sexual groups successfully winning his election. [2]
There was also the ongoing global war on terrorism with ongoing operations in Afghanistan as well as Iraq. Many people had wide spread views and feelings on why we were there, how much longer would we remain in Iraq, as well when would there be a concrete plan for withdrawal. The two parties had different views on the wars as well as how to handle the situation at hand. Ultimately the United States and the government were just in two completely different stages in between that four year span.


Categories: General

The Issue of Human Cloning – Both Sides of the Debate

April 10, 2017 • admin

Review the movie The Tokyo Trial and discuss how it relates to the general concept of guilty

The Tokyo Trial, a movie directed by Gao Qunshu, truly recorded the process of the trial against the war criminals of World War Two from Japan. The story happened after Word War Two. In the World War Two, the Japanese army brought great disaster to the world, especially to China. But in The International Military Tribunal Far East,all the war criminals said they were innocent. After more than one thousand days of hard work, the judges from 11 countries finally convicted and sentenced the war criminals. This movie not only tell us the progress and the result of the trial, but also aware us that different people has different amount of guilty towards the same thing and how important the general concept of guilt is in the society.

Some people have a strong sense of guilt, but some people have little when facing the same condition. Let us look back how many disasters the Japanese soldiers brought to China in the World War Two. They seized the land of China,killed Chinese soldiers and civilians, grabed the property and resources of China, raped Chinese women ??¦. According to the data from? the Chinese Peoples War Memorial, there were more than 35,000,000 Chinese died or injured and the war caused 560 billion dollars economic losses to China. In The International Military Tribunal Far East, all the war criminals said they were innocent. But an ordinary soldier felt very guilty.

Why different people has different amount of guilt Maybe interest is one reason, and cultural background is another. Some would rather hurt other??™s interests to get more interests of their own, like the Japanese war criminals of the World War Two. People have different cultural background may have different amount of the sense of guilt. We can find it clearly in the comparison of Chinese judge and Japanese war criminals. The Chinese judge felt very guilty when their driver shot tow Japanese rogues, but the Japanese war criminals did not felt a bit of guilt when they massacred millions of Chinese people.

The common sense of guilt is very important in our society. A word of one of the Japanese war criminals, the Japanese premier, made me think seriously. He said if he could be acquitted he would start more wars. And that would bring more disasters to the world. Ellen Goodman said, ???Guilt can be a self-punishing activity, but it can also be the conscience that keep us civilized.??? Guilt is an uncomfortable feeling. It can modify our behavior under the influence of conscience when we do bad things. If the Japanese war criminals had a strong sense of guilt, the World War Two would never occur. If every people has the common sense of guilt, our world would be peaceful and harmonious.

In short, because of the benefit and cultural background, different people has different amount of the sense of guilt. In order to make our society more comfortable, peaceful, harmonious, every people in the world should have a proper amount of the sense of guilt.

Categories: General

Political Influence on Real Estate

April 10, 2017 • admin

Real Estate in South Africa has relatively been very stable. The market as is now has been slow compared to a total meltdown. There is still growing potential in certain parts of the real estate market. With the interest rates low and consumer spending on the increase, leaves little room for saving and putting away money for the future. Basically your income category groups are visible and identifiable. With South Africa being a gateway for many foreign investmens and a growing economy with various interest around the globe, we easily accept any kind of investment. These investmens are not thoroughly screened for incoem sources. They have the opportunity to mingle with our politically corrupt leaders them give them free rain over our land. The glamourise our politicians with bling and that gives them the ace to bring in their dirty money and crime assetts. A very attractive but real scenario. With ports such as Durban and Cape Town where many ships enter our harbours for imports and marginally exports; there is a lack of security checks that open the gates for the influx of drugs and crime. Druglords have the upper hand when dictating terms and conditions of our laws. This directly gives effect to laundry money which flows in our economy and making noise to a undisclosed stake. They too have interest to acquire property where their money is safe, because our laws are ot very strict when it comes to taxes and etc. They monopoly housing prices which directly impacts on our markets. Often properties are not purchased because they are affordable and influences price trends. They buy property with in the end becomes crime spots for thier operations. They are strategically bought where the offenders have access to the drugs and other criminal activities. Crime hotspots alienate decent property individuals and makes the purchase power of the area to decline due to this. One can say that these influences have a direct negative influence in property markets where the ordianry citizen is deprived of purchasing a property that is affordable and in line with their logistical, social needs.

Categories: General

Chinese and western cultural differences

April 10, 2017 • admin

Chinese and western cultural differences

I Introduction

Language and culture are inseparable. Each national™s special culture mode comes out of the speech and behavior of that race by all means. They use their own language to record the things happened by them. The advertisement is a kind of manifestation of culture, it™s under the influence and restrict of local culture. National culture influences and restricts the development and expression of advertising language which is the core content of advertisement .advertising language contains and reflects the social culture. Language exists in the community and with the development of society and development, and culture among the definite role to play. A philosophy idea, thinking mode of race, the cultural mental state, moral concept, life style, customs and habits, social system, religion and faith¦etc, will produce a function to the advertisement language by all means. No matter how the advertising art develop, as long as it is a popular method of communication involved, it will never take part from language , language will be the most important and effective communication tool. Advertisement through the performance function of language to describe the image of product, express the taste sensibility and make an introduction of related products knowledge lively and specifically. However, the current language is not merely the carrier of products; it adjusts tradition and modern culture factors to make them carry more contents richer than it. In fact, the advertisement language of the social culture reflection is easily comprehended and accepted by people, this can promote the effect of advertisement. Take cognizance of this, make great effort to discuss the inside relation of national culture and advertisement language, it has important function to create and design the advertisement language which matches the basic principle of advertisement expression and suites particular national cultural characteristic. Each advertisement language has its trace of social national culture, according to every nation™s thinking mode, mental characteristic, living custom, value judgment ,even the political belief, social system to consider an advertisement creation, in order to keep with native son taste, match native son mindset has already been earnestly practiced by numerous advertisement plan personnel. The influence of Chinese and Western culture on advertising language is various, The Chinese and Western advertising language also reflect the Chinese and Western culture in many ways. The company of American P&G named its shampoo pert-plus in the United States, being named perjoice in the Asia, and its Chinese name is float soft to cater for Chinese market, and it can explain a problem very much. Owing to the differences of Chinese and Western culture, the representation form of Chinese and Western advertisement is diverse, advertising language also manifests different culture value and thinking mode. As the culture background, customs, behavior principle, life style of Chinese and Western have great distinction. Therefore, every country™s advertisement businessman will think over the culture background of consumers. The aim of the paper is to lay out the influences to by comparing Chinese and Western advertising languages.

?. The relationship between culture and language

2.1 The concept of the language and culture

Culture is the all and the one which consist by social behavior, art, beliefs, customs transmission through society conduct and all other products of human work and thinking .Language is accompanied by the creation of the human society, it is the direct manifestation of thinking. Language reflects the characteristics of a nation, which not only includes the nation™s historical and cultural backgrounds, but holds on the nation™s view of life, the way of life and thinking. Culture is diverse, language is also varied (Chen, 2000:20).When the nation as a language, living areas, economic life and psychological stability community appears in the history of mankind, language is deeply stamped with the brand of a nation; it is the most typical characterization of the nation and national culture.

2.2 The relations of language and culture

Language is a means of expressing cultural customs, as a part of culture, and plays an important role in culture. Language can not separate from related culture to be independent. Some sociologists believe that the language is the cornerstone of culture”no language, no culture (Pan, 2001:30).From another aspect, language is affected by language and reflected the culture. Language is based on the historical and cultural aspects. The nations way of thinking, values, concepts, habits and behavior will affect aesthetic language development. The formation of a national culture, development and absorption ought to pass the language to achieve. Language and culture influence each other; we should try to understand language and culture and to learn them. Language is like a mirror which reflects the entire culture, and every nation has its own culture. Language as the carrier and idea of culture, its representation form is influenced and restricted by culture. Understand their unique cultural background to understand the language features. Only more exposure to foreign cultures, familiar with different language national history amorous feelings, way of life, value and national psychology, open up their vision, learn more about the cultural and language differences. Culture promotes the development of advertising language, the language of advertising propagandize its culture. Chinese and Western advertising language has its own unique form of language which contain the beautiful scenery of language and culture. The charm of the language of instruction is fully displayed in the advertisement. Meanwhile, the Chinese and Western social and cultural knowledge which contained in language make us experience the infinitude delight .Chinese and Western advertising languages let us deepen our understanding of foreign countries, and bring to the world of cross-cultural exchanges.

?.The features of Chinese and Western advertisement

Advertisement is the special performance of modern culture spirit. As a means of reflecting the reality, advertising language also is the component of culture. Advertisements adjust people™s activity or bring the society effect into play. Advertisement is a multi-language arts conveying information to people and using language for the carrier (Chen, 2000:12).Therefore, the advertising language should be simple and easily understood, fluency and clear, we should also pay attention to the rhetoric manner at the same time. Chinese and Western advertisement cited a variety of rhetoric to achieve the effect of merchandise promotion, and consumers are not consciously deepened the impression of the product after gaining the spirit edifying and enjoying aesthetic feeling, arousing people™s desire to buy it , such as antithesis, Hyperbole, Parody, metaphor, rhyme and repeatedly.

Owing to the differences of Chinese and Western culture, the representation form is diverse. Advertising language also manifests different culture values and thinking mode. Chinese and Western culture has large different culture background, customs, behavior conduct and way of life. Thus, advertisers will no doubt consider the demands of consumer through their cultural background. There I list some examples of advertisement to compare and analyze how the Chinese and Western national culture influence their advertising language:

3.1 Different Philosophy concept

The Chinese nation has insists that the heaven and human units as the harmonious one. For example: something unexpected may happen any time, I have life insurance (The People™s Insurance Company of China).This ad indicates that people are not afraid of accident because the people have insurance. The accident and insurance is a unit and are dispensable. That the business loves customs is showed in this ad and it will come to an agreement between them. At last the goal of the ad comes into truth. (Mueller, 1966:66).
But in western culture they insist the standpoint of pluralistic. They pay attention to diversity and changes of material, emphasis specially on the change and difference of the nature ,stressed that personal freedom ? self”development and personal enterprise. The biggest different between harmonious and pluralists if that the pluralists is not limited. Look at this English ad:Olympus, No limits. There is little you can™t be with the Olympus Zoom Lens Reflex series. The all-in-X cameras that won™t limit your creative ability. (Olympus camera). The camera have one more features make photographs produce different then to reflect individual creativity is in the continuing development and is not limited in this ad. The advertisements show the ultimate challenge and seek freedom can greatly stimulate consumer desire so enthusiastic consumption. (Chen, 2000:33)

3.2 Different cultural values”oriented

The Western countries insisted the short term oriented culture; the main reason is the history is shorter than China. They don™t do the business like Chinese who often use the factors of history and tradition, but use the strong and direct marketing strategy (hard sale), a product of the immediate results as a selling point. For example: go and get it at once, buy it , fit it well, take action right now, call now etc. is the common use in foreign ads (Zhu, 1996:50).

Value is the different views and attitudes of people regarding the matter. China is a traditional agricultural economy society, it is said that Chinese cultural system emphasized the collectivism and authoritative character, using the natural value orientation. This ad is a manifestation of this feature of Chinese culture: HUA LI killing mosquito tool”silence without mosquito dedication. This ad was excellent for using the partial tone of mosquito and listen. It builds the image of unknown to public dedication of products and corporation. To praises of the heroes of our community who quietly worked hard, this identity arouses the resonance in the minds of vast consumers.

But in the Western capital society, individualism?equality and the dominant natural were the orientation ,they stress personality differences. This can be seen from many American ads products, there are many differences trying to explain from, even in the absence of any differences as well. In the United States ads, there is a popular phrase, it would be: to create different. For example: One airline painted the vivid colors on the airframe in order to catch people™s eye. In fact, the plane and service of other airplane company are not much different.

3.3 Different cultural psychology

In accordance with Chinese laws the content in ads about ethnic racial difference and gender discrimination is illegal, ads language must be truthful and standardized. It should conform to the construction of socialist spiritual civilization. The following example shows the difference. One American company plants to recruit a female secretary, who looks like puberty girl, thinks like an adult male, walks like adult woman, works like a donkey! In American culture, this parlance has humorous effect. But it makes Chinese viewers angry: because it has the discrimination meaning toward to the female and the donkey means stupid in Chinese culture.

Below there are two ads of advocating non-smoking: The first one was a foreign plane that will make public service announcements, its center is a picture of a rifle, a bullet and a cigarette. The title is: rapid death, slow suicide. This ad directly put the death linked to smoking the language is explicit and straightforward, and has a strong visual impact. It works with undisguised and straightforward method of smoking hazards, to alert people not to smoke. However the other one is a domestic television commercial. It shows us that there is a glass of water on the table, and then a drop of ink is dropping in it, after that clean water turning into muddy, and the last is bigger ,with three drops… until the whole clean water mixed to dirty completely. Accompanied outer sound: If smokes, the lung of us will be like this cup of water… ( Shen,1999:36) This ads like the first one, want to remind people of the hazards on body health, but it keeps away from the death and through the subtle language like the clean water become muddy, hints the relations between smoking and death. The ads above show the different cultural atmosphere of different nation and countries. From this, we can see that the foreign ads try to forbid smoking strongly and straightforwardly, but local ads is meant to remind the rise of smoking people quit smoking subtly and unobjectionable. The western ads make people think seriously after shocked, the domestic ads is allowed people know the hazards while tasting. This is not just the feeling difference of performance, but more important is that it is through language and images to reflect the cultural differences.

3.4 Different cultural atmosphere

Honor and certificates are often used as a tool to attract Chinese customers, because Chinese people always believe in authority. In fact, the honorary certificates don™t relate to the products self characteristic. For example: Shanghai shoes factory recommends selection for the national well-known trademarks, famous trademarks in Shanghai, Ministry of light industry. Shanghai high-quality products. (Shanghai shoes factory), which is basically used for listing a large number of certificates and accolades in large space, this is persuasive to Chinese readers. These certificates and identification evidence means the reputation of high quality and reliable assurance. Several thousand years of feudal system produced the firm official position worship; the idea has been affecting the country. The government awarded a certificate of honor and technology to company, than the certificates have priceless efficiency.

In sharp contrast with China™s ads, English ads is not seen such expression in the ads. Even some international brands and ads will not honor any identification certificates to prove. In the British-based culture, people pursue the self-worth, not deliberately seeking to cross over location. Through individual efforts to shoot for success in career means the dramatic increase of social status and material wealth. The practical spirit has been fully reflected in ads. This can be seen in the following example: Selected by James Bond the sign of Excellence (OMEGA) Switzerland famous swatch, superb work and expensive, is the best option of successful people. Ads have chosen James Bond, the successful spy, to represent the swatch, he has a tremendous attraction for ads, has galactic impel power.

3.6 Different gender image

3.7 Different customs

The national holiday is an important component of national customs and traditions. Each nation has its own traditional method of celebrating festival. For example: China has many important traditional festivals, Spring Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and Dragon Boat Festival and so on. Different festival has different customs. Chinese festival is like the family reunion in Spring Festival, children wearing new clothes, fire the firecrackers, gift the red envelopes to each other, and say a few lucky phrases to get the fortune. In Dragon Boat Festival, everybody eats Chibaozi and dumplings, Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the festivals that Han ethnic miss his distant relatives; they will eat moon cakes and salty egg, etc. The background music to these ads gives a sense that arouses people™s cultural identity and makes people feel friendliness.

3.8 Different aesthetics

Beautiful music, the moving pictures, wonderful words and beautiful image, all above will give pleasure and deep impression to people. Many ads executives understand this very point; they do everything possible to the consumer to create visual and auditory sense of beauty, to enhance the consumer™s impression. People in different countries, nationalities, estate and era have different taste standard, this can be reflected in the architecture and style of clothes. In China™s feudal society, women with small feet is seems to be beautiful. But the taste standard of modern people is well proportioned. To the different taste standard, the association arousing in people™s brain is different. For example, the cock and white elephant are considered as the gook luck and lovely symbol in China. However, in Western eyes, white elephant is considered the harm than benefit, useless and cumbersome things, and cock is the slang meaning of discharge of abusive words. Another example is the lotus which is the symbol of clearness thing in China, but in Japan is not auspicious (Ding, 1998:15).

?. Significance

Advertising Language contains a wealth of cultural connotations. Language itself is a carrier of culture; it divorced from the national culture factors, and divorce from the language exercise of national culture factors. Advertising language has profound society property and national culture connotation. We can dredge up special cultural connotation from different national culture™s advertising language. The Chinese and Western advertising language features have something in common and also have differences, it should learn from each other and complement each other. English advertisement has some practices; it is worth studying by Chinese advertising workers. Chinese advertising workers must work hard, innovate and make foreign things serve for China. Then, Chinese advertisement could make progress and exceed the level of the world™s advertising art. Therefore, in order to increase the attractiveness of advertising and promotion the cultural development. First of all, the western culture essence should be absorbed. Second, traditional culture and modern pop culture should be morally and civilly missed together. Third, it should make the traditional culture adapted to the development of the modern advertising, so to promote international communication. Thus it will make Chinese culture internationalize.

?. Conclusion

Nowadays, advertisement not only represents the pure commerce, but also it is one new pattern language species which already is accepted by the public. Culture has a significant impact on the production of advertising execution. All successful advertisements were created according local national culture and advertising culture. Chinese and Western cultures have significant diversity, if the advertising producer didn™t pay attention to distinguishing different culture features while producing the advertisement, he will be hampered. Therefore, the thesis aims to combine Chinese culture and Western culture. In fact, only in this way, can people from different cultures communicate well so as to make China prosperous. -H



Categories: General

The Irish Political Culture

April 10, 2017 • admin

Irish Political Culture
???The term political culture refers to fundamental deeply held views on the state itself, on the rules of the political game and on the kinds of principles that should underline political decision-making. (Coakley, 1999:32)??? When the first attempts to examine aspects of Irish political culture got under way in the early 1970??™s, it was still possible to describe Ireland as ???an agricultural country of small, scattered family farms???; the Irish people as being strongly attached to the Catholic Church and as adhering to a religion of ???an austere and puritanical variety that is somewhat cold and authoritarian??™; an Irish society as being insulated from Europe by an all pervasive British influence??? (Chubb, 1970: 51, 53, 46-7)
It??™s clear that the dominant characteristics of Ireland??™s political culture were nationalism, clericalism, authoritarianism, conservatism and neutrality. Here, I shall examine what impact these have had on Irish political culture.

By the end of the nineteenth century a specific political culture had been formulated, one that distinguished nationalist Ireland from the rest of the state. It??™s clear that as Irish people mobilised politically in the nineteenth century the idea of an ???Irish nation??? based in those who were of Catholic Gaelic background became a central political model. The emergence of the Irish Free State was not the end of the affair. Some national issues were still unsettled. Politicians made sure that constitutional issues and the problem of ???the border??? were always kept active in the public mind. The main aim of Irish nationalists after 1922 was achieving territorial unification through the annexation of Northern Ireland. By the late 1960??™s, however, many people and most politicians were at last coming to realise the Northern Ireland problem for what it was ??“ a resistance between two deeply alienated communities in the North itself, not soluble by British withdrawal. This shift in opinion received perhaps its most empathetic support in the approval by the people of both parts of the island of the terms of the Good Friday Agreement in simultaneous referenda that were held in May 1998. Coakley has remarked in this regard that:
???The decision by Sinn Fein to abide by the terms of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, to accept the right of Northern Ireland to determine its own future and to grant full recognition to the institutions of government of Northern Ireland, and the party??™s success in bringing the great bulk of its electorate with it in this remarkable shift, marginalized fundamentalist nationalism. (Coakley, 1999: 49)
Perhaps inevitably, one legacy of partition has been increased differences between communities on either side of the border. Especially over the past two decades, the psychological gap between the South and Northern Ireland appears to have widened. ???Survey evidence from 1988-89 confirms the North-South gap. Irish people, it appears, felt considerably closer to British people than to the Northern Irish of both communities in terms of willingness to contemplate marriage relationships, close friendships or neighbourliness. Indeed large numbers felt that Northern Ireland and the Republic were two separate nations and that ???Northerners on all sides tend to be extreme and unreasonable??? (Mac Greil, 1996:225, 234)
It??™s perhaps the progression of European integration that will pose the greatest test in the longer term to Irish nationalism. ???Surveys since 1973 have shown consistently high levels of support in Ireland for EC/EU membership and for the process of European integration, which suggests a reduction of the proclamation of sovereignty in the constitution, and the referendum results in 1972, 1987, 1992 and 1998 confirmed this. ??? (Coakley, 1999:51)

The role of the Roman Catholic Church has had a pivotal impact in Irish political culture. For many decades into the life of the new state, public policy was strongly steered by Roman Catholic principles. The Labour party dropped the expression ???Worker??™s Republic??? from its constitution in 1940 and the government refused to support Noel Browne, Minister for Health, in his controversial Mother and Child scheme in 1951. This was in response to pressure from the catholic bishops. Towards the end of the twentieth century, however, the dominance of Irish clericalism appeared to be seriously under threat. As Inglis states ???Catholics are increasingly guided by conscience rather than by church teaching; and this has been accompanied by a secularisation of Irish social life (Inglis, 1998: 204) While the 1983 and 1986 referendums on abortion and divorce correspondingly resulted in conservative decisions, the fact that these matters were displayed to the constitutional poll and the size of the minority vote were themselves evidence of change, and pointers to the ultimate narrow majority in favour of divorce at the 1995 referendum. The liberalisation in 1993 of the laws relating to the sale of contraceptives and to homosexual practices would have been unimaginable in 1973, or perhaps, even in 1983. It is also evident that the Church??™s stronghold on Irish political culture has decreased dramatically with the recent scandals relating to sexual abuse of children by clergy. Despite the increasing availability of contraceptives the number of abortions have been increasing steadily. The numbers of broken marriages are also rising, and the development of separated people getting married without the church??™s consent has also increased. ??? The impressionistic evidence would suggest that popular support for the view that church leaders should be listened to with particular attention has been seriously eroded.??? (Coakley, 1999: 62) As religion is becoming less important in Irish society, it is becoming clear that the decline in the role of the church will only further accelerate.

The policy of neutrality has been an imperative element in Irish foreign affairs. Although the new state was concerned after 1922 to increase international recognition by extending its external involvement in such bodies as the League of Nations and later the U.N, it always refused any participation in an external military alliance. The reasoning for this relates to specific hostility to membership of NATO or any other military alliance of which Britain was a member due to the latter??™s continued presence in the six partitioned counties of Ulster. As Coakley maintains, ???In time the policy of military neutrality became valued in its own right, and it appears to have been transformed into a canon of Irish public opinion.??? Survey evidence has consistently shown that Irish respondents want control over security and military matter to be kept at a national level. A clear majority of Irish respondents in a 1993 survey (71%) wanted decision-making in the sensitive areas of security and defence to remain at national level, while this position was supported by only 42% of Europeans (Euro barometer no, 39, 1993, pp. A26-7). By 1998, 67% of Irish, but only 44% of Europeans overall wanted this form of decision making to remain under national control (Euro barometer no. 49, 1998, pp. B24-5) The conflict with Iraq also tested Irish neutrality as American planes were allowed to land at Shannon airport. However, it was clear that we really didn??™t have a policy at all ??“ other than to keep a low profile and have as little involvement as possible. This seemed to satisfy the great bulk of Irish opinion ??“ which in itself proved something about our political culture.
Overall, membership of the European Community (Now the EU) has had a huge impact on Irish political culture and on how the Irish people see themselves in the international context. Ireland??™s entry into Europe was endorsed by a massive 83% of the people in the 1972 referendum that can be attributed partially to a desire to receive the economic benefits arising from membership but also to a willingness to have Ireland play a greater role in international affairs without the constraints of the dominant British connection. This trend continued for nearly 30 years until the ???shock??? of the first referendum on the Nice Treat in April 2001. Despite receiving the support of all the main political parties in the Dail, the referendum failed to win an electoral majority ??“ on an admittedly low turnout of only 34% of the electorate. It??™s widely accepted that the referendum was lost due to popular fears that increased European integration would endanger Irish neutrality and draw us into a military alliance or foreign military commitments against our will. The second Nice referendum some eighteen months later was only won by the Government after it had committed itself to retaining Ireland??™s military neutrality and that this policy couldn??™t be changed unless decided otherwise by the people in a referendum. The experience of the two Nice referenda helped to demonstrate in a politically forceful manner the strong underlying political culture among the Irish people to retain our military neutrality ??“ despite the fact that both Europe and the world have changed dramatically since that policy was developed by Eamonn De Valera in the particular context of the Second World War.

The history of Irish politics and social movements over the 20th Century would seem to show that ??“ despite disastrous events both at home and abroad ??“ Irish political culture has remained remarkably stable during what has proved to be a turbulent period for social economic and political affairs at both the national and international levels. On socio ??“economic issues, conservatism seems to be principal. Our approach to foreign policy is changing all the time in an effort to come to terms with what is isolationism and cosmopolitism. Most evidently, however, on social and moral matters, tension between clericalism and secularism has materialized as a distinctive phenomenon of Irish life. While the legacy of history with British dominance may have been a particular influence in the past, it??™s probably the pattern of underlying religious values in a slowly secularising society that will be responsible for the most distinctive elements in Irish political culture in the future.???(Coakley, 1999:67).

Categories: General

Political Ideaolgies

April 10, 2017 • admin

Explain the development and fundamental principles of the major ideologies, and compare and contrast the schools of thought within one of them.

The major ideologies have different views on society and government and how they should work. Today we will be looking at these major ideologies and looking at the similarities and differences between them.

Liberalism, also known as Classical Liberalism. Began in the 1600??™s, a lot different to American Liberalism, it was developed when philosopher John Locke rethought the relationship between the individual and society, as well as forming a framework for the rights and responsibilities of the individual. These ideas formed the foundation for many political systems which are still operating today.

The liberalist believes in individualism. Individual takes priority over society, focus on the needs of the individual rather than those of any group or ???collective??™. having there own interests or possessing personal and unique identities (p18 A, Heywood). Liberalist also believe in freedom, an individual has the right to make their own choices, but this freedom is not absolute. Some behaviours such as murder is prohibited. A particular important freedom to come out of liberalism is religion, this is because many governments at the time were closely tied to a particular religious creed. Equality is the liberalists belief that no individual is morally of politically superior to another, should be entitled to the same rights and respect. Liberals believe in universalism, that individuals everywhere possess common or universal features, they are all of equal moral worth. Liberalists reject hierarchies (p21 A, Heywood). Rationalism is a belief in an individual being capable of thinking logically and rationally, it is seen logic and reason help us to solve problems. Liberalist see progression, that tradition should only be kept if it holds value. New ideas are seen as helpful as they lead to progress in the sciences, economy and in society. The free market is were liberalism and capitalism go hand in hand, liberals are seen to like free market as it easily creates wealth, as opposed to the traditional economies which often have extensive regulation and limits in which occupations people can hold. Finally tolerance is something that liberals do not believe will happen in society naturally out of free actions of the individuals. Liberals fear that free individuals may wish to exploit others I.e. steal their property or even turn them into slaves if it is seen in their interest to do so (p26 A, Heywood).

These basic beliefs on liberalism have lead liberals to argue in favour of a limited government which gains its power from the people. This means favouring a democratic government.

Conservatism, also known as Classical Conservatism. Began as a reaction against liberal ideas taking hold of Europe during the French Revolution in the late 1800??™s. This type of conservatism is different from American Conservatism. Edmund Burke, British Member of Parliament, witnessed the early stages of the French Revolution and predicted violence and terror would soon follow. His book reflections on the French revolution in France (1790), is one of the founding texts of Classical Conservatism. Edmund Burke and other conservative members attacked liberalism for many reasons in which they argued liberalism destroyed tradition. Whilst conservatism was in haste to over turn the old and bring in the new. The liberalist and capitalists mercilessly attacked traditional institutions of belief.
In some places Classical Conservatism is seen to have faded. People who label themselves as conservatives are more likely to be similar to American Conservatives than Classical ones. But saying that there are still some Classical Conservatives, many are in Europe and have ties to old noble families and some advocate monarchism. Classical Conservatism can also be found in other parts of the world.

Conservatism believes in stability , it is seen as a precious thing. Change should be made gradually in order to preserve it. Undermining stability can be very dangerous, this is because societies can easily fall into trouble causing chaos and violence. The Classical liberals often called for revolution, which gave opportunity for great turbulence, according to the Classical Conservatives.

Conservatives believe in Organic society, they see society and human beings as interlinked. Human beings cannot survive without society, human beings are nurtured by social groups. There are very few people who exist independently. These groups are seen to give us meaning, makes us feel secure. People do not like to be alone, they like to be part of something to recognise their value, doing ones duty. Concreteness in seen to focus on freedom and equality, not on the way people live everyday. Human fallibility, conservatives see human beings being ignorant, prejudice and irrational. Liberalists are seen as unrealistic by ignoring this. Conservatives also believes Authority develops naturally just like society. Parents have authority over children in every aspect of their childhood, without contract or any sort of agreement being undertaken (p64 A, Heywood). Conservatives also believe property is seen as a value possessing a somewhat almost mystical significance for conservatives. They believe that property has a range of psychological and social advantages I.e. provide security.

Socialism is seen as a vision of human beings as social creatures united by their common humanity; poet John Donne put it, ???no man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main??™. This highlights a degree in which individual identity is fashioned by social interaction and the memberships of social groups and collective bodies (political Ideologies, website). Therefore the socialists priorities cooperation over competition and favour collectivism of individualism. Socialism was developed as a response to the Industrial Revolution. The industrial revolution started in England during the last years of the 1800??™s and spread to Europe and America by the end of the 1900??™s causing major upheavals in a short space of time. Many people were forced to abandon their agricultural ways of life for the modern merchandized world of factories.

Early forms of socialism were put forward in Europe during the first part of the 1900??™s these were dubbed ???Utopian socialism???, but influential socialist theories did not emerge until industrialization expanded in the mid 1900??™s. socialism is seen as a vision of human beings being social . Karl Marx is the best known theorist of socialism. Along with Friedrich Engels. Marx wrote the communist manifesto (1848) as a push for revolution. Many others socialist thinkers include Karl Kautsky, Vladimir Lenin and Antonio Gramsci.

Socialists believe in collectivism. Human beings being social creatures by nature and society should respect that. Individualism is seen to be poisonous. They also believe that society and not the individual should own property. The socialists believes in the existence of common humanity, but stresses the importance of social class and have traditionally linked these views to the interest of the working classes(p99 A, Heywood). The socialist also believes that significant forms of human inequalities are a result of unequal treatment by society, rather than an unequal endowment by nature I.e. despite natural differences in academic ability, education performance is more a reflection of social factors, such as accessing full-time schooling, quality of teaching, encouragement and support from
family and the availability of resources like libraries, books and the space and time in which they can study. So liberalisms commitments to equality is what in many respects define the features of the socialist ideologies and political values which distinguishes socialism form its rivals which are liberalism and conservatism (p102 A, Heywood).

Socialism has evolved in a variety of ways . Communism and democratic socialism are the most prominent developments of socialism.
With the fall of communist regimes in Russia and in Eastern Europe, communism has been in retreat for most of the 1900??™s and also the 2000??™s. take for example fewer communist movements were around the world during the Cold War, but there are still many major communist regimes which include the governments of North Korea and Cuba.

Communist socialism sees a classless society in which all members jointly share the means and output of production. It has an Authoritarian and revolutionary approach to achieving socialism.

Democratic socialism is seen as a peaceful and democratic approach to achieving socialism, it also emphasises a classless society in which all members jointly share means and output of production. But unlike communist socialism, democratic socialism attempts to achieve its goals peacefully through the democratic process. They reject the need for immediate transition to socialism in favour of the gradual approach, which is achieved by working in a democratic government.

Economic inequalities should be solved through welfare state, a system which provides aid to the poor and helps the unemployed. Democratic socialism has been quite successful in western Europe and Scandinavia . Germany??™s social democratic party and Britain??™s Labour party are all contemporary examples of successful political parties which have been heavily influenced by democratic socialism.

In the major ideologies there are many similarities and differences between them. Looking and Liberalism and conservatism they basically have opposite views on political and social ideals. For example conservatism values tradition and believes it should be preserved, whilst the liberalist believe that tradition should only be preserved if it is seen to be valuable, serving a purpose. We should not be afraid to over-turn tradition.

Conservatives believe too much freedom is bad, it lets people ignore social responsibilities and over-looks social customs. Were as the liberalist sees freedom as essential for human flourishing , people can be free to do as they please as long as they do not hurt others.

Conservatives see reason as fallible and prone to error i.e. human beings cannot find the best way to govern through thinking. Instead, we must use our judgements and decisions on our own experiences. Were the liberalist relies on reason as its seen as a great success of the scientific revolution, this can be repeated in human affairs if we use reason.

Conservatives see free-market as dangerous, this is because it breaks down traditional economic roles. It corrodes customary mores and reduces all relationships to cash transactions. On the other hand liberalists see free-market as valuable because it unleashes huge economic growth and efficiency which enriches society.

The socialists are seen to be quite opposite to conservatives also. Socialists like progress yet conservatives do not, conservatives are not against change as such, society and tradition are slowly changing but they are against ill advised change that proposes to destroy what is working reasonably well. The socialist hates inequalities of income, property and social classes, this is why socialists see private property as the fundamental evil which divides all men. So an individual should not own property. Whilst the conservative sees property as having value, having psychological and social advantages. They believe in equality and social freedom.

These political ideologies are, for the most part, unable to both be true at the same time. So a liberal government does not usually practice socialism, nor does an absolute ruler follow liberalism. All the major ideologies have one thing in common though, and that is they have played a key role in history by reshaping governments and political movements.

Natasha Spencer Politics

Categories: General

Harry potters impact on children

April 10, 2017 • admin

Harry potters impact on children


According to the list of richest and famous women in the world entertainment circle released by Forbes on Jan.28, J. K. Rowling took the second place with her property of 10 billion. At first, she was a poor teacher and single mother who lived off social relief fund. But depending on a series of Harry Potter, she immediately became the richest woman in Britain. Thus,it can be seen how successful Harry Potter is. Most of the loyal readers are children.

Being 24 years old, she was in a train trip from Manchester to London, a tin and weak witch with a pair of glasses and black hair burst into her eyes. He always smiled to her from the outside window. Then, this boy immediately burst into her life and became a part of her. Although at that time there was no pen and paper, she still imagined like a heavenly steed soaring across the skies. Finally she showed this story about Harry Potter to the world. Harry Potter was born” a 10 year-old boy, with thin and small figure, a black and disheveled hair, bright green eyes, and a pair of round glasses. And there is a long and thin, lightning-liked scar on his forehead. Harry Potter is popular all over the world as a story of children.

From what is said above we can see that the whole world is crazy for the work of Harry Potter. In information times, the birth of a good novel is just the first step. It still needs a good operation. When Harry Potter sold well in Britain, the publishing businessmen made use of Internet, news and other ways to publicize this book all over the world. Harry Potter? published in China was also translated at the same rate on the Internet. After this series being produced into film, they push Harry Potter? into the market depending on the hot atmosphere. Just in China, the market of children™s book was made up of 300,000,000 children. The capacity was so big that it can not be compared in any other country. It was a new astonished record that it was translated into 46 languages and was sold wholesale up to about 30,550,000 books in the world. After the film of Harry Potter was produced, the record of box office was always broken at many places.

With so many miracles, lots of questions appeared. What are the shining points of Harry Potter™s? Why can it attract so many children even adults? What influences do the children have after they read this book?

I. Harry Potter™s Attractive Points

Harry Potter™s author, Rowling have ardent love for English literature. And she majors in French in college. For her, being good at literature and language is especially important for her novels, and so is her understanding of cultural background. After her graduation, she becomes a teacher. This job helps her to be close to her students, children. Through this, she could deeply understand what children™s love is, what children™s psychology is, what their act is and what their inner problem is. All these help her create Harry Potter, a thrilling story.

A. The Reflection of the Real World from the Magic World.

In story, there is a magic school– Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. In this school, all the students and witches should obey its role. They will be punished if they go against the rules and they will be expelled from school if they do something terrible. It has the same rules and regulations like the reality school does. It is divided into four parts of school. Students must belong to one of them. If they do something wrong or against regulations, the part they belonged to will be deducted marks. In contrast, if students perform well on class and win honor, it will add some marks. At the end of the term, school will choose the best part and praise it according to the marks. One more point is that there is an extremely interesting and exciting sport in the school” Quiddich, which is like the hockey ball except it is matched in the sky. The witches fly on the magic broom, catching the Golden Snitch, beating the Bludger with all kinds of the sharp sounds. In film, audiences out of the fictional world are excited as well as the players and other students in the film. An interesting detail is that the Nimbus Two Thousand broom is the latest and rapidest broom in the magic world when Harry was in grade one. Then, the broom is upgraded and Nimbus Two Thousand and Three took the place of Nimbus Two Thousand to become the most advanced. In the fictional world, all things are developing like in the real world, just as office 2000™s being upgraded to office 2003.

In school, witches also should take part in examinations. If they can not pass, they also have a chance to have make-up exams or they will fail to go up to the next grade. For exams, children have the deepest feeling. Through this novel and films, they can appreciate this as a personal favor. There are still many other students just like me! Maybe they will think. In novel, there are many kinds of students, just as intelligent Hermione Jane Granger, idiotic Neville Longbottom, kind Ron Weasley, arrogant Draco Malfoy, timid Ginny Weasley and so on. May be you will find that one of them is similar to you. These students are just common children if we do not see their identity.

No matter where and when, discrimination always exists. Due to the existing of right, history, culture and many other factors, lots of inequalities come out. Discrimination of race, discrimination of extraction, discrimination of poverty, and so on, all those show the shadow side of human nature. In reality, although these phenomena gradually weaken, lots of inequalities can be seen all over the world. Just from the field of education, large numbers of examples can be taken.

Firstly, it is because of inequality that children could have education according to money. Children from rich family can go to noble schools, and enjoy excellent sources of hardware and software. Children from poor family can only go to ramshackle school, and even some of them can not take the chances to accept the education.

Secondly, sex discrimination. In many places, especially in rural areas of China, boys can go to school, but girls are not allowed to study with boys. Parents require their daughters to do farm work and housework. This phenomenon should be changed and now it is changing slightly too.

Thirdly, in different areas, the right of having education is unequal. Like China, some areas where there are full of educational resources and the degree of having education per person is high originally, which takes up more resources.

Fourthly, the right of having education in different races is unequal. Maybe this refers to some problems left by history.

There are still many other problems, such as the difference of teachers™ attitude between good students and bad students, parents™ attitude, and society™s attitude. All these problems can be found in Harry Potter. Lots of details reflect these phenomena.In the fictional world, people are divided into three parts. One is called Muggle, the common people who do not know witchcraft and do not believe it. One impolite name of it is Mudbloods. Second is a mixed-blood witch, which means one parent of it is Muggle. The third one is purebred witch from which noble families come. In this story, members from noble families are arrogant and impolite. But in fact, they are outwardly strong but inwardly brittle.

They have enjoyed more privileges, but are still not content with it. They want to capture more rights, not minding sacrificing other people™s rights. In the aspect of wealth and poverty of nations, a Harvard University professor David S. Landes said, Social problems looks like very complicated, but it has an easy way to say, that is to ask who the beneficiary is. In order to gain the most benefit, they use dirty tricks to deceive others. Draco Malfoy is one of these guys who believe in blood relationship and right. One person without status and parentage is inferior to others. In the story, he hates and looks down upon Hermione Jane Granger though she is one of the wisest, the most intelligent and the finest student in school. Even he used extremely filthy words Mudbloods to abuse her. To noble men, the modest, gentle and refined character and morals are lost from him. But if he meets some famous persons he will try his best to form alliance with them and does not mind their blood. Harry is a purebred witch, but he was famous because he beat the worst man Voldemort when he was young. Of course Draco would like to get touch with Harry to raise his reputation. So for the first time he met Harry, he said to Harry: Youll soon find out some wizarding families are much better than others, Potter. You dont want to go making friends with the wrong sort. I can help you there (J.K.Rowling, 1997). After Harry refused him, his innate nature gradually appeared. Draco Malfoy didnt go red, but a pink tinge appeared in his pale cheeks. “Id be careful if I were you, Potter,” he said slowly. “Unless youre a bit politer youll go the same way as your parents. They didnt know what was good for them, either. You hang around with riffraff like the Weasleys and that Hagrid, and itll rub off on you (J.K.Rowling, 1997). He hated Harry and regarded Harry as his sworn enemy through his life. He use puerile but vicious means to hurt Harry and his friends and boomeranged on him in the end.

B. The Interesting Elements, Grotesque and Gaudy Adventure.

The story is so breath-taking and full of suspenseful and tightly-knit plot. The content of the novel is so absurd and incredible, but the process of the story is surely wonderful, bold and unconstrained. In the space of imagination, it makes readers feel fully enlightened. Critic said that Harry Potter wins over the traditional best thriller and never let the scenes become dull. All of the scenes are full of tension, and then terror follows by the delight. You barely escape from one dangerous trap just now but a new and more terrible dangerous situation presses on towards you dimly. Harry Potter is close to children™s psychology and uses children™s words to narrate this story. Compared with it, the authors of Chinese children™s novels have not done this important point. Lacking of children™s words and view, they use the style of preaching to tell the stories. And the leading roles are always animals, such as pig, cat and so on. No changing and no blazing new trails. Chinese children™s literature can not compete with the quick rhythm and unprecedented imaginative power. The culture of China needs to develop with time. In fact, children are same as their parents. They not only need the encouragement coming from life but also need the moves from life itself. Maybe this is connected with mental attitude all over the society. Children are required to have the standard of adult. Once taking up the schoolbag, they are involved in and forced to pursue the fame and wealth through their lives. That™s style of narrating like a fresh wind which blows into the chaos. That™s why both adult and children are indulged in it.

C. The Mixture of Culture, Legend and Fairy Tales of the Ancient Europe, the Middle-age™s Europe and Today™s Europe.

Besides the wonderful story, the background is very important, too. In the modern times, there are cities over here and there. High-skyscrapers and high-rises can be seen everywhere. But in the fictional world, it seems that a few of fashioned elements mixes into the classic background. This is a big shining point.

The narrow path had opened suddenly onto the edge of a great black lake. Perched atop a high mountain on the other side, its windows sparkling in the starry sky, was a vast castle with many turrets and towers (J.K.Rowling, 1997). This is the first description to the school. Romantic and dreamlike chapter is beginning from this beautiful classical architecture which was fashionable for the middle-age™s Europe. Inside the castle, the stone walls were lit with flaming torches (J.K.Rowling, 1997). Harry had never even imagined such a strange and splendid place. It was lit by thousands and thousands of candles that were floating in midair over four long tables, where the rest of the students were sitting (J.K.Rowling, 1997). Harry looked upward and saw a velvety black ceiling dotted with stars. He heard Hermione whisper, “It™s bewitched to look like the sky outside. I read about it in Hogwarts, A History” (J.K.Rowling, 1997). From these descriptions we know that there are few modern products in the school. Lights, TVs, computers and any other equipment for teaching all do not exist. All things are charged by magic. The little witches are still using feather pen in stead of ball pen or pen. It feels that all witches™ culture and tradition are handed down. Readers are in the position of a gloom and full of alarmed and frightened atmosphere magic school in middle-ages Europe. They are looking forward to happening something interesting and unbelievable with Harry and his friends.

The writer creates a three-dimensional magic world. She mixed many different kinds of cultures, legends and fairy tales of different times. In the story of Harry Potter and the Philosopher™s Stone, alchemy becomes the main clue of the conspiracy. The ancient study of alchemy is concerned with making the Sorcerers Stone, a legendary substance with astonishing powers. The stone will transform any metal into pure gold. It also produces the Elixir of Life, which will make the drinker immortal. There have been many reports of the Sorcerers Stone over the centuries, but the only Stone currently in existence belongs to Mr. Nicolas Flamel, the noted alchemist and opera lover. Mr. Flamel, who celebrated his six hundred and sixty-fifth birthday last year, enjoys a quiet life in Devon with his wife, Perenelle (six hundred and fifty-eight) (J.K.Rowling, 1997).

Alchemy is an ideology and practice of chemical philosophy and the embryonic form of present age. Its aim is to change the basic mental into golden, produce elixir of life and universal medicine. Nowadays, science improves that it is impossible. But until 19th century has alchemy not been denied. Some famous scientists including Newton have done some tests about alchemy. The appearance of modern times™ chemistry makes people doubt the possibility of alchemy. After 17th century, alchemy was criticized. The hope of alchemy was dashed.

Alchemy is the biggest temptation of all for the people who pursuing external life. Since people appeared, they have dreamed to gain external life and have done many kinds of attempts. In these attempts, alchemists™ illusion and technology are used more widely than others. Alchemists believe that rectifying and refining the basic mental is a process from death back to life then even to perfection. It symbols those alchemists™ souls from death back to life then even to perfect. So, the medicine they refined can prolong life, refresh man and invigorate the function of brain, can let them get happy life, excellent wisdom, lofty moral, and can change their mental outlook; finally they can communicate with God. But this aim can not be attained. Alchemists also know this; therefore they explain it from every side. They make it subtle intentionally whether the universal medicine exists or not.

More than 600 years ago, a pitiful copyist died quietly in Paris. He was the most famous mysterious man in the European history. He left enormous property of unknown origin, and strange dying words written by code. A mysterious relief was carved by his workers before he died on the wall of morgue of Pairs God of son cemetery. The first sentence on the relief is: I saw an astonished miracle¦ And even it was doubted that his death was also a false phenomenon arranged by him. Among 600 years, the mystery of Nicolas attracted the most excellent and wisest persons in history to do research about it. There were many names that we were familiar with, such as Newton, Hugo, Yeats, Jung and so on, of course, including J.K.Rowling.

It was said that Nicolas Flamel found a piece of code on a book which he bought from a stranger occasionally. Among 21 years, he and his wife made a hard research on it. Then they came to other country from across the vast ocean to do the further research. After hundreds of thousands failures, he finally made the Philosopher™s Stone successfully which can change the basic mental into the purest golden in the world.

In Harry Potter, philosopher™s stone is the beginning of his legendary life. The medieval legend of alchemy, Nicolas Flamel, and philosopher™s stone, all which attracted children to step into Harry™s story deeply. The rich cultural background, mysterious legend, and the distinctive idea for the legend made the story truer and more mysterious. And there are many other legends, such as the ghosts who have an exciting life and then became a legend, wandering around the school and always talk with students. And lovely owls send letters from home to its master. The naughty owl, the wise owl, and the dazed owl, all of them are loved by crazy children.

?.The Influences on Children of Harry Potter,

His Friends™ Character and Morals

Children are the largest group among the readers. So they will be affected by the type of roles™ noble character and morals easily. There are so many vivid characters described in the work. They behaved just as our neighbors did. Children extremely like the young witches on behalf of Harry.

A. The Occurrence of the Hero–Harry Arousing all People™s Passion

It is always said that hero is born in the turbulent times. Nowadays, peace and development are the main trends for the world. It seems that nobody care the existing of the heroes. In China, children have forgotten the real heroes such as Dong Cunrun, Lei Feng and so on. Instead, they love the popular stars very much. For loving these stars, they even do something crazy. Many children died for them. That is a pitifulthing. For every adult, there is a hero in his inner heart, or there has been. And children are worse than adults. But it is gradually abandoned by him. The period, which never believes hero, is also a time lacking passion. And most people are indifferent. Nowadays, where is the hero in people™s hearts? But people always need hero. They are looking for the hero in their hearts.

In children™s hearts, Harry is such a hero they are looking for. His occurrence waters children™s dry hearts.

Harry became an orphan since he was one year old. He lived in his auntie™s home. But he never got any love from his relatives. He spent eleven years in suffering from being ill-treated mentally and physically. He struggled like grass and never gave up hope.

Theyre saying he tried to kill the Potters son, Harry. But — he couldnt. He couldnt kill that little boy. No one knows why, or how, but theyre saying that when he couldnt kill Harry Potter, Voldemorts power somehow broke — and thats why hes gone (J.K.Rowling, 1997). Since then, Harry™s name of hero was established.

Harry is a smart, brave, ambitious, diligent, kind man, and he is full of responsibility. He can struggle with the dark power bravely. And also, he has many shortages. He lost his confidence and lacked a sense of security because he had been ill-treated for many years. At the beginning, he didn™t know any sorcery except that he used it occasionally. He was afraid of being ordered to leave school if others found that he hadn™t any talent about learning witchcraft. So he was eager to prove himself. The sorting hat described Harry like that: plenty of courage, I see. Not a bad mind either. Theres talent, A my goodness, yes — and a nice thirst to prove yourself, now thats interesting…. (J.K.Rowlin, 1997).

He had few friends before he studied in Hogwarts. He values the friendship very much. He can do everything for his friends. And of course he has quarreled inevitably with his friends when they live together. He loves his parents very much although he does not remember them. When he sees his parents and himself stand in the Mirror of Erised, how delightful and sad he is! It shows us nothing more or less than the deepest, most desperate desire of our hearts. You, who have never known your family, see them standing around you. However, this mirror will give us neither knowledge nor truth. Men have wasted away before it, entranced by what they have seen, or been driven mad, not knowing if what it shows is real or even possible (J.K.Rowling, 1997). He has strong will and dauntless spirit, finally he overcomes the difficulty.

Through the description of so many sides, it stands as a three-dimensional hero figure. He likes the boy living near us. He will laugh when he is happy. He will cry and needs the comfort from his friends when he is sad. He will hesitate and be afraid when he meets difficulties. And he will buoy up his spirits and fight against evil person when he wants to protect his friends and his home “ Hogwarts. The hero in the novel is lifelike. Children feel that is true. Harry is in children™s hearts and arouses children™s passion. Children will find their hearts and will never be empty. They will learn from Harry.

B Time of Decaying of Morals.

Because of education, household, society and many other aspects, children become selfish, and tend to go to extremes, always become suspicious of others and do not trust others.

The moral concept of children and adult has decreased to the lowest point. From life details we can find many examples. In a bus, no one offer his seat to old-aged people and pregnant woman. Even if there is one warm-hearted man who would like to offer his seat, when he stands up, a young man will take his seat quickly. When one is in trouble in the street, no one would like to help him. How indifferent people are! There is such a thing: a lady™s bag is robbed in the downtown, no body would like to help her as if they have not seen this except a man. After he helps the lady take back her bag, a group of rogue which was called on by the thief beat him heavily. No one stops this violence and no one calls police. If things go on like this, who would like to do others a favor? What™s the reason cause this phenomenon?

(1) From education:

First, teacher™s quality is an important factor.

Teacher™s profession is an activity of education. This activity is full of morality from ancient times. Modern times™ reform of education requires the construction of teacher™s moral. But lots of data show us that many children become the sufferers of the teacher without morals. Students respect teachers because democracy and equality are the basic qualities. But due to teacher™s wrong treat, many children lose self-respect, self-confidence and then hate to go to school and communicate with others. Most excellent characters are lost in this process.

Second, the imperfect educational system is another factor.

In china, the educational slogan is developing moral, wisdom, physical body, and kindness. But under the pressure of the proportion of students entering schools of a higher grade, schools and teachers pay more attention to wisdom. Teachers assign much homework, so children have no time to do other things. And this makes the children™s characters develop unbalancedly and incompletely.

If China™s biggest mistake is in education in recent decades, then Chinese education™s biggest mistake is ignoring children™s creativity and the spirit of bringing forth new ideas. Creativity is the product of many factors. It contains the development of character, the ability of thinking about the independent, imagination, pragmatism, democracy, the ability of dealing with problems. All these need to be brought up from children.

(2) From household: parents are the first teacher for children.

Due to irresponsibility, some children are not cared about so much. Children even can not stay with their parents for a long time. And under the pressure of economy, parents have to leave hometown to earn money. Children are left behind at home. They have no friends; instead they stay with TV and Internet. Violence and pornography are spread widely. Children are affected by them. Nowadays, single-parent families increase quickly. The unhealthy household even can not give children safety. And how about educating them? Others care about children™s final result more than children themselves. If children get high marks, they will praise them and give some encouragement and reward. But if they can not get high mark, then parents™ attitude will change largely.

Parents should change the life style of children. Parents should understand that children™s abilities are limited. They should not be angry when they know their children have not got high mark because the mark can not measure the real value and ability of the children. Care about children™s happiness and health more than their marks. And they should make use of more time to communicate with children and discuss problems with them. No matter what happens, they should encourage their children instead of making decisions for children.

(3) From society: Although there are not very serious problems, many deep and sharp problems gradually appear. The number of juvenile delinquency cases increases recently. And crimes also increase whose victims are children. Occasionally, education and protection are not enough for children. Children become silent, suspicious and selfish. Lots of them go to extremes. They hurt others to fulfill their psychological needs. Then crime continues. There are still many other factors leading to decaying morals.

C. The Influences of People™s Mentality and Thought on Children™s Growth

Harry™s situation is the same as children™s. His being more fortunate than children in real life is that he is a famous witch. He has good teachers. Most teachers treat him just as their own children and their friends although they are strict with Harry. They help Harry, give him a warm home. The magic world is full of dangers and unsafe problems, but the concerned departments are trying to change and protect children. Most warm-hearted people do so at the same time.

Here, we are enlightened that the educational system should have a reform. School and society should make a warm, safe, equal and happy environment for children. Parents should never seize children tightly or loosely. Spoiling children are bad. But indulging their children is still bad? Where is the standard? It needs communication between parents and children. We should treat them as adults.

Harry has a group of friends. They treat with each other royally. When one of them makes mistakes, they remind him and help him. When they are in terrible trouble, they all never give up. The holy friendship is just like that. From this story, children learn to value their friends and friends. And they would like to help strangers from trouble.

Sympathy, mercy and compassion are what Harry wants to tell children. Many children think that the most important in life is friendly, sympathetic and appreciating and thankful to life.

In the aspect of social moral, they shoulder their responsibilities. And for the ability of their attitude towards life, they are willing to face reality, never avoid obstacles, and never give up. They are also willing to trust others and to cooperate with others.


As excellent work of the children™s literature, to some degree, Harry Potter can rescue the soul of a generation of children.

Harry and his friends™ characters move a generation of children. Their spirits will always be left in children™s hearts and will help them face difficulties in the future life.

The negative aspects of the education, household relationship, and society distort the character of the children. So we need to reform this system. But in these fields, it won™t change too mush in a short time. It needs all people™s efforts and a long time. So the most important thing is that children should adjust themselves, experience and train themselves in adverse circumstances and constantly strive to become stronger. With self-respect, self-confidence and trusting in each other, children can advance bravely to reach their destination. -H

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