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Month: April 2017

Politically Motivated Artworks

April 15, 2017 • admin

Discuss how artists respond to the socio-political world as evident in the White Rabbit Gallery, Decade of the Rabbit exhibition or/and the permanent collection of the NSW Art Gallery. Discuss 3 works.

Artists create an artwork as a tool to clarify current political and social apprehensions that they are concerned about. The artist presents a particular point of view that represents a political or social issue which addresses public concern and stimulates the viewer??™s sensitivity. This is known as socio-political art and is portrayed through Ye Sen??™s work, Analysis, Sun Lei??™s Clarity, and Li Jianfeng??™s Newton??™s First Law from the White Rabbit Gallery, Decade of the Rabbit exhibition.

Firstly, Ye Sen??™s work, Analysis, takes a whole new approach of creativity in expressing his response towards the socio-political world. He attempts to awaken environmental issues and to improve the conditions. He says ???tradition is our mother??? referring to mother nature. With the help of skilled carvers, Sen made this creation from one single log of hardwood. He chose it because ???it looks almost like hard metal???. The purpose of having it look like hard metal is to make the impression of real chains connecting two pieces of wood logs together when in actual fact it is just an illusion created from only the one logwood. These chains symbolise human control over the environment, each other and consequently the world as a whole. The fact that the work is all made of wood represents his view of the reliance on Mother Nature and the destruction of it by the human race. Sen hoped to generate assumptions and consequentially reflection within the public. Therefore making the viewers consider this point of view that he tries to portray, that being the issue of the rapidly degrading planet and endangered wildlife due to mans man??™s destruction of the environment. The chain is a metaphor for the food chain, reminding the public of their dependency and exploitation of mother nature and the living environment that gets taken for granted and destroyed on a daily basis, like an innocent prisoner, chained together with no hope of freedom, only a desolate life of manipulation and torture.

Modern angst is expressed in the contemporary work of Sun Lei, in his creation of, Clarity. This work inspired by airport security scanners. It presents a suitcase with the contents completely transparent as they might appear on an airport scanner during a security search. However, all the items, that being a shirt, underpants, a laptop, a mobile phone, a bottle of vodka, a condom, cash and, intriguingly, three handguns, which depicts the gun culture, are three-dimensional and all made of clear plastic, as if the scanner has rendered them permanently transparent. The objects are everyday objects, symbolizing the surveillance of individuals on a daily basis, when its not even expected. This work is an expression of the social and human condition, commenting on the communications and surveillance that takes place in contemporary society due to technology that has run amok. The artist says ???for example, the mobile phone makes everyone visible and reachable at all times. With these technologies we start to lose our privacy. Everything about our lives is transparent. We are constantly being watched and judged and we are also destroyed by this clarity. We are constantly scanned and assessed like pieces of luggage.??? This is a comment that civilians in the society we live in are constantly being watched and monitored just like in George Orwell??™s famous novel 1984. This depicts loss of privacy in society resulting in personal turmoil. ???Everything is transparent, including ourselves.??? Lei focuses his artwork on modern life, which both fascinates and worries him. It is an expression of his concern on the impact and invasion of privacy that is brought about due to technological advances which is destroying the barriers of what was once known as confidentiality. ???Our age is filled with overstimulation??? he states, expressing his concern for the sociopolitical world concerning lack of privacy due to surveillance.

Yet another artist depicting his response to the socio-political world through his art is Li Jianfeng in his portrayal of Newton??™s First Law. He descries his work as ???a mess. Just like Chinese society.??? It is a comment on the social and human conditions in contemporary China. In addition, the fact that there is a politician without pants on is unconventional and therefore a comment on repressive regimes that the artist is fighting against, thus democracy and solidarity which can be achieved by improving the conditions under which the population lives, which is seen as extremely poor conditions that is portrayed in the artwork. The use of oil on canvas is used to create imagery that appears bright, colourful, and welcoming, but is actually a paradox to this, symbolising the contrast of appearance to reality in society. The work is distorted and in no particular order, thus it is not meant to make obvious sense to the viewer but rather make the audience think into the meaning behind the artwork and conceptualise what the artist is trying to convey. The craziness of the work is a reflection on the artists perception that this is what China is today, an over populated dominion, which results in personal turmoil as depicted in the artwork with the nude human figures that are extremely confronting, creating shock to the viewer. He says: ???Western society has discipline and order. Chinese society is chaotic and sick. I??™m not like other artists who want to paint nature. I want to criticise this society.??? Therefore, the artwork conveys the social issues, particularly the impact of the western society on the east and vice versa. The work is a criticism on Chinese society, which stimulates the viewer to address the issue of the repressive regime and thus respond to this social condition.
As conveyed by the three different artists from the White Rabbit Gallery, Decade of the Rabbit exhibition, the different artists responses to the socio-political world is presented through the artwork, all depicting different social and political issues that the artist seek to improve the conditions of by addressing public awareness.

Categories: General

The Jungle

April 15, 2017 • admin

Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle is a book of hardship in which Sinclair uses the greed and apathy of large trusts and corporations to further back his support of socialism. He does this by supplying real life examples to discredit capitalism and purvey a sense of helplessness among immigrants including: The constant search and protection of a job for all the characters, the extent which characters will go just to survive, and by the sense of unity found through socialism. America to Jurgis Rudkus, the main protagonist, is seen at first as a beacon of hope where he can go and make his riches. By the end of the novel it is seen as a dark destructive force that consumes all in its path and must be stopped. Throughout the novel Jurgis and many of the members of his make-shift family are plagued by a never ending series of injuries that prevent them from working.
In The Jungle a job means surviving. Without a job there is no chance that they would be alive In the beginning of the novel Jurgis has no trouble finding a job. He is strong and a dedicated worker often saying ???I will work Harder??? (22). At first this hold true, Jurgis borders on arrogance, hating unions, thinking everyone else is lazy and slow. Later on however, years of working have taken their tolls on Jurgis who is left slow and weak. Through unsafe and unsanitary working conditions many people fall sick and are unable to ever take a day off and recover. Later on in the novel Ona Rudkus is raped by her boss on the threat that she will be fired. This desperation that she has fallen on simply to keep an income shows how much those few dollars a day means to their survival as well as the prevalent corruption common in people with positions of power. Sinclair shows the hopeless plight of the laborers to depict the uncaring coldness capitalism brings to those who are the key pushers in it.
Some people chose to go a different route in order to survive. Marija Berczynskas, Onas cousin, decides to try prostitution as a last resort. As a result of this career choice Marija becomes addicted to morphine which adds another variable in her fight to survive. She explains that many of the women who work as prostitutes were kidnapped and had the drugs forced on them in order to keep them from leaving. When none of the adults have jobs they rely on their children to buy food. They are forced to take the basic right of an education away from their children simply to hopefully make enough to buy food. This is the last thing the main characters wish. They possibly know that without an education their children will end up in the same wage slavery theyre in now. At one point in the novel Marija remarks that for all their trials and sufferings they were not living. ???This was in truth not living; it was scarcely even existing, and they felt that it was too little for the price they paid. They were willing to work all the time; and when people did their best, ought they not to be able to keep alive??? (117). This is one of Sinclairs main disputes with capitalism. These hardworking and dedicated people spend their lives toiling away, never enjoying it, so that someone else can get rich. In return they should be able to at least live a healthy life without worrying about basic necessities. The cold face of capitalism portrayed in The Jungle show an emotionless power that cares only for the profits.
When Jurgis stumbles into a socialist political meeting he is at his lowest point. Everyone he once loved is dead, hes starving and out of a job, and hes simply looking for a warm place. This is by far the most propagated section of the novel, downright praising socialism as the workers class. They detail every hardship Jurgis has faced and are seeking a way to make things better for him. The injustice served throughout the novel is a basic ploy advocating the disbandment of the capitalistic way and the adoption of one socialistic. Jurgis is embraced for once, without anyone trying to kick him out. Hes called comrade and treated equally. Sinclairs appeal to the working class is evident and he continues to make these appeals throughout the novel. At one point Jurgiss internal narrative says ???If we are the greatest nation the sun ever shone upon, it would seem to be mainly because we have been able to goad our wage-earners to this pitch of frenzy??? (237). Here the point is being made that capitalism only works because of the wool pulled over the eyes of the working class. Much of the novel is devoted to promoting socialism and this is a key way that Sinclair uses the novel as a support.
The Jungle was, during its time, one of the biggest stories ever written that truly played a key role in helping make America what it is today. Upton Sinclair used this novel as a surrogate in which to plug his own political beliefs by depicting the cruel injustices done to the people who drive this country. He did this by depicting a very real situation in which a job is the difference between life or death, and the struggles individuals would endure and sometimes put themselves in to simply stay alive. He presented a caring political party that followed the teachings of Jesus such as: turn the other cheek, and to love all men. In this it seemingly was a replacement for not just capitalism but religion as well. These factors combined within the book to create a situation that one couldnt help but sympathize with. Feeling and joining in the plight of a desperate individual who has no hope of survival due to the uncaring attitude of capitalism is enough to change many ways of thought.

Works Cited
Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle. New York City: Doubleday, 1906. Print.

Categories: General

Social Media Illustration

April 15, 2017 • admin

Social Media Illustration,

Increasingly quick is the development speed of the
human society in numerous factors due to the advances in scientific and
technological field, currently it is more and more frequent for human beings to
explore clearly about the details about the social media so that they can deal better
with business issues. It can be easily imagined that more and more people have
experienced the appearance of various mediums and methods in business
communication, They hold that to choose the most appropriate social medium and
method in business communication can, to a large extent, determine whether a
specific business issue can be achieved. Therefore in the following I will
mainly discuss various mediums and methods as can help get one™s messages
across and in the meanwhile both the advantages and challenges of each and
every of them will be elaborately explained as well from my own point of view.

When talking
about the various mediums and methods in business communication, what come
first into human beings™ mind are primarily the below ones: the best-performing
e-mails, Facebook, blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, podcasts as well as other forms of
social media. Just as what has been mentioned in the OCR Reading that However,
many of the concepts you will learn about sales persuasion apply not only to
well-established channels such as direct mail, TV, print, radio, and other
traditional media, but also to online marketing and social media. You will
learn about nontraditional channels such as Facebook, YouTube, blogs, wikis,
and other social media (Guffey et al. 2012). From this we can easily
understand why human beings will have strong desire to explore clearly about
those mediums and methods as they will really be puzzled about them when they
need to choose one and put that specific one into the business situation. That
is to say, all Facebook, blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, podcasts and other social
media can be used to connect with stakeholders and then result in the
completion of the business issues in the end if the businessmen can be
competent enough to well control those mediums and methods.

First and
foremost come the verbal methods in the business communication. It is known to
us that there exist many ways to verbally communicate with other businessmen in
the business context, including face-to-face communication and telephone
communication. To put it more specifically, Facebook, YouTube and podcasting
will undoubtedly be included in this type. The advantages of the verbal methods
of communication are that it can be more direct for two businessmen to listen
to and speak with each other and it is easier for them to reach an agreement
with a higher efficiency. Moreover, it can be easier for them to consult one
another about any puzzlement during the whole process of their communication so
that they can avoid misunderstanding. While the challenges for such verbal
methods are that the businessmen should have cultivated a quite good speaking
skill and the concrete content is hard to trace when they would like to check
it some day later in the future. And what has to be mentioned is that the
businessmen may not have time to meet other businessmen because of their tight schedule,
leading to the fact that the verbal communications are hard to be conducted in
the reality.

With the
verbal methods in business communication being described at length in the
above, what come next at the list are the written methods. Namely speaking, the
written methods in business communication are actually the use of physical
symbols to represent charts, diagrams, graphs and words. The specific means of
written methods can be primarily divided into methods like blogs, books, the
best-performing e-mails, government publications, newspapers, RSS feeds, trade
journals as well as other methods like that. Speaking of the advantages of the
written methods in business communication, what I would like to put forward is
that the written information is really formal and clear to stand for something
and the readers can smoothly understand the meaning within. In addition, the
written information is correctly written and will be recorded and saved especially
in order for afterward check for any reason. While the disadvantages of written
methods are that it will take longer for communication so as to prolong the
time period for the deal to be made and sometimes it may not be that quick for
the businessmen to get the feedback in time. The feedback obtained at once is
really significant for the business implementation and it will immediately exert
impacts toward whether a specific business deal can be successfully realized.

Then the
focus will turn to the on-screen methods in business communication. Or maybe it
can be put in another way that the on-screen methods are simply the information
that is produced on screen and human beings can know them if they pay attention
to the screen. As on-screen text is taxing to read, it should be as brief as
possible to concentrate on one or two central selling points only. Take CD roms
and multi-media television (TV) as examples, they two are perfectly the
components of the on screen methods as they can combine animation, audio,
graphics, text and video at the same time. The advantages of the on-screen
methods are that it can be really vivid and convincing to deliver the
information to the audience so that they can listen clearly about the details
and they can in the meanwhile appreciate the artistic beauty within. However,
the challenges for the on screen methods are that they are not with a high
access as businessmen are always outside and they may not be available to CD
roms and multi-media television (TV) at an appointed moment, let alone sharing the
benefits of it. So we can have a fair knowledge that such methods are lack of
practicability in the realistic business context.

Last but not
the least will be the web-based methods in business communication. Blankly
speaking, the web-based methods are taking the information on the web pages as
the subject to be supplied to other businessmen, on which there will be multi
forms of media integrated together like animation, audio, data, graphics, text
and so on. As a matter of fact, the web based methods can be regarded as the
sharing of ideas, information or words over a network of computers. The
aforementioned wikis will be naturally in this segment. The advantages of the
web-based methods are that the wide popularity of computers and smart phones
has brought a really high possibility for businessmen to quickly know the
updating of the business related information at the first place and they can later
raise their own ideas about each and every aspect in the business. But the
challenges of the web-based methods are that human beings may be distracted to
something else when they are surfing the Internet and they may not correctly
put their emphasis. In this way, some business deals may be lost so that the
profits will be influenced more or less.

To sum up, the web-based method will be preferred
in my own point of view. That is to say, the web pages will be the top priority
for business communication in that it is reliable for the necessary business
information to be delivered so that people can be well informed. Then those
people can take suitable actions after getting the specific information,
resulting in the successful realization of the deals at last. And its effect
can be maximized as long as human beings can help themselves out of the bad habit
and from time to time concentrate on something significant but not other
useless content.

Categories: General

Political Works

April 15, 2017 • admin

95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment 14-1. Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Property. Upon discovery of a lost, damaged or destroyed property, all soldiers have the responsibility to immediately report the incident to the chain of command. Commanders must ensure appropriate corrective action is taken without delay to reestablish accountability for the property. Commanders will determine the best method to obtain relief from property accountability. 14-2. Initiation of Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss. Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss will be initiated and presented to the appointing authority no later than ten calendar days after discovery of discrepancies. A letter of lateness is mandatory when the initiation time exceeds 15 days. Reports of survey officers have 15 days to complete a Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss investigation and to submit his findings and recommendation to the appointing authority. These 15 days do not include the time awaiting rebuttal statement from a respondent. Survey Officer will conduct the investigation IAW AR 735-5, and adhere to established processing time constraints IAW this SOP. If unavoidable delays are encountered, document the circumstances in a memorandum and submit it to the appointing authority. A survey officer??™s primary duty is to conduct an immediate and thorough investigation to swiftly complete the Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss investigation. 14-3. Processing Time for Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss. Under normal circumstances, the total processing time will be not exceed 75 calendar days. Delays affecting processing time will be documented in a memorandum explaining the circumstances causing the processing time to be exceeded and attached to the Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss as an exhibit. All Financial Liability Investigation and Property Losss will be prepared and processed IAW AR 735-5. All statements and documents pertaining to a Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss will be marked as an exhibit to the Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss. This includes letter of lateness, transmittal letter, statement of financial liability by the survey officer and the approving authority to the individual being recommended for financial liability. 14-4. Approving Authority. The Brigade Commander is the approving authority for all reports of survey within the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne)(A). The Brigade S-4 will maintain the Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss register files for the battalions. The S-4 will review the Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss packet for completeness and

86

95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment accuracy. The Brigade S-4 will return any surveys to the initiating unit??™s Battalion S4 for corrections and additional information when needed. 14-5. Appointing Authority. The appointing authority will follow the procedures outlined in AR 735-5, chapter 13 para 13-20 when processingFLIPLs. He will ensure the DD Form 200 is accurate, properly prepared including all exhibits Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment before forwarding the survey through the brigade S-4 for a survey number and to the brigade commander for final action. 14-6. Financial Liability. Soldiers departing the 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) on permanent change of station orders (PCS) are responsible for ensuring a correct forwarding address is maintained on file in the unit mailroom. When a soldier is recommended for financial liability after he is no longer a member of the Brigade, the investigating officer will ensure the soldier-respondent is properly notified IAW AR 735-5, para 13-35. Investigating officers will not delay processing the FLIPL when a respondent fails or refuses to respond to legal notice of financial liability. Should a respondent fail to submit a rebuttal within the time required by regulation, the investigating officer will immediately forward the FLIPL and recommendations to the appointing authority for final actions. Investigating officers will consider any new evidence presented by a respondent after the time allotted for rebuttal has expired. If appropriate, the investigating officer can amend his or her recommendation and forward the amendment to the appointing authority for reconsideration. 14-7. Recovered Property. Accounting for recovered property previously listed on a FLIPL will be accomplished IAW AR 735-5, para 14-16. TAB A to this section is the format of a recoverability statement from the primary hand receipt holder. 14-8. Special Accounting Procedures. When the property book officer or unit commander determines it is impractical to assign direct responsibility to a person for some specific items, an inventory listing will be used to manage the property IAW AR 710-2, para 2-10(g). This situation may exist for property located in areas such as unit dayroom, laundry room and/or classroom. Failure to fully comply with the reference paragraph may result in assessment of financial liability against the primary hand receipt holder IAW AR 735-5.

87

95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment TAB A – Recovered Property Statement to Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment to 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Headquarters, 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310 AOCA-S4 10 August 2006

MEMORANDUM FOR Commander,96th CAB (A), Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310 SUBJECT: Recovered property, Financial Liability Investigation of Property Loss # 1199, A Co, 96th CAB (A) 1. Reference: AR 735-5, para 14-16. 2. I have recovered the following equipment listed in the subject Financial Liability Investigation and Property Loss. Request that you reestablish property book accountability for these items. LIN A01237 A11223 NSN ITEM 1220-01-123-1122 Rolex 2000 1223-01-111-1234 BMW 328 QTY 1ea lea UNIT PRICE $2,300.00 $28,000.00

3. These items were dropped from property book records using document number WA1QDR 7120-0001. 4. POC is the undersigned, 2-7021

JOHN DOE MAJ, CA Commanding

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95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment TAB A – Recovered Property Statement to Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment to 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP AFAS-FA-PBO Date

MEMORANDUM FOR Commander, 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (A), Fort Bragg, NC 28310 SUBJECT: Recovered property, FLIPL # 11-99, A Co, 96th CAB(A) Property Book Office, (USASOC) Team# 3, Fort Bragg, NC 28310 (11 August 2006) 1. Property accountability has been re-established for the recovered property listed in Memorandum, Commander A Co, 96th CA BN (A) dated 10 August 2006. 2. Point of contact is the undersigned at 2-7721.

JOHN DOE MAJ, CA Property Book Officer

89

95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment TAB B ??“ Financial Liability Investigation of Property Loss (FLIPL) Checklist to Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment to 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP Financial Liability Investigation of Property Loss Checklist PHASE 1: INITIATION PROCESS (15 CALENDAR DAYS) (Starts with discovery of a loss)* 1. Unit initiates DD Form 200 (13 days) 2. Unit reviews FLIPL and obtains control number from the Brigade S4 (1 day) 3. Unit Receives document number from accountable officer (1 day) NOTE: Ensure that a thorough preliminary investigation is conducted prior to initiating a FLIPL (at the same time assuring that a FLIPL is initiated within the prescribed timeframe). Also, ensure that other authorities are notified of the loss as appropriate (i.e. notify S-2/S-6 if a loss involves COMSEC) PHASE 2: INVESTIGATION & RECOMMENDATION PROCESS (40 CALENDAR DAYS) (Starts after document number is assigned by accountable officer) 1. BN S4 submits FLIPL to appointing authority for decision (1 day) 2. BN S4 submits FLIPL to Brigade S4 for further investigation not required (1 day) 3. Unit appoints an officer for further investigation required (1 day) 4. S4 suspenses FLIPL to investigating officer (30 calendar days) 5. Investigating officer returns completed FLIPL to S4 (IAW AR 735-5) 6. S4 submits PLIPL to appointing authority for decision (1 day) 7. S4 submits FLIPL to the Brigade S4 for adjudication process (1 day) PHASE 3: ADJUDICATION PROCESS (20 CALENDAR DAYS) (Starts upon receipt from the appointing authority) 1. Brigade S4 submits FLIPL to Legal Officer for legal review (1 day) 2. Legal Officer conducts review and returns FLIPL to Brigade S4 (5 days) 3. Brigade S4 submits FLIPL to approving authority for decision if survey is legally sufficient (2 days) 4. Brigade S4 returns FLIPL to the investigating officer if found legally insufficient (1 day) 5. Investigating officer corrects deficiencies and submits FLIPL to JAG for another review, then returns to the Brigade S4 (5 days) 6. Brigade S4 submits FLIPL to the approving authority for decision (5 days)

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95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP

Updated 1 May 2008

Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment TAB B ??“FLIPL Checklist to Section 14 – Accounting for Lost, Damaged or Destroyed Equipment to 95th Civil Affairs Brigade (Airborne) Logistics SOP PHASE 4: NOTIFY INDIVIDUAL(S) BEING CHARGED (30 CALENDAR DAYS) 1. Brigade S4 prepares notification memorandum(s) for approving authority 2. Battalion S4 provides notification memorandum and FLIPL to individual(s) being charged NOTE: Collection efforts begin 30 calendar days from the date of delivery/mailing. Collection actions will be temporarily halted if the individual exercises their rights PHASE 5: PROVIDE DOCUMENTS TO FINANCE FOR COLLECTION (1 DAY)* 1. Brigade S4 forwards FLIPL to FAO for collection 2. Brigade S4 provides BN S4 with a copy of the completed FLIPL NOTE: This time will not be counted towards total processing time

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Categories: General

The Jungle

April 15, 2017 • admin

During the late nineteenth/early twentieth century, the major urban centers of America, like New York and Chicago, were heavily populated by a wide variety of different ethnicities. Life for the vast majority of immigrants in such urban centers was difficult, cruel and unfair. It is through Upton Sinclair??™s novel, ???The Jungle??™ that one is able to read a first-hand account of immigrant life in Chicago. ???The Jungle??™ illustrates a seldom seen image of turn of the century Chicago, by vividly detailing the massive corruption of capitalism and the unsanitary conditions forced upon the meatpacking industry. Throughout the novel, Sinclair touches upon the immigrant working class and certain aspects of immigrant culture. ???The Jungle??™ tells the story of Lithuanian immigrant Jurgis Rudkus and his family as they travel to America and experience the life of the immigrant working class in early 20th century Chicago. Through Jurgis and his family, Sinclair shows the reader the trend of immigration during that time period in the United States, by detailing how the allure of the American Dream and its promises of success through hard work would lead an innumerable amount of immigrants to the shores of America only to be oppressed by the greedy nature of a capitalist society. Sinclair also shows the cultural divide between immigrants and American society through Jurgis and his family??™s struggle against the predatory nature of capitalism.
The beginning of ???The Jungle??™ is a great example of the loss of, or the changing of immigrant culture and traditions from one generation to the next. The novel opens up with the veselija, the traditional Lithuanian wedding feast, of Jurgis and his bride Ona. This opening scene details both the harshness of life for an immigrant as well as the native culture amongst the Lithuanian immigrants being shown with contempt by other immigrants. With the enormous price of the feast, as well as the certainty of many of the men having to report to work the next day, a good many of the characters, especially Ona, are troubled by the consequences of such a foreign tradition in America. ???Most fearful they are to contemplate, the expenses of this entertainment. They will certainly be over two hundred dollars, and may be three hundred; and three hundred is more than the year??™s income of many a person in this room.??? This quote signifies the cost of such a tradition from the old country, as well as the poverty suffered by many immigrants, that a simple wedding feast is such an expense even with payment from the guests.
The contempt by the young men in the wedding scene symbolizes the loss of native culture in America. With a good portion of the young men taking advantage of the feast and then simply escaping from the customary payment shows that, amongst the youth, old laws and traditions have changed. ???It seemed as if there must be some subtle poison in the air that one breathed here-it was affecting all the young men at once. They no longer cared about the laws of the veselija??¦??? The unscrupulous behaviour by these young men creates a greater burden upon the family and guests by forcing them to pay the saloon-keeper for the food and drink consumed. The wedding scene exemplifies an important aspect of immigrant behaviour, generational change. The generational change in traditions was common amongst immigrants, for example, Irish-Catholic immigrants, known for intense loyalty towards the Catholic Church experienced generational change in the form of decreased association with the Church. ???The number of Irish-Americans entering vocations as nuns, brothers, and priests has declined since Vatican II, contributing to a shortage of clergy??¦.The parish is still important in the life of Irish-Americans, but it is not the identifying feature of the urban it once was.??? While generational change in culture is prevalent amongst immigrants, in most cases it is not thorough in the fact that the original culture is erased.
With the saloon-keeper during the wedding feast, the reader is given more insight into the unfair way of life amongst immigrants. Sinclair explains how the family becomes cheated by the saloon-keeper; with the family being charged for more alcohol than what was actually consumed and charged high prices for low quality drinks. It is the family??™s inability to resist the saloon-keeper??™s prices that the reader is shown the reality of life as a new immigrant to America. The political connections possessed by such saloon-keepers would mean trouble for a poor immigrant and one is quick to realize the consequences of refusing a saloon-keeper.
During the wedding scene, the characters feared for their job security and for their welfare. Understandably, this was common behaviour amongst immigrants in America at the time. While the characters of the novel are disadvantaged in the fact they do not know English, and inevitably unable to acquire better professions, they still fear for their welfare. Amongst the Irish immigrants a fear or concern over welfare was also prevalent. ???Economically, welfare is still a major concern among Irish-Americans??¦.From their very beginnings, poverty, thrift, and saving for the future have been important.???
Through the backstory of Jurgis and his family, the reader is able to view the idea of America through the eyes of foreign immigrants. In Lithuania, Jurgis desires to make a bride out of Ona, yet does not believe that wealthy enough for her father to accept. When Ona??™s father passes away his family is left in debt, they lost their farm and had little in cash savings. It is at this point the family begins to speak of traveling to America, where they are told that wages are much higher. Ona??™s step-uncle Jonas, states that he knows of a man who made a fortune in America, inspiring the family to work to make the trip possible. This scene shows that the idea of the ???American Dream??™ amongst immigrant is a powerful allure. The prospect of a life of wealth and success in America, away from the poverty of rural Lithuania drives the family of twelve to make the hazardous journey to America. During their journey, and even upon their arrival, the family is subjected to scams and cons that result in the loss of a good portion of their savings. The loss of the family??™s money through the predatory nature of others was another risk associated with immigrating to America
The ideal of the American Dream was shared by many immigrant groups. The reasons for undertaking such a journey varied; but more often than not it was a result of poverty, religious persecution, political oppression and starvation. It was the idea of America being the land of opportunity and endless possibilities that resulted in such a large influx of immigration. Possibly the most well-known example of immigration to the United States was the large Irish influx following the Great Potato Famine 1845 to 1855. ???A massive failure of the potato crop due to a fungus??¦combined with British inaction and the colonial socioeconomic structure to produce more massive death.??? As the result of mass starvation a large number of Irish fled to America seeking opportunity and prosperity. The inherent risk for the Irish immigrants was the sheer number of them in very cramped vessels while crossing the Atlantic Ocean, resulting in many deaths. ???These ships were characterized by a death rate similar to that of the slave ships from Africa.???
Sinclair also discusses the issue of problem drinking among the immigrants. With the toil of hard work and horrid working conditions in the meatpacking yards, many a working man was enticed to relax in a saloon. Within a saloon a man would be able to warm himself and socialize, however, entry into a saloon frequently meant the purchase of drinks or removal from said saloon. Eventually the frequenting of a saloon left very little money for a working class immigrant to support his family. In the novel, Jurgis develops a drinking problem following his realization of the truth about the hollowness of the American Dream. It is with his drinking problem that the gap between him and Ona grows apart further. ???One day, however, he took the plunge, and drank up all he had in his pockets??¦.He was happier than he had been in a year; and yet, because he knew that the happiness would not last, he was a savage too.??? This example of alcohol abuse prevailed in many European immigrant groups at the time and was a cause for concern among many different groups including the Irish, the Slavic and the Polish.
Through his illustration of immigrant life within ???The Jungle??™, Upton Sinclair used the family of Jurgis as an allegory for typical immigrant life within early 1900??™s Chicago. The experiences of this Lithuanian family were experiences shared by many at the time and provide a vivid tale of the hardship and unwanted change among the early immigrants to America.

Categories: General

Derivative Actions by Shareholders

April 15, 2017 • admin

“Derivative Actions by Shareholders”23.1

When the company™s right is violated,
the shareholders, as the ultimate owner of company™s interests, will inevitably
receive damage. But as the company is the independent legal entity, the
shareholders generally have no right to decide whether or not pursue the legal
liability of infringer. Due to the separation of ownership from management, the
company daily management power is mostly dominated by managers, directors and
other senior management personnel (Arnold and Margaret referred to in this
case). The shareholders, especially minority shareholders, are weak for the
supervision of the company. When infringers are third one, who have nothing to
do with the company, the decisions made by the board are usually reasonable,
however, when the infringers are members of the board, senior staff who control
the company (Beta), the interests of the minority shareholders usually suffer
from damage

Derivative Actions by
Shareholders, entitled by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 23.1, states that a
plaintiff have to be a shareholder or member at the time of the transaction in
order to bring a derivative suit. Besides, under New York Business Corporation
Law ?§?626(b), in this case, Arnold, as one of the directors and the majority
shareholder of Beta, who held 85 shares of common stock out of a total of 100
shares issued and outstanding, infringed the company™s interests for his own
good without the other director Tom™ admission. Therefore, the minority
shareholder Diana, has the possibility to prevail against Arnold. The court
should forbid Arnold™s order about purchasing the real estate from the
Commercial Property and warn Arnold with an appropriate economic punishments.
-w

>

Categories: General

Political Theory of Plato

April 14, 2017 • admin

The author aims at presenting a lucid and truthful explanation of Africa??™s role in world affairs today by examining its history, from the earliest kingdoms to the colonial period, and demonstrating the relevance of this for today. He does this with an explicitly socialist perspective. At the beginning, he states that one of his objectives is to make a small contribution towards reinforcing the conclusion that African development is possible only on the basis of a radical break with the international capitalist system, which has been the principal agency of underdevelopment of Africa over the last five centuries. In addition to this, he hopes that this book will ???reach Africans who wish to explore further the nature of their exploitation, rather than to satisfy the ???standards??? set by our oppressors and their spokesmen in the academic world.??™ It is perhaps most convenient to arrange a discussion of Rodney??™s views in correlation to the chapters in the book. Thus, in the first chapter he defines at length the concept of underdevelopment, which is essential in understanding the subsequent chapters. In the next Chapter, he gives on outline of the development which took place in Africa before the coming of the Europeans. In Chapters III and V, an analysis of Africa??™s contribution to Europe??™s present
???developed??? state is presented, divided respectively between the pre-colonial period (1445-1870) and the colonial period (roughly 1870 to 1960.) Finally, in Chapters IV and VI, an analysis of Europe??™s contribution to Africa??™s present ???underdeveloped??? state is given, this too being divided between the two chapters using the same historical chronology.
Underdevelopment, as presented in Chapter I, is characterized by a number of things. First, Rodney emphasizes the comparative nature of the concept of development. Africa, Asia, and Latin America are only underdeveloped in comparison with Europe, North America, and the few other industrialized nations of the world. Second, underdevelopment does not simply describe the relative economic inequality of different countries or continents; but it also implies a relationship of economic exploitation between two or more countries, the exploiter becoming developed and the exploited becoming underdeveloped. The underdevelopment of the countries of Africa, Asia and

Latin America is indicated by many things, including amount of steel used (level of industrialization), agricultural output, amount of protein-food consumed, life expectancy, death rate among children, malnutrition, presence of diseases which are virtually non-existent in developed countries, and illiteracy. Other characteristics of underdevelopment are the inability to concentrate on sectors of the economy which would generate growth, weak or no ties between different sectors of the economy, and the frittering away or expatriation of any savings accumulated.
In the second chapter, Rodney gives a general overview of what ???uncontaminated??? African society was like south of the Sahara, as well as specific examples the more socially complex societies in existence in Africa before the arrival of Europeans. In general, family and kinship were the determining factors in the ownership of land, recruiting of labor to work the land, and distribution of the fruits of that labor. This contrasts markedly with feudalism or capitalism, where either serfs or hired labor are employed to work the fields, these usually being from outside of the lord??™s or employer??™s family or kinship group. Other key aspects of pre-1445 African culture which Rodney
mentions are music, dance, art, and religion. Religion ???pervaded African life just as it pervaded life in other pre-feudal societies, such as those of the Maoris of Australia or the Afghans of Afghanistan or the Vikings of Scandinavia. He asserts that although Africa exhibited a great deal of variety in social formations (hunting bands, communalism, and feudalism), the majority of African societies prior to the coming of Europeans were ???in a transitional stage between the practice of agriculture (plus fishing and herding) in family communities and the practice of the same activities within the states and societies comparable to feudalism. Particular examples of the complexity which some African societies achieved are given by Rodney and discussed at length. Among them are Ancient Egypt, Axum, Kush, the empires of Ghana, Mali, Songhai, and Kanem-Bornu, as well as Bunyoro-Kitara, Zimbabwe, Mutapa, Oyo, Benin, and Kongo. In chapter III, Rodney points out the error in traditional scholarship, which tends to portray the rise of modern European civilization as something Europeans achieved by themselves, solely through their own hard work. He argues instead that trade with non-European societies was crucial in European hegemony. In particular, the African slave trade, which

Europeans engaged in from the fifteenth century onwards, was a key factor in this matter. For example, slave labor was used to mine gold and silver in the Americas and in Africa, which was necessary to make coins for the growing European economy.
This new wealth created opportunities for further exploration and capital accumulation. Many aspects of European society and economy were affected by the slave trade, including shipping, insurance, the formation of companies, capitalist agriculture, technology, the manufacture of machinery, and the development of trans-national economic links within Europe. The textile industry, regarded as a powerful factor in Europe??™s economic growth, was partly spurred on by gum imported from Africa, and naval technology, in particular ship-building, was greatly improved upon between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries as a result of Europe??™s monopoly of sea trade between themselves, Africa, and the rest of the world. The rise of seaport towns such as Liverpool and Seville were a consequence of the slave trade, and later were connected
with the rise of manufacturing centers and the onset of the Industrial Revolution. One very negative result of the slave trade was the development of white racism towards Africans. This came about largely as a way of rationalizing their exploitation of human slave labor, which Europe depended on in such great measure. The colonial era, discussed in Chapter V, was also a period in which Africa played a crucial role in developing Europe and the international capitalist system. During this period, many sectors of the European economy were involved in the exploitation of African resources, including shipping and banking services, the colonial governmental administrations, and of course trading companies, the most notorious being CFAO, UAC, and Unilever.
Monetary gains were the most obvious benefits derived from these enterprises, but, Rodney says, ???the colonial system (also) permitted the rapid development of technology and skills within the metropolitan sectors of imperialism. It allowed for the elaboration of the modern organizational techniques of the capitalist firm and of imperialism as a whole. Indeed, colonialism gave capitalism an added lease of life and prolonged its existence in Western Europe. Examples of technological advances are to be found in the military (rivalry over colonies encouraged new ways of making war, such as destroyers and submarines), in scientific research, and in shipping (refrigeration, oil tankers, and new kinds of port installations.) The international division of labor (which

saw Africans working the mines and Europeans doing the ore extraction and gem cutting, metal casting, etc.) insured growth in both employment and the level of skills existing in the capitalist nations in Europe. Other advantages Europeans derived from colonial rule include the acquisition of valuable African art and the use of African soldiers to fight in white people??™s wars on African soil and in other parts of the world.
The effect of all of this on the economy and social systems of Africa was, of course, immense, and this is discussed in Chapters IV and VI in Rodney??™s book. In Chapter IV, he focuses on the role the slave trade played in this. The most immediate effect of enslaving people and sending them across the Atlantic was obviously a stagnation in population growth. This in turn affected the availability of labor and markets within African. In addition, much of the remaining population was engaged in slave-hunting and acquiring other goods which the European traders wanted, thus neglecting local agricultural and technological industries. The borrowing of new technology, another way in which development can occur in society, was entirely non-existent at this time due to the nature of the contact between Europeans and Africans, which was unfavorable to the spread of positive ideas and technologies from ???civilized??? Europe to ???barbarous??? Africa. Another effect of the new preoccupation with slave trading was the breakdown of interterritorial links established before the advent of the slave trade. Rodney also points out that right up to the period of colonialism, Africans were still making their own history and development continued along the lines it was following before the arrival of Europeans. This can be accounted for by the fact that European impact was confined mainly to the coastal areas and that the ideological systems, and political and military
organization were scarcely affected. He gives many examples of societies which continued to evolve along independent avenues, among them the Yoruba (Oyo),
Dahomey, Babito and Buganda, Rwanda, and Ama-Zulu. Many of these societies proved themselves forces to be reckoned with militarily. During the colonial period, the primary mechanism for the underdevelopment of Africa (discussed in Chapter VI) was the expatriation of surplus produced using African labor and natural resources. In addition to this, colonialism meant the virtual eradication of African political power, impeding the further evolution of national solidarity, neglect of local subsistence economies, and insufficiency of health facilities and educational opportunities, all of which go part and parcel with underdevelopment.

It truly takes much more space than this to explain everything Rodney did in his book. I found that he did achieve the objectives stated in his preface. The points he makes are valid and down-to-earth. I think he may have stressed the socialist perspective a little too much, and his comments about the success of the Soviet Union obviously sound strange today and do him no credit. But otherwise, I would be inclined to agree with him. In particular, I find interesting the argument that everyone who has partaken in the capitalist systems of Europe and North America has tasted the fruits of African exploitation, and is thus partly responsible. In conclusion, the author tends to explore in general all sides to the story and didn??™t confine himself to any one discipline, but incorporates history and economics as well as social and political science.

Categories: General

The Judiciary

April 14, 2017 • admin

Historically, law was regional as different regions had different laws. However, once Great Britain was established, the same law was applied by judges across the country and this became known as the ???common law??™. In today??™s society, Lord Simon of Glaisdale said ???I am all for recognising frankly that judges do make law??™. There is unpredictability in case law as to when a court will make law and when law making will be left to Parliament. However, in R v R [1992] 1 AC 599, the courts abolished a 256-year-old rule that rape was not possible in marriage. The problem of fixity, law being inflexible, was solved by allowing the courts to set precedent. As the status of women changed, the judges assisted with law making in adapting it to society as it changed. Lord Keith stated that ???the common law is [??¦] capable of evolving in the light of changing social, economic and cultural developments??™. This statement is quite true in modern times.
In following precedent, the judiciary provides consistency and fairness in the law by deciding cases on a like-for-like basis. Also, since precedent ensures certainty, it can assist in predicting the outcome of cases. This makes the legal process more efficient and saves time for judges, lawyers and clients as cases to not have to be reargued and it gives people knowledge on how to behave in order to avoid breaking the law.
In setting precedent, judges create and refine the law. This gives flexibility to their role and solves the issue of fixity. Although there is a court hierarchy and precedent is usually followed, there are exceptions which allow the court to be able to make law. In Young v British Aeroplane Co. Ltd [1994] 2 All ER 293 these exceptions are listed. This allows for the courts to overrule cases and assist with law making.
As mentioned in R v R [1992] 1 AC 599, judges can overrule precedent and therefore create new laws. They can also distinguish cases, by deciding that the ratio, which is the binding precedent, is not applicable to the facts of the new case. Thus when deciding the new case they create law through setting precedent. This may occur when there is a new development in technology for example.
By overruling cases, fixity is solved by the fact that by creating precedent it has a retrospective effect. If a ruling was given per incuriam, or unjustly, the old law is thought of never to have existed when a new precedent is set.
Another role of the judiciary is statutory interpretation. If a word in a statute is unclear then judges need to clarify its meaning. They do this by using rules, intrinsic and extrinsic aids, and the rules of language. Statutory interpretation assists with law making as it clarifies the meaning of statutes and the intent of Parliament.
One rule is the golden rule which was used in Adler v George [1964] 1 All ER 628 to avoid absurdity in a case where the courts extended the literal wording of the statute to cover the offence committed by the defendant. This helped to clarify the law and have its intended effects.
In Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart [1993] 1 All ER 583 the judges developed the law by permitting the Hansard to be used when determining the intent of Parliament. This extrinsic aid can now be used to assist with law making.
In conclusion, the judges do assist with law making as they create law by setting precedent, and they clarify law through interpreting statutes. As society changes so must the law. If the common law had not developed it would be the same now as it had been at the beginning. Since the common law is organic and constantly developing it keeps its practical relevance.
Although it may be unconstitutional for judges to make law, ultimately it saves on parliamentary time, and if a decision is made by the judiciary where Parliament disagrees, then they can pass legislation which has authority over case law.

Categories: General

Political Situation

April 14, 2017 • admin

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
(1947 TO 1969)
Language Controversy
6. Soon after the creation of Pakistan language crises started in East Pakistan. East Pakistan had about 22% Hindus mostly associated with education. They polluted the minds of youth in school and colleges, as regards to Urdu being official language of both wings. Khawaja Nazim Uddin as Chief Minister of East Pakistan had promised that Bengali would be one of the official language of Pakistan and would request Centre to adopt it, but when he became Prime Minister after the death of Liaqat Ali Khan in October 51, didn??™t uphold his promise. Agitation continued until Bengali was accepted as one of the state languages in 1954.
Constitution Making
7. First Constituent Assembly passed ???Objective Resolution??? in March 49. This resolution laid down the fundamental principles of future constitution. First interim report was presented on 28 September 50, which was subjected to severe criticism. After the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan, Khawaja Nazim Ud Din became Prime Minister and Consolidated report of Basic Principle Committee (BPC) was presented in Constituent Assembly on 22 December 52. This report too received severe criticism both from East and West Pakistan. East Pakistan rejected it because of the introduction of the system of parity and converting their majority into minority. This dead lock was ultimately resolved by dismissal of Khawaja Nazim-ud-din on 16 April 53. Muhammad Ali Bogra was appointed as new Prime Minister.
Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula
8. On 7 October 53 Prime Minister presented a compromise formula, which contained following recommendations: –
a. Central legislature to consist of two houses. The allocation of seats was to be as under: –
Unit Upper House Lower House Total
(1) East Pakistan 10 165 175
(2) Punjab 10 75 85
(3) NWFP and Tribal 10 24 34
Areas
(4) Sind 10 19 29
(5) Balochistan 10 17 27
Total 50 300 350
b. The houses would have co-extensive powers in all matters and in case of differences between the two houses, the issue was to be decided in a joint session where each wing would have 175 seats.
9. These suggestions were generally hailed by almost all sections of public opinion and work on drafting of constitution started.
10. To counter the majority of East Pakistan, provinces of West Pakistan were merged as one unit.

Constitution of 1956

11. Constitution of 1956 was promulgated on 23 March 56. It significant are as flashed: –
a. President shall be Muslim, elected by both National Assembly and provincial legislatures.
b. President shall appoint Prime Minister, Judges of Supreme Court and Governors in provinces.
c. President could summon, prorogue or dissolve the National Assembly.
d. National Assembly was to consist of 300 members, 150 from each wing.
12. The parliamentary democracy met an end when politicians resorted to floor crossing. The governments were so frequently changed that in 32 months of 1956 constitution, people saw four Prime Ministers. Resultantly, Martial Law was imposed in October 58.

Ayub Khan??™s Era
13. Ayub Khan declared himself as President after Sikandar Mirza resigned. He introduced industrial, agricultural, economic and social reforms. He introduced basic democratic system, which truly did not represent the people. He promulgated 1962 Constitution, under this Constitution, Presidential system of government was introduced with all powers of center and provinces vested in President.
14. In April 62, he lifted ban on political parties and became president of Convention Muslim league. Where as, in East Pakistan Suhrawardy and Sheikh Mujib after release from jail made National Democratic Front (NDF). Muslim League supporters also made Council Muslim League on October 28, 1962. Khawaja Nazim Ud Din was made President of the party. On 21 July 1964, Combined Opposition Party (COP) was formed. COP was successful in bringing Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah as joint candidate for the presidential elections against Ayub Khan. Elections were held in January 65 and Ayub Khan got elected as president.
Effects of 1965 War
15. East Pakistan felt endangered of being isolated, as the government and Armed Forces were concentrated in West Pakistan. Politicians of East Pakistan reinforced their autonomy movement by declaring that East Pakistan needed exclusive defence preparedness. On this pretext, Sheikh Mujib gave his famous six points. Bhutto formed Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) in November 67.On 25 March 69, Ayub Khan handed over power to General Yahya unconstitutionally under strong public pressure.

PART-II
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
(1969 TO 1988)
Pre ??“Poll Political Situation
16. After taking over the country in crises, Yahya promulgated LFO, primarily to hold elections in which East Pakistani demands were met and elections to be held on the basis of adult franchise, first time ever in Pakistan.
General Elections 1970
17. In 1970 elections, Awami League won 167 out of 169 seats in East Pakistan only. PPP won 87 out of 132 seats, only in West Pakistan. Election results showed a complete polarization between East and West Pakistan.
Post Election Parleys
18. Due to non-democratic attitude of Mujib and Bhutto, Yahya strived to find solution of the situation of flux and anxiety. Resultantly, several meetings were held between political leaders and military authorities but their stubbornness seriously hampered any prospects of peaceful solution.
Postponement of National Assembly Session
19. Yahya had announced 3 March 1971, for National Assembly session at Dacca but, Bhutto refused to attend it. On 22nd February, Yahya decided to postpone the session, which led the country on the path of self-destruction. Mujib called for strike on 7th March 71 and had a parallel government. Yahya then decided to sue the military instrument to impose the will of the central government. The military crack down began on night 25/26 March and civil war erupted. Resultantly intervention by India completely upset the situation in East Pakistan.
India??™s Role
20. India found it an opportune moment to settle her scores against Pakistan, once for all. Indra Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India declared on 15th June 71 that India would not for a moment consider a political settlement, which meant the death of Bangladesh. Resultantly refugees were used as a pretext for war. Pakistan was divided in two independent states on 16th December 71.

Bhutto??™s Era (1971 TO 1977)
21. Bhutto, became president and first civilian martial law administrator in December 1971. He launched a massive programme in different walks of life. He adopted a democratic methodology on two major issues: constitution making and making peace with India at whatever available. He rebuilt residual Pakistan on the ashes and debris of East Pakistan and initiated a more vibrant and independent foreign policy. After the Indian nuclear explosion, he stressed the need of a nuclear bomb for Pakistan even at the cost of eating grass.
Bhutto??™s Purges and Regionalism
22. His era might have lasted much longer than what it did, due to the follies of the man who led the country. He nationalised virtually all industry and handed over industrial enterprises to bureaucrats and through them, to his own nominees. Adoption of ???Sindhi ??™ as the official language created ethnic tension between Sindhis and non-Sindhis in the province. Besides this, the lateral entry of Sindhis in Civil Services of Pakistan ignoring the merit opened a Pandora??™s box for corruption, nepotism, and favouritism. He was competent and over bearing, internationally well known and internally admired and hated both.

1977 General Elections
23. Elections were held on 7th March 77 in which PPP received a landslide victory, by winning 155 seats in a house of 200. Pakistan National Alliance rejected engineered results and mounted a nation wide movement against Bhutto. All efforts to quell the mass upheaval and political settlement failed.
Zia??™s Martial Law(1977-1985)
24. It was in this backdrop that, that General Zia Ul Haq imposed Martial Law on 5th July 77, which continued uninterrupted up to 30 December 1985. His handling of the Afghan crisis demonstrated astute statesmanship and indomitable courage. He also made efforts to rectify imbalances in the growth and distribution system of wealth. His interest free banking system in the country was fully supported by the masses. He opened ???peace offensive??™ against India and maintained it throughout. However, ethnicity, sectarianism and regionalism gained rise and inter provinces tension assumed a serious shape. Kala Bagh Dam, yet another unsolved problem to date arose during Zia??™s regime.
25. Zia introduced 8th amendment in constitution on 2nd March 85, resultantly; President became the most powerful institution. He appointed Junejo as Prime Minister in 85 and dismissed his government on the pretext of signing Geneva Accord. On the contrary, Zia wanted a broad-based government installed in Kabul before signing the accord. Events later proved that he was right. He died in an air crash on 17th August 88.

PART III
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
(1988 – TODATE)
Benazir In Power
26. The elections of 1988 seemed to herald a new beginning in Pakistan??™s search for a viable democratic order. The PPP won 93 out of 215 contested National Assembly seats, and on December 1, Benazir Bhutto, became Prime Minister. The Islami Jamhoori Ittehad won 55 National Assembly seats to become the major opposition under Nawaz Sharif.
27. Given the euphoria and high hope, the ensuing months brought increasing disappointment, disillusionment, and frustration for everyone. Whichever interpretation one prefers, it is clear that the twenty months of Benazir Bhutto??™s government was not a period of great accomplishment. No legislation, other than the annual budget was passed. The Prime Minister, her family and her associates came under increasing attacks for corruption. What had begun as a period of high hopes and expectations ultimately deteriorated into familiar pattern of frustration, suspicion, anger and rumor of military takeover.
28. On 6th August 90, President Ghulam Ishaq dismissed Benazir Bhutto??™s government, dissolved the National Assembly and appointed a caretaker government under Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi. He scheduled national and provincial elections on 24th and 27th October respectively.
IJI Regime (1990-1993)
29. The convincing victory of IJI in 90 had raised the hope that Pakistan was entering a new era of stability. The IJI, by wining 106 seats in the National Assembly, did far better than its rival, the PPP, which could capture only 45 seats. The IJI was also able to form coalition governments in the provinces.
Reforms
30. Nawaz Sharif quickly restored the confidence of the business community of the country. He took decisive and concrete steps towards denationalization of industrial units and allowed new banks in the private sector. The economic climate in the country improved and it seemed that Pakistan was attracting considerable foreign investment. The government also succeeded in bringing down inflation to 9.6 percent and reducing the budget deficit from 8.8 percent in 90-91 to 6.9 percent of the GDP.
Reasons for Failure
31. First, the law and order situation in various parts of the country was unsatisfactory. Second, the corruption in the civil bureaucracy and among political leaders became more pervasive. Third, the IJI coalition resting more on political expediency than on common programme began to disintegrate in 92. Fourth, Benazir Bhutto was relentless in claiming that the 1990 elections were rigged. Finally it was the power play between the President and Prime Minister that pulled the IJI government down.
32. Nawaz Sharif and Ghulam Ishaq Khan could not keep the simmering power rivalry contained, when the time came to appoint a new Chief of Army Staff in February 1993. This ended in the dismissal of Prime Minister. The Presidents decision was challenged in the Supreme Court, which restored the dismissed government. The situation got so worse that the Army had to intervene to effect rapprochement between Prime Minister and the President. Their mutual differences could not be reconciled which resulted in the resignation of both. The arbitration by military in political matters at the call of politicians was an open reminder that the nation did not emerge sensible even after East Pakistan crisis.
Benazir??™s Return To Power (1993 ??“ 1996)
33. No one in Pakistan in early 1993 expected that Benazir Bhutto would soon return to power for a second time. Despite political misfortunes, she was quite successful in keeping the mass support for her party and her father??™s legacy alive. She successfully wooed the Muslim League faction led by Hamid Nasir Chatta, and also offered partnership to some minor religious political parties. Benazir was also able to get Sardar Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari elected as the new President.
34. Benazirs second reign was marked with corruption, mismanagement and nepotism. She instead of strengthening the institutions worked for feathering her party and family. Her main undoing was her arrogance, which distanced her from sincere advice of her supporters. She even alienated her hand picked President, who because of a combination of personal reasons and the looming threat of economic breakdown acted and axed her government.
Nawaz Sharif??™s Return To Power
35. In elections of February 1997, PML (N) won two-third seats in National Assembly and also won majority in Provinces. Nawaz Sharif with his over two-third majority in both the Houses was able to secure the passage of a bill abolishing the powers of the President to remove the Prime Minister. Obsessed with his constitutional powers, he damaged the institutions by axing President, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Army and Naval Chiefs. Present COAS removed him on October 12, before he could continue his game play with institutions.

PART IV
ANALYSIS
36. No individual or act can be blamed for the dismemberment of the country. It was the tragic result of a cumulative affect of inept leadership and incorrect domestic and external policies over the years, which brought the nation to the brink of disaster. Finally few faulty decisions in 1971 pushed it over the precipice. Some of the vital elements, which can be attributed to poor politics till to date are: –
a. Leadership Crisis. After the death of Quaid-e- Azam, a leadership vacuum occurred for a new state faced with numerous issues. Leaders, who migrated from India, had no direct contact with the people at the grass roots. The leaders like Mujib and Bhutto vested their interests on regional rather than national basis. The present leaders are following the same footsteps and have a marked preference to maneuver for power.
b. Politicians Class.. In West Pakistan feudals were the main political leaders. Representation of different classes in first constituent Assembly clearly indicates dominance of Feudals in west Pakistan as against educated lot in East Pakistan:-

East Pakistan West Pakistan
(1) Feudal – 28
(2) Lawyers 20 3
(3) Retired officials 9 5
(4) Industrialists 3 4
(5) Miscellaneous 18 –
c. Civil Services. Even after seventeen years of independence (1964) representation of East Pakistan was negligible in civil services. 54 percent of the country??™s population had only 51 civil servants as against 680 of West Pakistan.
POST WEST
PAKISTAN EAST
PAKISTAN
Secretary 19 –
Joint Secretaries 38 3
Deputy Secretaries 123 10
Under
Secretaries 510 38
d. Hindu Influence. Bengali society in East Pakistan was under a strong Hindu influence and formed twenty percent of East Pakistan??™s population. Majority of teachers in schools and colleges in the eastern wing were Hindus, who played a dominant role in molding the ideas of Bengali youth.
e. One Unit Issue. One unit was adopted on 14th October 55 by integrating four provinces of West Pakistan. This was considered to be a fresh move to deprive the Bengalis of their legitimate right.
f. Imposition of Martial Law. The political Leaders in the Eastern Wing didn??™t appreciate the imposition of Martial Law because it meant a strong center, a more powerful military or civil government in which they were under represented.
g. Economic Deprivations. Per capita GDP in East Pakistan in 59 ??“ 60 was Rs 269 whereas; in West Pakistan it was Rs 355. In year 1969-70 in East Pakistan, it was Rs 314 against Rs 504 in West Pakistan. In just ten years the per capita income gap increased twice between two regions of the same country.
h. Presidential System of Government. Presidential system of government did not suit the people of East Pakistan. They had been demanding greater regional autonomy. What they got in 1958 was greater Central control.
j. India??™s Role. Not withstanding these difficulties, events in East Pakistan might have taken a different course if India had not played her role through covert and overt operations.
k. Constitutional Crisis. One of the major reason for the failure of political system in the country has been the inability to chalk out an acceptable constitution. Three constitutions (56, 62 and 73) were adopted in a short period of 28 years. The first two were abrogated whereas the third was suspended and later restored.
l. Stable Party System. The failure of democratic process may well be ascribed to the lack of stable party system. It has invariably been personality oriented and hence has failed to become institutionalized in the political life of the country.
m. Social Mobilization. This facet of the problem involves the government in reaching down into the society and affecting basic politics. In Pakistan, the gap between ruler and the ruled is still alarmingly wide.
n. The Ruling Troika. The triangular relationship between army, bureaucracy and the ruling elites is so strong that they do not allow the middle class to rise to power. Out of 52 years of independent life, 23 years have been ruled by the military generals, 4 years by the bureaucrats and the rest by handful politicians playing game of musical chairs within themselves.
o. Federalism. In Pakistan so far, federalism experiments have miserably failed to contain the opposing forces of regionalism and nationalism. The basic reason for its failure arises from the fact that these federating units are artificial creations from colonial days and lack inner balance due to differences in size, resources, population, and level of socio-economic developments.
p. Internal Variance. Severe internal variance has punctured Pakistan??™s history ever since 1947. Local and provincial wheels of power are lubricated by wide spread corruption, localism, tribalism and regionalism.

RECOMMENDATIONS
37. Constitution. In the elections under present system the result is declared on the basis of highest number of votes. For example, in 1990 elections PPP secured 36.83% votes as compared to 37.37% of IJI, but their representation ratio in the assembly came out 44 seats and 107 seats respectively (130% more seats by IJI). This system does not fully represent the will of the people. The system of proportional representation is an option to solve the problem because: –
a. It represents full diversity of opinion within a nation and the legislation can be regarded as decision of the nation.
b. It reduces the anomaly of the plurality system, whereby some parties may win more seats with fewer popular votes than their opponent.
c. It stresses importance of political parties and execution of their programme rather than individual socio- administrative services raising them above the level of local councilors.
d. The parties get greater opportunity to subject their members to discipline.
e. It encourages commitment to national programs.
f. Politics does not become business.
g. And it helps to reduce influence of bureaucracy.

38. Federalism. As regards to federalism, we should: –
a. Set up an autonomous commission, which should recommend redistribution of existing provinces on the basis of language, socio-economic characteristics and administrative requirements.
b. The existing units may be broken up into such a size as divisions.
c. Matters of exclusively provincial concern should be left to the jurisdiction of the provinces and all subjects of exclusively national concern should be assigned to the federal authority.
d. Inter Provincial Coordination Council should be created for the management of matters of inter- provincial concerns.
e. In addition, a Federal Provincial Council should be established to review revenue allocations, grants, and aids, and to oversee planning and development.
39. Party System. The failure of democratic process in Pakistan may well be ascribed to the lack of a stable party-system. At best the system can be described as political factionalism rather than party system. To promote a healthy and competitive party system:-
a. The fundamental issues of ideology, territorial integrity, security, defense, the sanctity of the constitution, and permanent elements of foreign policy should be declared above all political controversy among the political parties.
b. In order to discourage mushroom growth of parties, parties securing minimum 10 percent votes in a general election should be allowed to function. A party should be recognized only if it secures at least 10 percent of the total seats of that body.
c. All political parties should hold periodic elections within their party organizations.
d. Minimum qualification to become a member of National Assembly should be BA.

40 Role of President. Pakistan has not been able to achieve balance between President and Prime Minister. Either there were too strong Prime Ministers, or autocratic Presidents. In order to achieve a balance, the method of electing the President is of great importance. This could be done either by electing President on non-party basis; or through a specially constituted Electoral College. The President should have sufficient powers to act as a constitutional umpire rather than merely as a figurehead. Hence, the President should be invested with ???emergency powers??? for a specific period of time and under specified conditions, to be approved subsequently by the National Assembly.
41. National Security Council. A council under the President, as supreme commander of the Armed Forces to ensure national consensus in all matters including a truly independent bipartisan foreign policy should be established.
CONCLUSION
42. Despite a common religion and homogeneous geo-physical environments, Pakistan is yet to achieve the desired national cohesion. Prolonged political instability, ethnic diversity, a non-egalitarian social order, power politics, palace ??“ intrigues, horse-trading, sectarianism and pronounced socio-economic disparities have created threatening polarizing pressures on the integration of the country. Such an internal situation attracts exploitation by inimical forces. Change is the need of hour, through positive role of media, improved constitution, independent judiciary and stable party system for a democratic Pakistan.

Categories: General

The Jovian Plantets

April 14, 2017 • admin

The Jovian Planets

Far past Earth and Mars lays enormous planets known as the Jovian planets. These planets get there name for being giant and Jupiter like. The four Jovian planets are (in order) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The Jovian planets are unlike the rest of the terrestrial planets because of their size, structure and massive rotation structure. These planets are known as gas giants that contain several rings of ice, dust, and debris from outer space as well as many moons that surround each planet. The Jovian planets formed farther from the sun allowing their inner core to collect mass amounts of ice, rock, and metals which allowed the planet to grow rapidly in size. As these planets accumulated size their gravity eventually pulled in other space debris which created the structure of these giant planets. These planets are much too far for man to travel and explore up closely, however unmanned space craft have ventured out in exploration of these four giant planets.
The Jovian planets formation occurs outside of what astronomers and scientists call the ???frost line.??? Here hydrogen compounds form to ice which combines with rock and metal to form a cluster mixed with gasses. As these particles and elements cluster larger and larger they create what is known as a planetesimals. These planetesimals are the planets beginning to take shape into what they will become, a giant ball of gas, rock and ice which gain intense gravitational pull which collects even more particles and elements, gaining massive size. The leftover parts that occur during the break up of the solar nebula become moons and rings to these giant masses which explains why these planets have a large number of moons and many rings orbiting them. These planets are what we know today as the Jovian Planets.
As you would first set off to explore the Jovian planets you would come across Jupiter, the largest of the four Jovian planets. Jupiter??™s atmosphere is primarily made up of hydrogen and helium. Along Jupiter??™s outer atmosphere there are rings, but they are not clearly visible and has a total of 16 known moons, the larger four ( Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) can all be seen from earth Jupiter itself is slightly denser than water but gives off twice the amount of energy that the sun gives it due to the heat from the formation of the planet. Jupiter essentially has no surface as the clouds just get thicker and thicker down to the gasses which make up and surround the core. We know that Jupiter is essentially made of gas because of its differential rotation in which the equator spins faster than the north and south poles; this is only possible if the planet was made out of gas. Jupiter has a large notable spot on it known as ???The Great Red Spot??? which is made up of strong winds spinning in opposite directions forming a hurricane.
The next stop you move on to Saturn which is visible from Earth by only using binoculars at times. Saturn is best known for its large complex system of rings along its outer atmosphere. These rings are primarily composed of ice and rock and cover over 50,000 miles around Saturn and go 200 yards deep. Also along Saturn??™s atmosphere there are 33 known moons, the largest and most interesting one being Titan. Titan is slightly larger than Mercury and contains its own atmosphere which is denser than Earth??™s and made up of mostly nitrogen and small amounts of methane. This leads astronomers and scientists to believe that life could be found on Titan. Saturn is about three times smaller than Jupiter however is very similar to it with its composition and atmosphere.
As you move on farther out in our solar system you come across two ???ice giants??? the first being Uranus, which is named after the roman god of the sky. Uranus has an atmosphere composed of helium and methane which essentially gives it the bluish look and has a slight amount of rings. Uranus has a known 27 moons, the largest being Titania which was discovered by William Herschel in 1787. Uranus??™s are categorized in two groups, inner and outer moons. There are six larger moons that orbit far out from the planet as the inner ones tend to stay close with the rings more toward the planet itself. The way that Uranus??™s axis is tilted makes it different from any other planet in our solar system by having the majority of the planet being polar. Uranus would most likely have 42 years of darkness followed by 42 years of Light. This also would amount to Uranus??™s cold temperatures lows of around -200C and having a cool core unlike the other giants, making it the coldest of the planets.
The second of the ???ice giants??? is Neptune which is named after the roman god of the sea and was discovered by English and French astronomers. Neptune is similar to Uranus in size and has an atmosphere composed of helium and methane giving it the similar bluish look to that of Uranus. Neptune however has a fierce more atmosphere than Uranus??™s with much faster and stronger winds reaching up to 1000 miles per hour. Neptune??™s atmosphere is the coldest in the solar system; however its inner core is not nearly as cold as to that of Uranus??™s. Neptune has 13 known moons with the largest being Triton. Triton is similar to Saturn??™s Titan due to it having its own atmosphere; however its atmosphere is a lot thinner than that of Titans. In 1989 when Voyager 2 made its mission around Neptune it sent back pictures of a storm similar to that of the one on Jupiter. This storm came to be known as ???The Great Dark Spot.???
As astronomers and scientists continue to explore and gain knowledge about these four Jovian planets they have been aided by the success of space missions set up and sent out during ???flybys??? to gather information. Jupiter has had two main successful missions that of the Pioneer 10 in 1973 and Galileo providing good information from the pictures of Saturn and some of its moons. Saturn has been visited by the Pioneer 11 in 1979, Voyager 1 in 1980, and Voyager 2 in 1982. These missions also brought back pictures of Saturn??™s moon Titan. Uranus has been visited by Voyager 2 in 1986, the only mission that has visited the planet which captured visual of the planet and some of its nearby moons. Neptune, just like Uranus, has only had one visit, that coming from Voyager 2 in 1989 which captured images of the planet and its largest moon Triton.
Fortunately with today??™s technology all of these missions have brought astronomers and scientist closer to understanding the Jovian Planets and how they were formed. It is apparent that human travel is impossible for human landing on these planets due to none of them containing any surface are from being composed of gas, however it cannot be ruled out that human travel may someday be possible to these Jovian planets. The more information astronomers and scientists can gain about these planets only improves science theory??™s, technology, and history about these massive giant planets in our solar system.

Works Cited

American Association of Armature Scientists. The Jovian Planets. November 29th, 2009.
http://www.astromax.org/astrocourse/jovian.htm

NASA/JPL University of Arizona. The Outer Planets. November 29th, 2009.
http://lasp.colorado.edu/education/outerplanets/index.php

Categories: General