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March 28, 2017 • admin

EVALUATING CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS OF DISTRIBUTED LEARNING
Russell Baker
University of Tampa [email protected]

Raymond Papp
University of Tampa [email protected]

Abstract
Distributed learning presents universities and colleges with the ability to expand their reach into new markets and stay competitive and relevant in this dynamic information-based global economy. Through the effective use of distributed learning tools, location and cost are no longer barriers to earning a degree and enable universities and colleges to reach working adults and international students as well as further penetrate the traditional student market. This paper highlights the evolving transformation of Distance learning models to the evolving technology based distributed learning modes. While each institution has its own mission and goal for distance learning and distributed learning, there are certain things that need to be considered while developing or implementing a curriculum that involves education at a distance. This paper explores distance learning from a macro perspective and suggests some critical success factors that will aid faculty and institutions in distance learning and distributed learning development.

Introduction
Distance learning and distributed learning and their current platforms have a potential role to play in academic content delivery for educators globally. It can certainly do for higher education what the Gutenberg press did for the Bible. History tells us that until 1450 A.D., books were painstakingly copied by hand, a lengthy process that limited them to an elite few. The combination of movable type, ink and press, however, greatly increased the distribution of the written word. Likewise, capacity in courses at Harvard, Stanford and MIT and Wharton is limited. With Distance learning, however, a Wharton Professor can teach students not just in Philadelphia, but now globally. The Internet and the World Wide Web have revolutionized the way we teach, making it possible to move much, if not all, of what we used to do on paper into the realm of electronic media (Adams, 1998; Baker, 2003; Bender, 1995; Chimi and Gordon, 1997; Privateer, 1999). Defined in its most basic form, distance learning occurs when the student and the instructor are logistically separated. Considered from this perspective, distance learning is not a new concept to academia. Educational institutions have been providing distance learning courses in various formats for many years. Correspondence courses were offered as early as the mid-1800s (Sonner, 1999). As technologies developed, various types of distance learning have evolved along with the technologies. Universities have been providing directed and independent study distance learning courses utilizing videotapes and interactive television since these technologies became available. The advent of Internet technologies and their application to distance learning resulted in an explosive growth of distance-learning courses at the collegiate level. According to U.S. Department of Education reports, distance-learning enrollments at the university level increased 70 percent during the period between 1995 and 1998 (Boehie, 2000). This growth has continued as more online courses became available through a variety of educational venues.

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Distributed learning encompasses the myriad of distance-learning venues throughout their spectrum of application. While true distance-learning courses are available from many institutions, many more provide distributed-learning courses. These courses contain many aspects of traditional, in-class courses, along with distance-learning components like online testing and email communication integrated into the course curriculum. The spectrum of application of distributed learning includes everything from a traditional course where the syllabus is posted online and email is used for communication to a nearly pure distance-learning course where an initial face-to-face meeting or in-class testing reflect traditional course design. It is our view that the winners in this dynamic knowledge-based economy will be those who can rapidly receive, filter, process and utilize information whenever and wherever it is desired or needed. While the electronic classroom still revolves around the primary classroom document, the syllabus, this document is no longer a static paper contract, but a living, dynamic electronic web page with multiple parts and pieces all linked together using hyperlinks (Papp, 2000). The Internet has also made it possible to move the contents of the course on-line and new tools such as threaded discussion groups, chat rooms, and virtual lectures have made it possible to conduct a class entirely on line (Burns, 1999; Novitski, 1999). Thus, facilitating more ???real world ??? inquiries that require students to use higher order skills. Our experience in developing distance learning course dates as far back as 1996. As early adopters of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW) in our traditional on-campus classes, it seemed to be a logical and natural extension of what we were already doing. Much of our course material was already on-line and accessible through our course home pages or through our specific delivery systems. We both had detailed lecture notes and external links to other resources on-line and students were quite pleased with the amount of supplemental information provided to them. Our shared experience was our concern with how to duplicate the “classroom environment” to an on-line setting and how students would respond to the lack of face-to-face, personal contact typical of an on-campus course. Studies were conducted on two sections of the same course, one on-line and the other on-campus, investigating student perceptions and the level of learning taking place (Papp, 2000; Papp, 1999). Our findings suggest that there are several critical success factors that enable distance learning to thrive. These factors will be analyzed and discussed in detail in this paper. The authors will also share their insights and experiences as they relate to these factors. It is our view that the proliferation of personal computers and the increasing penetration of the Internet are key contributors to the rising demand and success of distance learning. Internet use and diffusion is continuing to explode, growing at an unprecedented pace, reaching a 25 % market share in only 7 years, compared to 35 years for the telephone and 30 years for the microwave. The Internet has grown exponentially since its birth in the mid-1990??™s. The diffusion of the Internet and computers in our daily lives is evidenced by the growing integration of the World Wide Web (WWW) and e-mail in university and college courses. It is suggested that: Over half of all college classes are using Internet resources as part of the syllabus, compared with 25% in 1997 and 15 % in 1996. Over one-third of college courses are using World Wide Web (WWW) pages for class materials and resources, compared with 8% in 1996 and only 4% in 1994 The percentage of classes using e-mail increased six-fold since 1994. Most class textbooks are complimented with student and instructor resources accessible from the Internet. Distributed learning today is more than just a phenomenon; rather it is quite a success for all stakeholders- students, instructors and institutions and private distance learning developers. There has been a phenomenal growth in the number of instructors, universities and colleges that are seeking to develop education or course delivery systems that combine the best of traditional classroom instruction with the power of technology. This is illustrated by the growth in students enrolled in distributed learning and the number of distributed learning courses offered by two and four year institutions. In 1998, 710, 000 students were enrolled in distributed learning courses, this figure is expected to increase to 2.2 million in 2003, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 33 % (Papp & Kah, 2001). It is estimated that over 84% of four year colleges are expected to offer distributed learning courses in 2002, up from 62% in 1998. Two-year colleges are also quickly moving into the distributed learning domain with over 85% expected to offer distributed learning courses in 2002, up from 58% in 1998 (Privateer, 1999). Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Southern Association for Information Systems 257

Thus, the purpose of this paper is derived from these issues.

Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the critical-success factors for distance-learning. These critical success factors will then be integrated with the distance-learning evaluation matrix developed by Baker and Papp (2003) to provide a quantifiable measure of success. Distance-learning course(s) with curriculum designs that comply with the identified critical-success factors will be evaluated for success in attainment of course objectives using the Baker-Papp course evaluation matrix.

Limitations of Study
This study is subject to the following limitations: Courses tested are representative of a small private institution and may not be extensible elsewhere. Courses represent a distributed (hybrid) model rather than a truly asynchronous distance-learning course The courses were administered using Blackboard?„? and may not be extensible to other delivery systems Compliance with critical success factors was at the authors??™ discretion

Critical Success Factors
The acceptance of distance learning by some of the world??™s leading institutions–Stanford, Harvard, University of Pennsylvania??™s Wharton School of Business, Duke University??™s Fuqua??™s school of Business and MIT among others, is an indicator of the validity of distance learning as a an accepted pedagogy in higher education. In these days of enormous pressure on universities and colleges to attract new students and revenue streams, the benefits of distance learning cannot be ignored. It provides them with the ability to expand their reach into new markets and stay competitive and relevant in today??™s digital and knowledge intensive economy. The benefits include increased access to education, increased access to best content, decreased cost and increased effectiveness (Land, 2002). Distributed learning courses and programs depend greatly on the effectiveness of their design, content, and mode of delivery. Currently, there exist a variety of approaches that universities and colleges are exploring to capitalize on distributed learning to shift into the demands of the evolving knowledge-based economy. The old perceptions of distance learning in the form of video and cable are being transforming by the rapid and dynamic advancement in technology. A primary concern of educators is insuring that courses delivered using distributed-learning or distance-learning pedagogies retain the effectiveness and quality of their in-class counterparts. Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H1: Distributed learning course effectiveness is increased when the Baker and Papp Course Effectiveness Matrix (CEM) is used for course evaluation and design. A pre-requisite of a successful course in a distributed learning mode is content that is set high expectations from students through effective delivery of challenging subject matter in a manner that is motivating to students. It is also important to carry content on user-friendly platforms that utilize multimedia tools, which students tend to be attracted to. It is also important that instructors delivering course content to be effective in using today??™s technology. This might require them to modify or shift their pedagogical paradigm and behavior. Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H2: Student performance is elevated if higher levels of Bloom??™s taxonomy are incorporated in the course design as measure by the model. Several different alternatives for learning platforms are available to universities, including eCollege, WebCT, BlackBoard, or developing a customized web platform from scratch.

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The easiest options for those who are not well versed in technology are eCollege (www.ecollege.com) and BlackBoard (www.blackboard.com ) . Although the cost per student is higher, they do provide a high level of support and guidance. They will, given sufficient lead-time, transfer all your course materials from hardcopy format to web-ready format for you. This is a very desirable option for those who do not want to learn the nuances of HTML and/or do not have a lot of lead-time to develop their course. BlackBoard (www.blackboard.com )l allows the course designer to quickly and easily put up a course web site with minimal development time and effort. Alternatively, the course designer can undertake the development of a complete website from scratch. This will provide the highest level of flexibility and customizability but also necessitates a strong background in technology and a willingness to spend considerable time in up-front website design and subsequent maintenance. Another consideration for faculty endeavoring to teach in a distance-learning environment is the suitability of the course for such an environment. Certain topics may lend themselves to this environment more readily than others. Courses that depend heavily or completely on face-to-face interaction among students are much harder to conduct on-line. While technologies like chat rooms, threaded discussion groups and virtual meetings can bring students together over great distances of time and place, they still cannot fully duplicate the dialogue of the classroom. Faceto-face interaction is still a key component of many courses and while technologies like threaded discussion groups and chat rooms can replicate some of communication between students and faculty, there is no way to entirely duplicate the interactive classroom environment. With this in mind, course designers need to analyze their pedagogical approaches and determine if their courses can be successfully adapted for an on-line learning environment. Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H3: Mode of course delivery does not affect attainment of course objectives when the course objectives are developed using the matrix. Effective use of distance learning technologies in the classroom can transform the learning process. Today??™s real world employer needs require students to use higher-order skills such as problem solving, collaboration, statistical analysis and simulation. Applied projects require greater student initiative mandating that students take a more active role in their learning (Papp, 2003). Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H4: The use of higher-level distance learning tools will result in increased levels of student satisfaction as measured by post-course evaluations. Current distributed learning tools give instructors powerful tools to monitor, guide and assess the progress of their students and to bring subject matter experts to interact virtually or deliver presentations to students (see Distributed/Distance Learning Tools in the Appendix). These learning information systems can be used to track student performance over time. Instructors can also use distributed learning tools to access resources to supplement instruction and exchange ideas with other instructors and professional experts in their domain (Baker, 2003). Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: Management Information Systems have become essential to the efficient functioning of successful businesses. In our view distance-learning tools in the form of learning information systems, the educational analogy to management information systems, have become an essential instructors aide in the classroom. Consequently, the following hypothesis is proposed: H5: Higher level Bloom Taxonomy objectives are more likely to be attained when higher-level distance learning tools are utilized Hypothesis Summary H1: Distributed learning course effectiveness is increased when the Course Quality / Effectiveness (CQE) matrix is used for course evaluation and design. H2: Student performance is elevated if higher levels of Bloom??™s taxonomy are incorporated in the course design as measure by the model. H3: Mode of course delivery does not affect attainment of course objectives developed using the matrix. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Southern Association for Information Systems 259

H4: The use of higher-level distance learning tools will result in increased levels of student satisfaction as measured by post-course evaluations. H5: Higher level Bloom Taxonomy objectives are more likely to be attained when higher-level distance learning tools are utilized

Proposed Methodology
Using the course evaluation matrix where appropriate, the hypotheses will be tested and validated using courses from a variety of institutions and delivery methods. Research methodology employed to test the hypotheses will vary according to the specific requirements of each hypothesis. H1 requires evaluation of course effectiveness based on a comparison of sections of the same course prior and subsequent to applying the CEM to course design and evaluation. H2 requires evaluation of course effectiveness based on a comparison of sections of the same course prior and subsequent to redesigning the course incorporating higher levels of Bloom??™s Taxonomy into the course pedagogy. H3 requires evaluation of three course pedagogies, in-class courses, distributed-learning courses, and distance-learning courses. H4 requires measurement of student-satisfaction levels utilizing a post-course evaluation instrument subsequent to the H2 courses. H5 requires multiple courses incorporating higher levels of Bloom??™s Taxonomy utilizing various categories of distributed/distance learning tools as defined in the Appendix.

Course Evaluation Results
Data collection is in progress and preliminary results will be incorporated into the paper later this year.

Conclusions
Conclusions will be developed based on the results. It is expected that the hypotheses will be validated upon analyzing the data.

Implications for Educators
Many universities are beginning to look at DDL as an alternative means of content delivery and to reach nontraditional populations (Bialaszewski, et. al., 1998; Fischer and OLeary, 1998; Russell, 1999). The creation of a DDL course has many rewards. Students like using a technology that they will employ in the working world, one that facilitates their learning and allows them to learn on their own time in their own way. They also like that they can attend the class when it is convenient for them and complete the assignments on their own schedule. This is particularly important for schools that face a great deal of competition in their area or enroll students from a wide geographic area. Through distance learning, institutions can offer more sections and courses to students at times that are convenient for them. Since students are our customers, anything that can be done to retain and please them is seen as a positive step. From an instructor standpoint, several critical success factors can make the development and implementation of a distance-learning/distributed-learning course a fulfilling and rewarding experience. While technology will always have its little surprises and unexpected problems, good preparation can go a long way toward making the transition to a distributed-learning environment easier. As the Internet moves further and further into the mainstream, distance learning will become a greater part of the educational process. While it will probably never replace the traditional on-campus class, it does provide alternative pedagogical approaches to learning and can make the student??™s educational experience more effective and enjoyable.

Recommendations
This paper represents research in progress and is designed to investigate not whether distributed/distance learning is appropriate, but rather an attempt to determine which factor(s) influence student-learning outcomes. It proposes a multi-class evaluation of several hundred students completing DDL courses and traditional on-campus courses in a variety of platforms. Continued research is necessary to validate the critical success factors proposed here to determine how and when distributed-learning environments should be employed and what facilitates their use.

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References
Adams, C. ???The Skills Audit Approach to Facilitate Undergraduate Learning??? Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Helsinki, Finland, December 1998, 211-16. Baker, R. ???A Framework for the Evaluation of Distance Learning Courses??? Journal of Distance-Learning Administration, 6, 2, 2003. Baker, R. & Papp, R. ???A Multivariate Matrix for the Evaluation of Distance-Learning Courses???, Proceedings of the European Conference on Information Systems, Naples, Italy, June 2003. Bender, R. Creating communities on the Internet: Electronic discussion lists in the classroom. Computers in Libraries, 15:5, 1995, 38-43. Bialaszewski, D., Burns, J., Dick, G., Papp, R., & Pencek, T. “Web-Based Teaching: Past, Present, and Future.” Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Helsinki, Finland, December 1998, 192. Burns, O. M. ???The virtual lecture: An essential component of web-based course delivery??? Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Charlotte, North Carolina, December 1999, 387. Chimi, C. & Gordon, G. ???Using innovative information systems techniques to teach information systems??? Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Atlanta, Georgia, December 1997, 161-66. Fischer, D., & OLeary, A. Web-Based Distance Learning. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Helsinki, Finland, December 1998, 85-89. Land, D. ???Experiencing the Online Environment??? USDLA Journal, 16???1, 2002, 1-6. Novitski, J. Asynchronous learning tools–what is really needed, and used Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of the International Academy for Information Management, Charlotte, North Carolina, December 1999, 189. Papp, R. ???Distance Learning: Its the Message, not the Medium??? Proceedings of the 2000 Northeast Decision Sciences Institute, Atlantic City, New Jersey, March 2000. Papp, R. & Kah, M. ???Distributed Learning Environments: Pedagogical Concerns??? Proceedings of the 2001 Southern Association for Information Systems, Savannah, GA, March 2001, 248-56. Privateer, P. ???Academic technology and the future of higher education??? Journal of Higher Education, 1999. Russell, T. ???The no significant difference phenomenon???, Office of Instructional Telecommunications, North Carolina State University, 1999. Williams, J. ???Critical Success Factors of Computer Information Systems Distance Learners??? Proceedings of the 6th annual conference of the Southern Association for Information Systems, Savannah, Georgia, March 2003, 431-36.

Appendix ??“ Distributed/Distance Learning Delivery Tools
Distance learning courses are by definition not face-to-face. Additionally, they may be either synchronous or asynchronous. The differences between traditional in-class courses and distributed/distance learning (DDL) courses create several factors which need to be addressed in DDL course design. First, traditional courses are face-to-face Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Southern Association for Information Systems 261

synchronous courses. This means that learning occurs with the instructor in front of the learner and instruction and learning occur simultaneously and in the same place. This personal interaction between the two gives the instructor the opportunity to provide feedback, direction, and to observe learning activities. It gives the learner the opportunity to solicit feedback and receive responses and directions in real time. Second, traditional courses place the learner with other learners. Learners are able to draw from each others experiences and interact in groups. Third, the requirement to attend class creates a responsibility for the learner and provides a source of accountability, possibly increasing his/her motivation to perform the required tasks. To develop procedures for addressing these factors, an understanding of the tools available for distance-learning instructional methods and course design is needed. A variety of web-based tools and course design strategies including the following, are available (Ferguson, 2001; Baker, 2003): 1. Syllabus / course outline posting While syllabus posting is available for both DDL and non-DDL courses, the absence of an instructor to review the syllabus with the learner requires an easily understandable and comprehensive syllabus. 2. Video classroom Streaming video has replaced video tapes as the tool of choice for lecture delivery in DDL courses. Video must be interesting, engaging, and worthwhile. Videos should not simply restate what is available in written materials. A primary consideration for streaming video is the bandwidth available to the learner. While high speed connections are usually available on campus, Students who rely on dial-up connections will be at a significant disadvantage when using streaming video. Provisions for downloadable or CD-Rom video files should be made to prevent this problem. 3. Course Notes Course notes can be posted to the web to supplement video lectures and required readings. 4. Course Reference Materials, Readings, Cases Supplemental reading materials can be posted to the web for students to download. Links to other websites are frequently provided in references. 5. Chat Rooms Structured chat rooms conducted by the instructor provide group discussion on course activities and assignments. Using real-time chat, the instructor can ask questions during in a similar manner to the traditional classroom. Audio chat, a web-based tool that functions similar to teleconferencing, using a tool like Microsoft??™s NetMeeting ?® has an advantage in that it is more spontaneous than text-based chat and not dependent on the learners keyboard speed. Chat also allows the instructor to provide immediate feedback to learner questions, evaluate learner participation, and take attendance. 6. Email Email allows students to asynchronously communicate with their instructor. Learners can ask questions and send assignments to the instructor. The instructor can use email to send evaluated assignments back to the learner 7. Bulletin Boards, Group Discussion Boards, Digital Drop Boxes These tools allow the learners to collaborate on projects, exchange ideas and participate in group activities. 8. Online Testing Online testing procedures allow the instructor to design evaluation instruments comparable to any form of paperbased instrument. Multiple choice, true or false, matching, and fill-in-the-blank questions can be automatically graded and posted. Long or short answer essay questions can also be used. However, essay questions must be graded by the instructor. 9. Interactive Activities Interactive activities provide a method of having the students practice desired behaviors. Click and drag techniques can be used to assemble components online (for example atoms into a molecule). 10. Feedback Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Southern Association for Information Systems 262

Specific provisions must be provided to insure students receive sufficient feedback. A frequent criticism of DL is its disembodied nature restricts feedback leaving learners feeling abandoned. Instructors must be trained to promptly respond to emails. Virtual office hours can be held using chat. Computer graded exams should have provisions for giving the student correct answers to the questions answered incorrectly. Provisions for both asynchronous and synchronous feedback should be provided in course design. Asynchronous feedback occurs when the individual requesting the feedback (the student) experiences a time delay before feedback is received. Synchronous feedback occurs when the feedback response immediately follows the question or request with no time delay.

11. Virtual Classroom An online, interactive class session between students and instructor. Simulates much of the interaction found in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Frequently incorporates other web-based tools including audio chat, video classroom, whiteboarding, etc. 12. Whiteboarding The ability to write and draw on an electronic board during a virtual classroom session. The DDL delivery tools can be segregated into three distinct categories. Passive tools are those that deliver information to the learner with little or now action on the part of the learner. Sometimes called digital reading rather than digital learning, These tools do nothing more than post readings that the student can access. Listed DDL tools in this category include syllabus or course notes posting, video (video tape or streaming video), and course material posting. Since these tools require little if any action on the part of the learner they are considered low-level tools. Active tools require action on the part of the learner to achieve course objectives. Activities like online testing or posting assignments that require further web work fall into this category. Bulletin boards, digital drop boxes and threaded discussion boards are additional examples of active tools. Interactive tools are the highest level of DDL tools. Interactive tools require the learner to interact with the learning site in real time. Interactive tools allow the course designer to create activities or experiences to which the user responds and receives immediate feedback. Click and drag, online questions with answers and the opportunity to retry incorrect answers, and virtual classrooms are examples of interactive tools. The primary differences between the three levels of DDL tools is the degree of learner involvement in web-based activities and the immediacy of feedback provided to the learner in response to learner participative activities.

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Categories: General

The Importance of Water

March 27, 2017 • admin

The world faces an unprecedented crisis in water resources management with profound implications for global water supply, industry developments, agricultural production, protection of human health, and maintenance of aquatic ecosystems.? Water shortages threaten to reduce global food supply, while the world™s population grows by 80 million people each year. With current trends, by 2025, one-third of all humans will face severe and chronic water shortages. The sustainable extraction level for many water resources is slowly exceeding acceptable benchmarks which can have detrimental environmental consequences. This is already evidenced by reduction in current water quality and growing threat on our biodiversity.

Importance of water to industrial development

Quality water in large quantities is often required as a critical raw material in many industrial processes (United Nations, 2003). Industrial water use represents approximately 23% of total global freshwater consumption (United Nations, 2005 & World Economic Forum, 2008). Water as a raw material can be used as a solvent, coolant, fire extinguisher, transport agent and energy source (BP, 2010) particularly in the chemical industry. Companies across all sectors use a significant amount of water to create wealth, benefiting the communities around them through their products and services. Major industrial users such as power plants utilize water particularly for cooling or as a power source (e.g. hydroelectric plants) (Alhassan, 2009) as well as ore and oil refineries using water that is involved in certain chemical processes (Queensland Nickel Refinery, 2004). All stages of mining production rely on water, either for exploratory drilling, production and/or site rehabilitation, as well as during downstream processing (Roberts et al. 2005).

Companies across all sectors use a significant amount of water to create wealth which either incidentally or directly benefit the communities around them. This is done by way of particular company products and services. The water used generally needs to be of high quality. In a range of industries including: beverages, chemicals, energy, construction, and metals, water is a key part of the manufacturing process. Alike the aforementioned industry units, water is also used to cool and heat installations and is a key product ingredient of which it is consumed, reused, processed, transformed and discharged.

The vast majority of fresh water is used in agricultural production. Although industry developments consume a large amount of total water use it is agricultural production which utilises nearly three times this amount at 70 percent. This is due to agricultural crops being so dependent on water, irrigational methods are used to increase agricultural production.

Groundwater resources for irrigation are particularly vulnerable to contamination. Animal wastes, fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides can result in poor water quality and increase water salinity, which can impose significant costs on agricultural users (Roberts et al. 2005).

Over the past century human development has seen the spread of large scale agriculture, rapid growth of industrial development and the growing urban sprawl of cities (Hinrichsen, 2003). However we have not extensively weighed up the impact of these developments on our environment and other animal species.

Impacts on environment and other species

As more and more water is withdrawn from wetlands, rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers to feed thirsty fields and the voracious needs of industry and escalating urban demands, there is often little left over for aquatic ecosystems and the wealth of plants and animals they support (Hinrichsen, 2003). Essentially habitat destruction, water diversions, pollutions are all contributing to the sharp declines in freshwater biodiversity. The water needs of nature and wildlife are often the first to be sacrificed and last to be considered. The over-allocation and subsequent overuse of river systems has left many of Australia™s water resources under significant pressure. Of Australia™s 325 surface water basins, 84 are predominantly under pressure due to climatic changes in the weather (dryer days) and consistent over use (Roberts et al. 2005). These systems account for 55 percent of total water use in Australia, with the Murray Darling showing the greatest signs of pressure (Roberts et al. 2005). The Murray Darling basin produces one third of Australia™s food supply and supports over a third of Australia™s total gross value of agricultural production. It is home to many different plant and animals, with at least 35 endangered species of birds, 16 species of endangered mammals and over 35 different native fish species, already 20 species of mammals have become extinct (Australia Natural Resources Atlas, 2009 & Murray Darling Basin, 2010). Not only is freshwater important for our natural habitats, but it is also fundamental for our human needs.

Importance of water for human survival and implications for human settlements

Rapid growing populations have placed heavy demands on freshwater resources. Whilst municipal uses of water (e.g. drinking water, sanitation, bathing and watering plants) only account for 10 percent globally, in more developed countries where water scarcity is a principal issue this percentage is less (around 6-8%). Global trends have shown that water use has increased double at the rate of population growth (Henirchsen, 2003 & The Worlds Water, 2008).

The availability of fresh water is a growing global concern. Safe drinking water and basic sanitation are intrinsic to human survival, well being and dignity (United Nations, 2005). People without basic water supplies live greatly reduced and impoverished lives. The UN™s Human Development Report estimates 1.2 Billion people do not have access to safe clean water and 2.6 billion suffer from inadequate sanitation (Human Development Report, 2006). The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 88 per cent of diarrhoeal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene, and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year (WHO, 2004). High incidences of vector-borne disease, intestinal disease, trachoma, and arsenic poisoning in developing countries is strongly correlated with unsanitary practices and the absence of nearby sources of safe water (AusAID, 2009).
Furthermore the supply of freshwater available in developing countries is shrinking in effect due to global climate conditions (dry climates, drought and desiccation) and also many of the freshwater resources have become increasingly polluted. In some developing countries such as Philippines, China, India, Pakistan, Mexico and Nigeria lakes and rivers have become receptacles for vile assortment of wastes, including untreated or partially treated municipal sewage, toxic industrial effluents and nitrate pollution from groundwater of agricultural activities (Population Reports, 1998 & Mahvi et al. 2005).
Caught between abrupt climate conditions and polluted waters supplies on one hand and rapidly rising demand from population growth and development on the other, many developing countries will be faced with uneasy choices. Water shortages are not only threatening to the fundamental basic need of human health but also threatens industry manufacturing and agricultural production capacity to grow food which is every countries life source. However in a Water Shortage Article, 2010 they argue that there is no global water shortage in an absolute physical sense, only localised shortages which can be overcome by the application of human ingenuity and necessary economic resources (Fund Strategy, 2010). The lack of freshwater is likely to be one of the major factors limiting economic development in the decades to come (Roberts et al. 2005)

Long term implications for humanity.

The availability of fresh water supplies is running low world wide. The water crisis is only expected to expatriate as the population increases. Already the consequences of depleting our freshwater reserves faster than what they can be naturally replenished. This has already taken a heavy toll on the environment and pose increasing risk of extinction for many species (Population Reports, 1998). The lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation are also fostering human tragedy (Population Reports, 1998) in many developing countries.

Currently humans expropriate an estimated 54 percent of all accessible freshwater contained in rivers, lakes, streams and underground aquifers (Henrichsen, 2005). By 2025, the projected population growth is expected to increase the human intake of available freshwater to 70 percent (National Wild Life Federation, 2002). According to water expert Sandra Postel, if water consumption per capita continues to rise at its current rate, by 2025 this percentage conservatively projected could very well exceed past 70 percent. (Henrichsen, 2005).

Globally the world has lost half its wetlands and virtually all major rivers in inhabited areas have been affected. Climate Changes and human misuse/abuse of water resources, is causing drastic drops in water tables all around the world. If we take for example in Australia, Warragamba Dam, which is the primary water source for Sydney. Ever increasing water with drawls from the dam along side entering the driest years of the century is occurring faster than what natural rainfall can replenish it. In 2007 Warragamba was recorded at a historic low of 32.5 percent capacity (Sydney Catchment Authority, 2007a). At the time of measurement it was expected the dam was only able to hold supplies for another two more years with the city growing at a rate of 1000 people per week (7.30 Report, 2007). However heavy rains in June 2008 alongside with heavy water restrictions implemented by the NSW government have restored the damn to around 56.2 percent (Sydney Catchment Authority, 2010b).

Conclusion
The factors such as: urbanisation, agricultural irrigation, industrialisation, the increasing standards of living and rapid population growth collaboratively coerce the freshwater supply into overdrive. It seems to be an increasing trend to disregard the signs of nature to continually elevate standards of living and aggravate our greed for money. It is at the cost of the environment that we agree and allow ourselves to perpetuate this hindrance of our surroundings and sources of life. We need water to live and survive. We need water to make money. In a more dramatic appeal, if our current water trends and neglectful management continues how are we to enjoy this prosperous life if there is no longer a life to live We must act and realise that we can no longer accept current practises in order for us to sustain as a species on this earth.

Questions:
1. What technological measures does Australia have in place to reduce and save on water consumption
2. What current global projects are in place to providing sustainable management of water resources to needed developing countries
3. How do we compare with the rest of the developing nations in terms of water consumption

References
Alhassan, HS. (2009). View Point “ Butterflies vs Hydropower: Reflections on Large Dams in Contemporary Africa. Water Alternatives. 2(1): 148-160
AusAID. (2009). Water and Sanitation. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.ausaid.gov.au/keyaid/water.cfm
Australian Natural Resource Atlas. (2009). Rangelands: Overview. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/rangelands/overview/nsw/ibra-mdd.html
BP. (2010). Water as a Raw Material. Retrieved May 20th 2010, from: http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.docategoryId=16003419&contentId=7025266
DG Environment. (2007). Water Scarcity & Droughts: In-Depth Assessment “ Second Interim Report. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/quantity/pdf/comm_droughts/2nd_int_report.pdf

Human Development Report. (2006). Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and Global Water Crisis. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/

Krchnak, K. (2010). Freshwater Conservation: Providing Freshwater for Nature and People. Retrieved May 20th 2010, from:? http://www.nature.org/initiatives/freshwater/

Hinrichsen, D. (2003). A Human Thirst. World Watch. 16(1): 7 “ 12

Mahvi, AH., Nouri, J., Babaei, AA. & Nabizadeh, R. (2005). Agricultural Activities Impacts on Groundwater Nitrate Pollution. Int. Journal Environ. Sci. Tech. 2(1): 41-47

Murray Darling Basin Authority. (2010). River Information Centre. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.mdba.gov.au/water/river_info.

National Wildlife Federation. (2002). A Freshwater Agenda and The World Summit on Sustainable Development. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.planetwire.org/files.fcgi/2618_NWF_water_and_wildlife.pdf

Population Reports (1998). The Coming Water Crisis. Population Information Program. 26(1): 1-10

Queensland Nickel Refinery. (2004). Cleaner Production Case Study. Retrieved May 20th from: http://www.ww2.gpem.uq.edu.au/CleanProd/case_studies/Energy%and%20water%20reuse.pdf

Roberts, R., Mitchell, N. & Douglas, J. (2005). Water and Australia™s Future Economic Growth. Retrieved May 20th from: http://www.treasury.gov.au/documents/1087/PDF/05_Water.pdf

Sydney Catchment Authority. (2007a). Bulk Water Storage and Supply Report “ 8 February 2007. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/dams-and-water/weekly-storage-and-supply-reports/2007/bulk-water-storage-and-supply-report-08-february-2007
Sydney Catchment Authority. (2010b). Bulk Water Storage and Supply Report “ 8 February 2007. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.sca.nsw.gov.au/
The World™s Water (2008). Data Table 2: Freshwater Withdrawl by Country and Sector. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.worldwater.org/data20082009/Table2.pdf

United Nations. (2003a). Water for People, Water for Life: The United Nations World Water Development Report. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://books.google.com.au/booksid=_CGeiiNE-K4C&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=Why+is+water+important+for+industrial+developments&source=bl&ots=FBH8HHP0cx&sig=XvsnwSOvTlxOrKRYmcGcVO64Gok&hl=en&ei=_nX4S-ONHc7Jcan2iecL&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Why%20is%20water%20important%20for%20industrial%20developments&f=false

United Nations. (2005b). Water for Life, 2005-2015. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/

Water Shortage. (2010). What is Water Scarcity. Fund Strategy. Retrieved May 20th 2010, from: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdwebindex=2&did=2019206981&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1274582499&clientId=13713
World Health Organization. (2004). Burden of Disease and Cost-Effective Estimates. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/diseases/burden/en/index.html

World Economic Forum. (2008). Managing our Future Water Needs for Agriculture, Industry, Human Health and the Environment. Retrieved May 20th 2010 from: http://www.weforum.org/pdf/water/managing.pdf

7.30 Report. (2007). Overviews the Emerging Fresh Water Shortage in Australia and What it Means for our Society. Griffith University.

Categories: General

Care for people with disabilities

March 27, 2017 • admin

Care for people with disabilities

To build a large city of high civilization, we need to advance the construction of the service system of the disabled and the development of the disabled enterprise. The disabled need to go to school, go shopping, go travelling and go to work like ordinary person. So, to make them get to school and go to travel, we should design a special map for them.

Introduction

The purpose of this article is to design a special map for the disabled including  mainly the wheelchair users and color-blind people. Then it shows that how to select the color for the special map. Besides, the article shows the development of the tactile map and auxiliary appliance for the disabled.

Maps for wheelchair users.

When the users want to go out. At first, the map should provide a safe suggestion for them. And then, the map have to consider the conditions of the surface of road. If the road is not smooth and have obvious height difference, the disabled also do not adopt it. When the disabled decide to go out, this map will select the suitable roads and help them to arrive at their destination. In our cities, we need to set up some convenient public facilities for the disabled.

Projects relating to the production of maps for the disabled people and the disabled use of maps and mapping technology has mainly concentrated on the design and development of tactile maps and other navigation and orientation ways for people with visual impairments(Anderson, P. and Kitchin, R.M, 2000). However, there has been relatively little consideration given to maps that can facilitate and improve the interaction with the built environment for other disabled people, particularly those with mobility impairments. So access maps have large, potential utility. Despite some improvements in the design of built environments, many aspects of cities remain inaccessible or difficult to navigate for people with mobility impairments. The surface of paths are too rough for wheelchairs, there are steps and stairs but no ramps, aisle are too narrow, there are few resting spaces and public toilets that are accessible, public phones are too high or in inaccessible booths, When these access factors have been considered, it has often led to the creation of specific arrangements. For example, poor access to a building might be resolved by the creation of a specific disabled entrance rather than a modification of existing facilities. So (Napolitano,1995) and (Imrie,1996) disabled entrances are often at the sides or backs of buildings, rather than at the front, along with access for everyone else. As a consequence, the disabled often have to walk circuitous routes among locations, and have to plan to use alternative facilities if those are inaccessible.

The next, we will introduce a special project to design map for the disabled. The project reported aims to evaluate the design and production of access maps for the disabled(Barnes, C, 1992.). The project includes eight phases, each phase aims to insist on the principles of inclusive participation: the planning, execution, and control of the project is all agreed(Barnes, C. and Mercer, G, 1997).

The first phase includes to planning the remit and scope of the audit. Meetings are held to identify the nature of the project, the project aims, and the process. The second phase is initiated, this phase consists of the formation of a subcommittee of four to consider and plan the specific and structural details of the audit. The working is to develop the design of symbol that is sufficient to represent all situations and obstacles that the disabled may encounter while moving through these environments. The symbols that are selected have to be easy to apply to base maps in the field,  these symbols have to be easy to recognize, have to represent all types of obstacles and have to be transferable so that groups in other towns can also use them. Subsequently adopt some symbols, modify others, and where it is necessary to design new symbols. Although the audit is to consider the spaces between buildings and entries, a set of symbols for the inside of buildings is developed. Next, it is to decide which areas of the town will be surveyed, and possible strategies for dividing the work between the group members. The last task in this phase is deciding the areas to survey and mapping. The main shopping and civic areas is selected as studying sites, and the region of study is divided into four areas roughly. The third phase take a pilot study to assess, using a small subsection of the town, the effectiveness of the set of  symbol. From this pilot study, several new symbols are added to the set in response to some unexpected obstacles in the environment, and some of the symbols are revised because they are too difficult to apply to the map in the field. The fourth phase consists of a training session to teach the members of basic map reading, to show how to recognize all environmental an obstacles, and how to apply symbols to the field maps. This training session takes place in the field so that members have guided experience in the environment, and so that they know how to perform the necessary work. Members are instructed to follow the all the procedure of survey and place all relevant data “ every doorway, every piece of street facility, every public utility “ onto the field map regardless of whether there are any access problems. The survey is the fifth phase. Totally, eight the disabled perform the field survey, Group members are divided into four pairs, each pair arrange one for study areas. Each pair is supplied with enlarged maps of their designated area, along with a tape measure for measuring the width of doors and heights of curbs, and a camera. To use the data that is collected, the sixth phase of the study consists of producing high quality access maps that is  suitable for distribution. The seventh phase firstly makes group members check their survey maps against the final access map, and then a field check of the access maps in the environment itself is conducted to eliminate as many mistakes as possible. To perform a consistent field check, one group member that is not involved in the initial data collection process resurveyed the town using the final access map. The eighth and final phase of the project is the publishing of the access map and its symbol set on the Internet via a series of Web pages. The Web page adopts a simple user interface that allows the user to find the access map. A series of hotspots join in the Web map enable the user to click on locations to see photographs illustrating the access problem at that location. The disabled do not enjoy the same freedom to independently undertake daily lives, such as going to shops or going to the pub, that non-disabled people take for granted. In these circumstances, access maps provide valuable information that can significantly improve daily interactions of the disabled with their environments.

Select color for color-blind people

Color blindness is a kind of disease that cannot correctly identify some or all of the colors. Because color blindness is lack of the ability of identifying color, the map content that they see is different from what the ordinary people see. That will cause that the information of map cannot be conveyed to the color-blind people perfectly and accurately. Therefore, the color-blind people need a special way of map color design. The following is the map color selection principles for color-people. At first,  select the color combination that is not easy to confuse. According to the identification ability of the different types of color-blind people, the map should adopt the color combination that is easy to distinguish. For example, for red blindness, it is easy to distinguish between blue and green. Increase the color contrast and make a difference in lightness and purity. Color-blind people is not sensitive to color contrast,    and it is a good way to increase the color contrast. Choosing effective contrast color can improve the reading resolving ability of color-blind people. To some extent, some bright colors are always more dark than the actual in the eyes of color-blind people. In  color selection, the map should try to make adjustments on the lightness and purity and that can make color-blind people better identify the color. Add the annotation and texture to the map. About dot color. Dot color is the color of showing point symbol of the point data. Because the symbols can be used as a fixed-point notation, including the color of statistical chart. For quality difference, using the different hue to show. According to the identification ability of the different types of color-blind people, the map should adopt the color combination that is easy to distinguish. Such as yellow instead of red and green. Avoid using the combination of red and green and use carmine or purple instead. In view of the phenomenon of dynamic change, use the color gradient to show. Dot notation should use the color original and use less compound color, which is easy to identify for color-blind people. The symbol of structure often use the big difference of color combination, and to pay attention to increasing the brightness contrast. Such as green blindness, using blue and yellow to show the symbol of structure can achieve a good visual effect. About line color. Line color is the color of linear symbol including boundaries, linear object symbols and movement line. Boundaries are not entity symbol, but they are divided into primary part and secondary part. Main boundaries should use the color that is relatively sensitive, have a high concentration and brighter color lightness for color-blind people. As for the red color blindness, blue and yellow is very sensitive color to identify easily. Secondary boundaries can use the color that it is not easy to identify, its concentration is smaller and the color lightness is darker. As for red color blindness, blue-green appears to be shallow gray, and it is suitable for this kind of color to represent the secondary boundaries. Linear objects symbols and movement lines of color selection should also be divided into main and secondary part according to the map purpose. Their color selection with boundaries are consistent. About planar color, planar color is to use colors within a certain scope of area. It is divided into regional background, color level background and foil color. As for the regional background, it use different color, hachure and decorative pattern to show the region. It does not mean any the quality and quantity, the purpose of using the color lie in some region which is not divided into main and secondary parts. As for the color level background, it show quantitative relationship according to color gradations of color gradient, and the process of showing number give priority to the change of the brightness, the hue that can be identified is complementary. A map possess a good the ability of identification, not only can make color-blind people improve the quality of reading but also can increase the possibility of repeated reading. Therefore, the study of color selection is very necessary in the process of map color design. It can make map makers pay attention to the need of color-blind people to select color scientifically and make the universal design.

The development of tactile map.

Tactile map is a multidimensional map (Frank, 1985). It use bump symbol and braille lettering to show the space distribution of entities and interconnectedness. The development of the tactile map get a wide attention and big support from governments, and it makes great progress. The research content of tactile map are the following. The tactility effect of the blind and low vision people, the capacity of tactile map, the symbol design of tactile map, tactile map annotation representation, Tactile map production of equipment and materials, the technique of the tactile map and the approach of tactile map. After the study of the blind tactility sensitivity, the conclusion is pointed out (Eugeue, 1999). The content of tactile map should not be too much, otherwise it will reduce the touch sensitivity of the blind. The height of dot and line is 0.1 mm, and no more than 0.15 mm. the line symbols are replaced by dotted line to identify for the blind easily, and the solid line is not easy to identify. The blind to touch the width of the street is less than 0.76 mm, and the optimum is 0.51 mm. Transformation of concave and convex symbol height and width can help the blind read figure. Tactile maps can use different levels of graphical representation in order to improve the tactility of the blind and the low vision people by adopting the line of different types and different widths, points of different size, different font and size and different graphical symbols. Generally the materials of tactile map have fiber glass paper, polyester fiber and thermal powder resin. The particle size of the glass paper have a big influence on the tactility. when its diameter is less than 0.18 mm, particle sense is very strong, which is not suitable for the large breadth. The medium size of glass particle can form a smooth feeling and have a better effect. The length of polyester fiber is best by 0.762 mm, and softness is better. Thermal powder resin is easy to form a smooth convex symbols, and height is 0.18 mm. The production technology of the tactile map generally adopt mental corrosion method, machine cartography and conventional mapping method. As for braille lettering problems in tactile map, the braille point should level reading, not lean and not shrink at random. The tactile map is generally monochrome, but for the low vision people, the tactile map is best with color and the normal also use it. Tactile map scale can be divided into two categories: for special education ,the blind and low vision people, tactile map scale should be smaller for the study and work; for the blind and low vision people, the tactile map scale should be bigger for actual life. In short, choose the different scales according to different purposes. The tactile map design reflect the care to the blind, and it is an important aspect of national spiritual civilization construction.

Maps for school.

Schools should provide some convenient designs for their life (Allison, 1998). When the wheelchair users enter the school, they need a map that can provide useful suggestions for them to arrive at destination. Life service space are mainly including dormitory, toilet and restaurant. The whole school is designed the centralized layout to try to shorten the trip distance. For example, the toilet should have the required area, sanitary appliance and auxiliary facilities. Such as fixed or portable armrest, manual or pedal product and distress call apparatus. According to the actual circumstances of the school should install some lifts, large slope and other auxiliary transportation facilities. At first, the restaurant is a main part. The traffic of restaurant is quite heavy in a special time period, and the layout of restaurant may be too crowded, which do not have the special space of resting and waiting. The wheelchair should be arranged the independent and regular table. To meet needs of the wheelchair users, the school should set up some the adjustable chairs and use soft protective pads in the restaurant that have some sharp edges to ensure safety of students. Then , the design of the dormitory is also a vital factors about the evaluation of the quality of map. Waiting space outside the dormitory can be used as a communication space, and with the help of the surrounding landscape and open gallery, the waiting can be as a resting area. The waiting area should pay attention to the difference of height, and should adopt the ramps and handrails to guide student to enter the dormitory.

Maps for travel.

The connotation of the rights of persons with disabilities to protect is extending from their basic right of life to its equal rights of leisure and tourism. The disabled will encounter lots of problems. For example, the useful source of information is too little in the process of tourism. There is little barrier-free facilities in traffic stations. There is little barrier-free facilities in the hotel and scenic spot. There is a negative attitude in transportation service and restaurant service. The facilities for the disabled are destroyed, occupied or not at all such as the wheelchair installation elevator buttons. The most public facilities have the steps, at the same time few of them are equipped with a wheelchair ramp. Public toilets is  not convenient to use. The bus and subway transfer is not convenient. They cannot use overpasses or underground passage (Pelka, 1997). To help the disabled go travel safely, we should provide them with a map that can guide them. There are some successful experience of the disabled tourism in the world. Barrier-free tourism facilities is the precondition of the development of the disabled tourism. Tourist facilities is the key to tourism activities (Joseph, 1992). Barrier-free tourism information that have rich content is an important reference during the journey such as the publication and network resource for the disabled, to some extent, it greatly reduce the risk of their travel and enhance their confidence to travel. Professional tourism institutions for disabled persons is the driver of tourism development for the disabled. These can be added to the special map.

Auxiliary appliances for the disabled

The population of the disable is very big. For their treatment, education, rehabilitation, employment, daily life and recreation, the society has given much attention and care. The disabled use many auxiliary appliance, they can improve the quality of the life of the disabled, enabled the disabled participate in the social life equally and promote the happiness index of the disabled (Jonathan, 2003). These auxiliary products have many functions. Replace the lost function, the amputee can walk, cycle and load like a healthy people after assembling the prosthetic. Compensate weakening function, the deaf can hear the voice of the outside world again through wearing hearing aid. Restore and improve the lost function, hemiplegia patients can recover the walking through the appliance of parallel bars and mobility aid. The auxiliary products of the disabled have an important influence on their daily life. It is a main aspect that involves eating, housework, communication and other things and it is an important tool that can release potential abilities of the disabled and help them to live on. The auxiliary products can be divided into many classes including the following. Personal medical equipment, training of skills equipment, orthotics and prosthesis, personal mobile equipment, household equipment, protective equipment, communication, information and signal equipment and entertainment equipment. With the improvement of people life quality requirements, the consciousness of the people for the disabled focus is improving and the auxiliary equipment will have great development in the future.

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Categories: General

The Importance of Time Management in the Military

March 27, 2017 • admin

The Importance of Time Management in the Military

What is time management Time management is using your time wisely to accomplish task in a timely and organized manner Now why is this important in the military Everything done in the military is based on time. Whether is time to eat or get ready for a mission or even just a simple exercise. Reason for this is because setting everything up in a timely manner which helps keep everything organized; meet deadlines, and increase maximum productivity. Time is something that you can??™t get back once it??™s lost so it??™s best to manage your time as much as possible. Each day the in the military in constructed around a time schedule, from the beginning of the day till the end at COB.
First of all the military is all about being organized, using time management is the best way to stay completely organized and prioritize task. This way when you have tasked that need to be done you set when they have to be done at a certain time, by who and get it done at that time. This way people aren??™t trying to this or try to do that all at the same time, and nothing will ever get done at that designated time with the work divided. With time management you set task #1, task #2, task #3 etc. in a timely manner to ensure each task gets done on time. This also helps keep everything and everyone looking professional as possible and maintain order. The military is all about looking professional and staying well organized as possible.
Time management is the best way to stay fully productive; you get the more important things done first and then your small simple task done with less time and effort. The more productive we are the better. We??™ll get everything done on time and the right time. Then if we have any kind of deadlines for or set times we??™ll have everything done and won??™t be rushing trying to get stuff done at the last minute because it would have already been managed in a timely fashion and done effectively. Which maybe even give us time to spare. Then by the end of the day of everyone was productive like they were supposed to be everyone can go home on time or even early because we all managed our time wisely and stayed productive and got stuff done.
The way the entire military is run is based around time management the Army, Marines, Air Force and Navy all use this process effectively. It??™s important for the military because there is so much stuff that has to get done in a regular work day that the best way to manage it all is through a proper time management system. It helps keep everything in an organized and professional fashion. It helps you stay productive as long as you follow your schedule and use that time wisely and effectively to complete the task put out. It??™s an everyday system that is used and used properly it is the most effective to utilize time and achieve the completion of whatever task is given.

PV2 Hobdy ,Tyray D.
09, Jul 2010

Categories: General

Policies

March 27, 2017 • admin

Asthma policy

I am willing to care for a child who has asthma. I recognise that asthma is an important condition that affects many children.
I will:
encourage and help children with asthma to participate fully in activities
ensure children have immediate access to reliever inhalers
ensure the environment is favourable to children with asthma
ensure that other children in my care understand that asthma can be serious
ensure that I know what to do if a child has an asthma attack to protect the child??™s welfare in the event of an emergency
work with parents of children with asthma to ensure that their children are in a safe and caring environment
I will ask parents to tell me about their child??™s asthma symptoms.
Discuss how to recognise when their symptoms are getting worse and how to help them take their reliever medicine.
I will record this information on the child??™s personal record form.

I ask all parents/carers to provide an inhaler to keep at my house, in case the child forgets to bring it back with them.
I will always inform parents/carers if their child has experienced an asthma attack this will be recorded on a medicine form and signed at the end of the day.
I need parents to:
Provide written information detailing:
What asthma medicines the child takes and when
What triggers the child??™s asthma and what to do if the child??™s asthma gets worse
Emergency contact details
I will ensure any spare medicines stored by me are labelled and have not passed their expiry date.
(Please also refer to medicine policy)
Created:July 2013
Updated:

Categories: General

Chinese ancient history of foreign development

March 27, 2017 • admin

Chinese ancient history of foreign development?,

Han VS Rome

53 BC, at the time of the Roman Empire, the consul Crassus, gathered seven corps, about 4.5 million troops, launched to orient a war of aggression, in the war in the first Legion leader, Crassuss eldest son of Publius led more than 6000 public unaccounted for. In 36 BC,  the western regions frontier command Gan Yanshou and vice General ChenTang of Han lead more than 40000 soldiers in Zhi cutting saw a strange forces. The team of 1000 people left more than 100 people to the Han Dynasty when captured. After being held captive in the Han Dynasty, more than 100 remaining Roman soldiers found themselves never fought, across Central Asia peace, Han gave their land, is todays Gansu Zhelai village, confiscated their large shields, let them go to the farm.

II, Tang VS Japan

In fourth Century, the political pattern of the Korean Peninsula, Xinluo, Baekje Goguryeo formed a situation of tripartite confrontation.In year 655 , Goguryeo and Baekje attacked Xinluo, Xinluo went to the Tang Dynasty for help. In 660 , Emperor Gaozong sent general rate to rescue 130000 amphibious forces, defeated Baekje, capture the king. The same year ninety months, Baiji left officials sent two Japanese imperial court, requesting assistance.

Emperor Gaozong in invaded Baekje win and sent kernel Yaxiang Su dingfang rate army attack Koguryo, Goguryeo and also condemned the ad 662 in March went to Japanese begging division, urged the Japanese army quickly marched to the battlefield, and Tang army combat. The news Japanese Navy defeated went to Zhou Liucheng, Japanese army concentrated in Baekje territory with the city, turned home in September 19th.

III, Mongolia VS Japan

1270 AD, Mongol envoys for the fifth time arrived in Japan, to convey the will of Kublai Khan: if Japan does not pay tribute to the Mongolian, Mongolian is about to send troops to it, at the time 18 years old of the Japanese ruling Hojo Zong (1251~1284) firmly rejected the request. Ordered the west countrys guard and defense fields ready. Kublai Khan heard this news, unable to curb the sent five times, five times the rejected anger and shame, ordered to prepare troops, ships, food, launched the offensive of the war to the Japanese. The Japanese army is under the command of Hojo tokimune be prepared to meet the challenge.

IV,Tang VS Arabia Empire

The beginning of the 8th century, the Arab Empire in the eastern supreme commander of the Hachazi Ibn Yusuf coveted Chinas affluent, promised his two generals, Mohammad and qutaybah, who first set foot on Chinese territory, appointed Executive in China who does. So the former conquered Indias border areas, who conquered the Tali Gan, Schumann, Taha Stan, Bukhara and large areas of Central Asia, and later with the generals of the Tang dynasty war.

V, Ming vs Vietnam

Ming homeopathic storm, Hu Jias father and son so painstakingly built up ” Counties defense, overnight collapse, the army in the battle deaths not hundreds of thousands of people, south war overall, then Ming army marched into, to 5th year of the Yongle (1407) in May, the Ming army in Fu Liang rival battle completely wiped out Hus son of the Navy, beheaded 37000 people,” drown no count. ” Hu and his son fled after being captured, escort Beijing beheaded. So far, which lasted a year of peace and war, the end of the war.

VI,Ming vs Japan

Japan after nearly half the worlds regime after the war, Toyotomi Hideyoshi from the national politics. After Japans unification, the rapid development of commercial capital and the combination of Toyotomi Hideyoshi very closely, the development of a long time for the development of the trade, but the government is not very interested in the development of trade. Japanese merchant ships could not be entered into the port of the Ming dynasty. Toyotomi Hideyoshi is very clear, with the Japanese Navys fighting force, is not possible to force the government to agree to the development of bilateral trade relations. So he tried to open the gates of the Ming Dynasty by the army through the North Korea. Eventually Japan failed to end.

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Categories: General

The Importance of Settng

March 26, 2017 • admin

The Importance of the Setting
The setting of a story is where the story takes place and its time and in most cases very important to the plot and the success of the story. Oftentimes, the setting can be seen as a character in and of themselves.
In Edgar Allan Poe??™s ???Tell Tale Heart,??? most of the story takes place in the old man??™s apartment and the climax of the story occurs in the old man??™s bedroom. The room in itself is very important. The description of the room is very detailed by the narrator who has an obsession with watching this man sleep and is driven crazy by the man??™s blue eye. One night the man wakes up and sees the narrator. The narrator becomes so startled by the man??™s supposed loud heartbeat that he kills the old man, dismembers his body and hides it beneath the floorboards of the room. The sound of the thumping heart drives him mad and once he kills the old man he thinks it to be gone. That is the point where the setting becomes important.
The police come to question the narrator about the complaint of the old man shrieking. He is able to entertain the police and make them believe that everything is okay. That is until the point that the setting comes alive. The floorboards begin to rattle and once again he can hear the sound the pounding heart over and over again. If the author had not put so much detail into the setting such as mentioning the floorboards ahead of time, the reader would not fully grasp the magnitude of the climax. The setting was important to help understand just what exactly drove the narrator mad.
John Updike??™s ???A &P,??? the story takes place in the grocery store, a place that has become the bane of Sammy??™s existence. The setting is important in this story because if Sammy had been occupied, he wouldn??™t have noticed the girls. Since he did not really do much work in the store, he was able to focus on the three girls that walked in and start to fantasize about them.
Since it is in a supermarket, the girls have time to look around thus giving Sammy an extended period of time to determine the personalities of the girls and label one ???Queenie.??? It also allows for there to be an good amount of arbitrary characters that help break up the story so it isn??™t overdoing the central theme.
The supermarket setting allows for the author to set up a culture for the story to be set in. The author shows the reader that this is a time where advertisement and brand names for products were all the rage. In several instances of the story, Updike refers to products such as Hiho crackers and Kingfish Fancy Herring Snacks in Pure Sour Cream. He wants to show that society at this point in time were high consumers.
The setting of the story affects every aspect of the story. If one doubts that fact, the solution is simple enough. Take any great work of literature and change the place and time in which it took place. For example, if ???The Cask of the Amontillado???, another short story by Poe was not set in the catacombs but instead set in a green meadow, would it be able to still invoke the fear and horror it was meant to That does not seem likely. The correct setting is necessary to properly develop the story.

Categories: General

Policies

March 26, 2017 • admin

Policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children and young people are –

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 – which ensure that children are safe and looked after, children have the right to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect, negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse by those looking after them.

Children Act 1989 – Parents and professionals must work to ensure the safety of the child. Local Authority has ???a duty to investigate when there is a reasonable cause to suspect that a child suspect that a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm.

The Education Act 2002 – This sets out the responsibilities of Local Education Authorities (LEAs), Governing bodies, head teachers and all those working in schools to ensure that children are safe and free from harm.

Children Act 2004 – This provides the legal framework for Every Child Matters. It includes the requirement for: Services to work more closely, forming an integrated service.

Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006 – This sets out the duties of organisations and how they must work together to safeguard children and young people.
1.1 outline current legislations guidelines, policies and procedures within oen uk home national affecting the safeguard

The UNCRC – the united nations convention on the rights of the child page on silkysteps containing links to other resources.

Depending where in the UK you are the early years framework for your home nation will vary. The introduction it contains will help to source relevant quotes and links for further research.

England: eyfs
Wales: Foundation Phase
Northern Ireland: Foundation stage
Scotland: Pre-birth to three and curriculum for excellence

The childrens act 1989 legislates for England and Wales

The Childrens act 2004 puts in place ..
— A childrens commissioner for England
— A director for childrens services within each local authority
— A duty on local authorites and their partners, including the police, health service providers, youth justice teams to cooperate in promoting the well-being of children and young people and have arrangements that safeguard and promote their welfare.
— Local Safe Guarding Boards
— Revised legislation for physical punishment, it is now an offence to hit a child if it causes mental harm or leaves a lasting mark.
— CAF common assessment framework – helping to identify individual needs.
— revised arrangements for sharing information – data protection act 1998 the eight principles
— The outcomes for ECM – every child matters, a green paper that emerged from the report of Lord Laming, made in response to Victoria Climbies terribly tragic death. Background to ECM

What to do if youre worried a child is being abused 2003 is national guidance that brings together the content from working together to safeguard children and the framework for the assessment of children in need and their famillies 2000.

The protection of childrens act 1999 is the law that ensures settings do not offer employment that involves regular contact with children paid or unpaid where listed as unsuitable to work with children – The CRB disclosure form. The criminal records bureau is the central point for accessing the records kept on two lists – the Department of Eduation list and the Department of Heath list. The ISA independant safeguarding authority is the organisational body charged with the responsibility to check the suitability of those wanting to work with children & young people.

Individual settings operational policies will vary in their titled names and content, they may take the form of:

Safeguarding
Employment & induction
Health and safety
Child protection

Categories: General

Upgrading of jeep

March 26, 2017 • admin

Upgrading of jeep,?SRT8;Turbo,X5MX6M,ML635100km/h

In 2012, JEEP launched the series Cherokee SRT8 in order to challenge their existing high performance rivals such as Cayenne Turbo, BMW X5M, BMW X6M, and Benz ML63. These traditionally impressive SUVs all have the ability to reach 100km/h within 5 seconds. Therefore, in this sense, car fans can expect their rival, the Cherokee SRT8, to have the same supreme driving performance. The Cherokee, however, also owns traits unlike its rivals since the JEEP cars has special designed in its appearance that is usually related to wild, rough, and tough. It is not surprise to see Cherokee™s advertisements to be set in raw environments with elements like the woods and unpaved roads since these artifacts are very importance evidences to give super car fans and potential customers the right message”the Cherokee is a wild monster. So do the video of Cherokee SRT8 launched on YouTube. (VECC187) In this sense, meeting the supreme performance and high quality of the drink as well as the car, the video gets the right effect as it sends the right message to its target audiences, uses comprehensive methods of appeals to arose audiences™ emotion and interests, provides diverse fundamental moves of shooting that reaches certain standard.

The video has achieved its effect firstly because it identifies its target audiences on the specific social media platform YouTube. This video edited by VECC187 which is comprised of several sections of driving in varied conditions could probably be a part of a advertisement campaign of the monster energy drink. With exciting music and various settings, it has attracted many viewers on YouTube. From advertising point of view, it is a kind of successful advertisement plan because the monster energy drink and the Cherokee car fans could have a lot of thins in common, such as love for challenging, love for exciting activities, or love for the wild and unveiled driving experiencing. Just as Cao Fangzhen wrote in his article The plan advertisement culture: A semeiology annotation of the symbolistic culture”unscramble the plan ads of M-Zone,especially when the visual culture prevails in nowadays society, the symbolism that grows along with visuality comes more stronger and becomes overwhelming. (1) As is shown on the screen, audiences can see the mark of a monster energy drink appear from time to time, which indicates that this video could be a part of an advertisement campaign of the monster energy drink itself rather than a fans video or an advertisement from the JEEP company.

Mark Meister, a researcher focusing on the image of advertisements of products, analyzes the relationship between advertisement and potential feeling of the users. He wrote in his academic journal Sustainable development; in visual imagery: Rhetorical function in the Jeep Cherokee (1997) claims that sustainable development is in form of promoting protection and comforting human development, which are very visual. He believes that the image serves as a metaphor for the discourse of sustainable development. According to Cao, the semiology operating in ads overflows. (1) Therefore, the Cherokee video is a kind of visual metaphor for the powerful vehicle. As Cherokee is also among the top ranking SUVs, the message that the video wants to convey is very possibly that it is very cool to drive with a Cherokee.

In order to show how the social network affects people™s perspectives on a certain artifact, Rosengren, Dahlen and Okazaki™s book Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. IV): The Changing Roles of Advertising that focus on advertising and their main factors gives very detailed examples on how to research for potential audiences of the video and lets readers know how to design research papers for advertisments and related data collection and analysis. This research reveals certain truth for the case of Charokee YouTube video because YouTube is also an online platfrom that resembles social media. Also, on platform like YouTube, audiences watch and comment on videos because they the same interest. Thus, in case like this Charoke advertisement released on YouTube, audiences click into the video due to the same interest and therefore the intended viewers should be SUV fans that also enjoy high performance cars or audiences attracted by the advertisement campaign of the monster energy drink. Lamm John has the same view. Wanting to let readers be aware of the outstanding performance of the vehicle, his article 2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT asserts that the launch of Jeep Cherokee SRT is exciting news for its fans and potential buyers. Lamm supports his point by listing all the pros and cons of the vehicle and uses data to tell readers that it™s a great improvement regarding the previous ones. His finding is significant because it actually reviews the vehicle itself and contains certain data as evidence when its performance is being discussed.

With a clear target audience group, a successful advertising artifact still needs the right approaches of rhetorical appeal to achieve its communication purpose. Firstly, in light of the logos of the video, though the video has not any story lines, it still has a good sense of being coherent. This sense is demonstrated by the connection of different sections. For instance, one can find that the car was driving in different circumstances such as pathways in the woods, city roads, and unpaved roads, which fully depicts the SUVs ability to adapt to different conditions. (VECC187) Secondly, for such a video that aims at arousing other counterparts™ interests, pathos should be a more important angle to probe into the artifact. The editor (VECC187) of the video could be also an owner himself, which gives him better angle to display the car and attract people™s interests. The situation is also similar for Glen Woodcock. Glen, claiming that as a driver himself, is more than willing to purchase this vehicle and introduces the performance of the car. He wrote an article Dreaming big with the Grand Cherokee, reviewing the SUV from different perspectives including residence region, driving habits, outdoors performance, and price consideration. His purpose is to review the new model of Cherokee and give good reasons for owning one himself. This article from the website is significant to my artifact of Cherokee because it provides advice from an actual owner, for the editor of the video is probably an owner himself as well.

More or less, the video, along with the strong background music, get audiences excited. Especially the manipulation of switches of frames and scenes, the close up at the driver™s hand, which hooks you into the car and feel as if you are the one who is driving. Thirdly, regarding the ethos, that is not the strength of online videos like this one. As the user upload the video stayed unidentified, one should stay cautious of the authenticity of the video.

As the audiences of the video has great interest in the vehicle™s performance, how to manipulate right moves to demonstrate its traits forms the last challenge to its success. For this kind of beast-like vehicles, the moves of video must be one of the most important evaluation criteria. To begin with, the repetition of scenes is heavily used in this 5:50 minute video. (VECC187) The first scene that repeats in the video is the sign in the wood. The video shows two different road sign in the woods, which display the quiet and calm face of the wood, and it is a good foundation for contrast that the essay will later discuss. The second scene repeat is the exterior of the vehicle, which is similar as a brutal and wild face of animal. In combination, these repetitions occurring create certain feeling of tension and arouse audience™ expectancy for Cherokee™s performance.

Besides, as mentioned before, contrast is also employed in the illustration of Cherokee in the video. (VECC187) One evident contrast is that at the beginning the SUV is driving the woods, and later in a city, and finally it cut through a gust of dirt and breaks out from the sand road. This contrast is successfully used to show the performance of SRT8 in diverse road conditions. Furthermore, the contrast and repetition, as well as the violent background music have comprised certain moments of intensity. For example, from 2:40 to 4:00, when the car steers through the woods and the sand, these moments of intensity even can get viewers feel enthusiastic. Last but not the least, from the light of anomalies, this video has not various sample for this aspect. But since it is comprised by several sections that the pause in between each section is not smooth enough to maintain the feeling of tension can be counted as one of the unexpected part.

The idea of relating the vehicle with the drink is successful because the video achieves the communication target”showing off the performance of JEEP Cherokee SRT8 though aspects of rhetorical situation, methods of appeals, fundamental moves. (VECC187) According to Bledeg from Fakultas Sastra University, the car advertisements, involving combination of colors, and background soundtrack, work to attract the attention of the people. (2) Therefore, firstly, the video has a clear group of potential audiences, car fans on YouTube, and it has form a kind of communication with this group of people, just like what Rosengren, Dahlen and Okazaki analysis, video on the social network affects people™s perspectives on a certain artifact. Secondly, the video uses the right approaches of rhetorical appeal to achieve its communication purpose. It has a clear unwritten message that the car can handle situation of different kinds and therefore the video has chosen pathways in the woods, city roads, and sand roads, which fully depicts the SUVs well adaptation to different conditions. Thirdly, the video has demonstrated good use of shooting methods such as repeating, contrasting, and so on, creating a tempo of the artifacts and makes it more fluent. This method makes the video more acceptable and enjoyable for audience. Overall, the video successfully demonstrates the theme unleashed with its target audiences”car fans and customers of the energy drink.

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Categories: General

The Importance of Safeguarding Children and Young People

March 26, 2017 • admin

Task sheet on CYP 3.3
2.1 Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people.
,Safeguarding children and young people is everybody??™s responsibility. It should be a concern of the whole community and all public services, not just ones providing directly to children and young people.
Children and young adults are vulnerable and easily susceptible to serious harm if appropriate action for their safety is not taken. They do not yet have the physical and mental ability developed enough to care for themselves and need appropriate care and protection from adults around them.
Health professionals and social care workers have a duty of care towards children under their care and as such they should do everything they can to keep the children and young adults safe from harm.
The younger the child is, the more vigilant the carer should be and the greater the duty of care is. This should continue until the child has the ability to anticipate and deal with potential dangers, has a more robust immune system, has empathy for others, and has communication skills developed enough to be able to articulate harm to themselves carried out be others.
2.2 Explain the importance of a child or young person centred approach.
This approach gives a lot of importance to notion that ???children need to be protected, loved, cared, nurtured and protected from the adult world??? (Internet).
This approach enables the child to learn in a safe and fun 0environment to reach their goals and to focus on their individual needs which increases self-esteem and self-confidence.
Child centered approach is also taken in nurseries, schools and colleges with young adults. The advantages are that the learning is focused on the child??™s needs, abilities, interests and learning styles with the teacher giving gentle guidance and encouragement rather than directing the learning process.
This type of learning is an important part of the child??™s education as it encourages children to interact more with their peers through teamwork and collaboration. It increases the quality of communication and promotes discovery and active learning. There is less disruptive behavior in the group and it builds the relationship between the child and key worker/teacher. Within this kind of approach, as they get older, children are more involved with the assessment of their own work so are more responsible for their own learning. This makes them more motivated and they take an active interest in their learning process.
The disadvantages are that the curriculum is limited and some teacher led activities and learning is still needed. Teacher led learning is also a very effective way to achieve excellence in children as they work towards high expectations set by the teacher as they progress through activities. They also learn to work towards rewards and grades as the work is assessed by teachers.

2.3 Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding.
Partnership working means different organisations working together, such as social services and schools. With regards to safeguarding it means establishing and abiding by guidelines and working within the laws set up to maintain the protection of children.
Another good example is the collaboration of the police and the social services that has been established under a joint protocol (Protocol for the Joint Investigation, by Social Workers and Police Officers, of Alleged and Suspected Child Abuse). The police are required to fully investigate any claim to a criminal offence and produce proof of the offence, whereas the social services are there to ensure that the welfare of both the child and the family are looked after. However, in many situations these overlap and there needs to be communication between the two organisations to share information so that the child is looked after in the safest way.
One of the best ways to do this is by using the Common Assessment Form (CAF) which is a standardised method of carrying out an assessment of children and may help to identify additional needs for the child and as this form is shared between agencies the co-ordination the providing provision to meet these additional needs may be enabled. For example, a teacher suspecting a child of needing additional care may contact the child??™s GP and find that they have already filled out a CAF. This is then shared with the teacher who also adds his/her observations to provide a fuller picture with as much detail as possible.
In any case proceedings the evidence provided by Health professionals such as staff at A & E at hospitals, nurses, GPs, teachers, carers and others from other organisations should be available to pool together to form the best possible case. This will ensure an effective safeguarding procedure is carried out with the child??™s best interests put foremost.

Categories: General