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Month: March 2017

Policy Making Process

March 30, 2017 • admin

Running Head: Policy Making Process

Barbara Moore
HCM612-01 Ethics, Policy and Law in Healthcare Management
Professor Dr. Sherry Grover
Phase 1 Task 1 DB 2
July 10, 2010

` As the health care industry evolves and changes so do the legal and ethical issues that its employees face. An employee of the hospital has come to you with a question. He has heard a lot about issues the organization is facing currently and says he is confused by how the decisions on these issues will be made from and ethical and legal perspective (CTU online course material, 2011). This post will attempt to explain to him what an ethical perspective is and what legal perspective is and how similar they are as well as how different they are (CTU online course materials, 2011).
Ethical Perspective defined
Ethics is referred to as moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong (Pozar, 2005). There are two views of ethics: the Micro-ethics which is an individual view of what is right and wrong that is based on the individual??™s life experience and then there is the Macro-ethics which is a more general view of what is right or wrong (Pozar, 2005). Ethics has to do with the standards of conduct and moral judgments (CTU online course material, 2010). Ethics is what an individual believes is right or wrong .
Legal Perspective defined
So now let us look at the legal perspective to decision making. Law is a system of principles and rules of human conduct prescribed by society and enforced by public authority (Harris, 2010). The law is the minimum performance that is expected in society. In making decision all of the laws governing the organization must be taken into consideration to avoid prosecution or fines or both.
Ethical/Legal Decisions
Knowing what each of these perspectives is I would have difficulty in agreeing totally with the statement because it depends on the issue and there is a difference when you are making a decision. I believe that it depends on what the issue is. Ethics and legal perspective are not totally separate from each other. The rules that are used to make laws are based on the ethical beliefs that are commonly held in our society (Harris, 2010). In an article by Bruce Weinstein entitled ???If It??™s Legal, It??™s Ethical Right It pointed out that with a law it changes over time (Weinstein, 2007). With the current change in healthcare there will be many, many new laws in the coming years. Laws vary from state to state. Laws are influenced by the political and economic interest and the interest of people, and they often determine which laws will get passed and what will be in those laws (Weinstein, 2007). However, people lobby for laws based on their ethical beliefs and what they think is right and wrong. There is someone lying in the street that you have to go over and help them but from the ethical standpoint it would be almost inhumane not too. Another thing about the ethical standards is that it goes beyond a thought or a belief of time, place and the whims of politics. With the law there are penalties that will be imposed if they are violated however the penalty for violating and ethical requirement may involve scorn or ridicule from others or simply feelings of guilt or shame but nothing that would be considered as severe as prison. So to answer your question there is difference in the way you approach a decision from a legal perspective and an ethical perspective. They will however tie into each other at some point in the business world and especially in Healthcare.
Harris, D.M. (2010). Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics. (Third Edition). Chicago, IL. Health Administration Press.
Pozar, G.D. (2005). Legal and Ethical Issues for Health Professionals. (First edition) Sudbury: MA. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Weinstein, B. (2007). If it??™s Legal, It??™s Ethical Right Retrieved from website at

Categories: General

The Individual Learner

March 30, 2017 • admin

The Individual Learner
Vincent Kelly


???Helping??? is an active process by which you enable and encourage learners to take more control over their own lives.
The Individual Learner (2009, p. 10).

The author is conducting a course on the needs and welfare of people with disabilities. It has been noticed that a couple of the learners have become disengaged in the group and have handed in their assignments late. The author has arranged a meeting with all of the students on a one to one basis to find out how they are progressing and to assist them in any difficulties that they may have. They have been assured that anything said in the meeting is confidential and some have agreed to be filmed as they have the full trust in the author and footage will only be used for use by the learner or the author. The learner that is present in this meeting is a lady by the name of Trish who works for the HSE West. The author believes that there may be a problem and hopes that he may be able to help in some way.
The author hopes that in this meeting he has the core values of a skilled helper, and displays the following skills; attending active listening, facilitative helping and authorative helping as mentioned in the module The Individual Learner (2009). These core values have helped the author to recognise that there may be a problem, and secondly sincerely hopes that he can help Trish with her problem if one arises.

The author and learner hope that from watching the footage that they can resolve any problems that may arise in the meeting if not all ready solved. Also by reviewing the meeting, can further analyse what was discussed and how it was perceived and portrayed on both sides. The author would like to be able to assist the learner to solve any issues herself or if the issues are to do with the author to be able to seek a compromise with the learner.
Having rewatched the DVD the author has identified that there is much room for improvement in the following areas;
??? Appearance.
??? Assertiveness.
??? Openness.
??? Esteem.
??? Active listening.
??? Empathy.
The author has noted that his appearance was somewhat untidy and that he failed to ask if the learner would like some water. On meeting the learner the author failed to reiterate that any conversation or recording between the author and the learner was strictly confidential.
On examining the DVD the author believes that he may have come across too assertive, although the author praised the learner by telling her that she had done well in the course so far, he then fifty five seconds into the conversation had come to the main point of the meeting, i.e. ???any problems with the course???, the learner replied ???no???, the author then replied ???you were late with your Module???. This on observation, made the learner very uneasy which the author notices and unsettles him.
By not stating which module in particular made the learner tell him the one which gave her the most difficulty, and in this case it was the module about law. The author should have put more planning into his meeting as he kept looking at his notes on the learner and the course she was doing. The author was also fiddling with a pen; this itself could give the impression to the learner that he was not giving his full attention to the situation in hand. Due to the direct nature the way the author asked the question and by not having portrayed himself in a more professional way could have brought the meeting to end. The author could have worked up to the question more gradually. Non-possessive warmth in his tone of voice, the way greeted the learner and his facial expression, and maybe this is the reason why the learner felt she could be so forth coming with her reply.
The learner was very open towards the author and perhaps the same could be said in reverse. He showed accurate empathy as he listened very carefully to what the learner had to say and repeated some key words to draw on elaboration on certain aspects he thought might be an issue i.e. at one minute and twenty five seconds the author repeats ???relevant how do you mean not relevant??? this draws on the learner to express her thoughts and the reasons why she feels the way she does and to see if there was anything that she could use in her work life that was in the particular module that would be of benefit to her.
The author finds common ground two minutes and thirty three seconds into the conversation, the learner states that ???she would hope not to find herself in a court case??? and the author replies ???I also would hope not to find you in that situation??? and they both laugh, at this point, the author repeats the question.

At three minutes and forty seconds the author uses catalytic interventions to get the learner to examine her own thoughts about having difficulties, by saying that the assignment was late and had the learners circumstances changed because her work was always on time. It is here the learner comes forward with her home situation and explains about difficulties i.e. children, work, home, husband and her in laws. The author asks if there is anything he or the institution can assist with, that will help the learner. At five minutes and twenty seconds the learner states that ???it??™s not the be all or end all if she has not her assignment in on time???. The author explains that this attitude could lead to serious consequences later on in the course.
The author made a grave error seven minutes twenty seconds by not having diverted his phone. This was not only rude but should he was not giving his full, undivided attention to the learner.
The author did attempted to use the FLOWER technique as cited in The Individual Learner (2009, p.52).with some success.
??? F faced the learner face to face.
??? L Leaned towards the learner on occasions when try to get the learner to engage.
??? O Open posture was achieved.
??? W Watch the author watched for changes in body language.
??? E Eye contact was made on most occasions.
??? R Relax – both the learner and the author seemed relaxed.

The author has found out why the learner is having difficulty after seven minutes and thirty seconds and has given his view on how he himself has dealt with the same problems over the years and sympathises with them and offers some ways of overcoming the learner??™s problems.
??? Housework – deferring it to another time.
??? Children – come first.
??? Understanding that her husband does not agree with her studying at two in the morning, but also understanding that she says that it??™s the only time she can do her coursework.
??? By suggesting that she places a picture over her work station to remind her of her goals and achievements.
??? By suggesting that the learner throws in the towel makes the learner rethink the situation.
??? By suggesting that the learner has a new life with new friends.
??? Stating that the book/study groups may help.
??? By offering help.
??? Stating that the learner can always call if she has any difficulty.

The author tries to find out why the learner thinks that some of the course work is ???boring???, at eleven minutes and forty eight seconds. This shows that though eye contact is not always made that the author is listening to everything the learner is saying. At approximately fourteen minutes the author states again that the learner has the help from the course providers and makes a small humorous comment about not ringing them at home. The author try??™s to give the learner the foresight to continue and carry on with her studies
The author acknowledges that he may not have used all the Ten Steps for Action or all the 5WH Framework of Analysis cited in The Individual Learner (2009, p.229) in his approach but used a combination of both and hopes that he??™s intervention may have helped the learner.

The author concludes that he made some vital errors in the manner in which he conducted the meeting with the learner
??? Not letting the learner finish what she was saying.
??? Not having his phone diverted.
??? Lack of preparation for the meeting.
??? Untidy appearance.
??? Not using the ten step action plan in sequence.
??? Not enforcing the flower technique.
??? Imposing one??™s own beliefs on the learner.
??? Not giving his full undivided attention.

The author also has many strengths that the module has highlighted
Sincere concern for his learners.
Listens and picks up on key words.
Encourages the learner to take control.
Finds common ground with the learner.

The author has, by observation learnt that he has many strengths and weaknesses that should and must be worked on to enable him and his learners to benefit. By implementing the aims and objective set out in the module The Individual Learner, (2009) hopes he maybe able to achieve them.

NUI Galway Open Learning Centre 2009, The Individual Learner, course module,
BA Degree Programme in Training and Education, NUI Galway Open Learning Centre

Categories: General

Policy and War

March 29, 2017 • admin

Policy and War
Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli?  was an? Italian? philosopher and writer based in Florence during the? Renaissance. He is one of the main founders of modern? political science.? He was a diplomat,? political philosopher, playwright, and a civil servant of the? Florentine Republic. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, poetry, and some of the most well-known personal correspondence in the Italian language. His position in the regime of Florence as Secretary to the Second? Chancery? of the? Republic of Florence? lasted from 1498 to 1512, the period in which the de? Medici? were not in power. The period when most of his well-known writing was done was after this, when they recovered power, and Machiavelli was removed from all functions.
None of the product in the history of political thought did not cause as much controversy as the “Prince” of Italian political thinker, historian and statesman, Niccolo Machiavelli.”Prince” is an instruction made wise policy expertise to the governor – the monarch, to whom the task of consolidating their power and prosperity of the state.? This – the main goal sovereign, and to achieve it, he should devote himself, not in spite of everything.The name of Machiavellis maxim binds: “the end justifies the means.”? According to her pursuit of high-end allowed the most dishonest action.? Thus, Machiavelli admiringly describes the policy of Francesco Sforza, duke of Milan, who, through cunning, guile and the pressure could split or scatter the enemies, to win the love of the people and strengthen the inherited his power.? “Great idea, and lofty goal” was to justify all its actions.? “The passion for winning – is natural for the rulers, and never condemn those who, soberly aware of its capabilities, translates it into a successful policy to the prosperity of the state and for the benefit of the people.
Political morality. of ? “Prince” – is implicitly a polemical essay.? In formulating the instructions to the governor, Machiavelli takes obvious, although not explicitly declare a polemic with classical ideas about the ethics of governors, expressed, for example by Cicero in his treatise “On Duties” or Seneca in “moral letters to Lutsiliyu.? Machiavelli, like the classical writers, says that the emperor should strive for the great deeds that will bring him honor, glory and good memory of posterity, that he should be brave and able to courageously confront the onslaught of fate.? However, none of this sovereign will not succeed, blindly following a capital virtues, ie,? being honest, tender-hearted, gracious, sincere and pious, as described by the philosophers of virtue does not always lead to glory and greatness.? Sovereign should look virtuous and be so in reality, but internally have the willingness to save and opposite qualities, if this proves necessary. “? 
Machiavelli thus establishes a fundamental distinction between, on the one hand, moral interpersonal relations, which are most valued by respect for the welfare of a particular person, or personal morality, in which the most important – the salvation of souls, and, on the other hand, political morality, in? is important – the welfare and prosperity of the state.Principles promoted by the different systems of morality, are not comparable.? In the political morality person acting on behalf of the state and for his sake.? The governor represents the power and the state.? Dedication expected of ordinary people are usually not acceptable in the case of the emperor, as his personal dedication may actually mean the collapse of the power and the fall of the state.
Political Ethics of Machiavelli realistic.? This ethic that exists, but it should not.? It does not admit of giving valid for an ideal.? Professes good must understand that to follow the good wrong in all circumstances of life, especially in relations with those who are alien to good, and many such people.? While humanity is expressed in the fact that the emperor should be the law, including with respect to the enemy, he should bear in mind that many people do not understand the language of the law, and with them the need to speak the language of animal power.? Therefore, the sovereign must accept some of the habits of the animal, and best of all – the habits of the lion and the fox: being akin to a lion, he will be able to resist a hostile force, as being akin to the fox, he can avoid the snares of cunning and deceit.
prince should not be afraid of accusations of cruelty and he should realize that subjects obeying out of fear, more reliable ones that obey out of love.? As Machiavelli explains, “For the love of his own discretion, and fear – at the discretion of rulers, so the wise ruler is better to rely on what depends on him, rather than from someone else.”? Moreover, the cruelty must pursue well-defined and clear goals, people must understand that the sovereign has resorted to violence not from wilfulness, but for the sake of the state.? In the violence should not persist, and if you had to resort to it, it is necessary to apply it once, so that the brutality has always been on the decline.
However, instilling fear, avoid hatred and contempt of his subjects.? Contempt in the prince cause instability, frivolity, effeminacy, cowardice and indecision.? And, conversely, generosity, courage, solidity and firmness inspire reverence.? To avoid hatred, should be assigned the case, unwanted subjects, on the other, and the like – to fulfill himself.
Prince should do anything to cause worship and inspire greatness.? Contributed to this military success and the company (particularly unusual) in defense of religion, major government decisions and certainty in politics – in its relations with allies and adversaries, as well as the protection of gifted people in the arts and crafts and efforts anyone else, care about? prosperity of the state.
Machiavelli – one of the most difficult to understand and interpret thinkers.? No accident for the past four and a half centuries around its core product ?«Prince?» being polemical battles, and its doctrine and beliefs compressed into a sharply negative term “Machiavellianism” – a synonym for political treachery, duplicity, hypocrisy, treachery, cruelty, etc
For us, Machiavelli and his works are primarily concrete historical and cultural value.? As one of the largest and most remarkable representatives of the Renaissance, Machiavelli relates life-giving traditions of thought and culture with a new time and modernity.? Of his works confront us with the entire intellectual, socio-political picture of the Renaissance, with its humanistic achievements and the concrete historical limitations, with all its contradictions, the search and struggle.? On his works, perhaps most clearly be traced as the history of the historic dialogue with the thinkers of the past and thinking of past eras born theory, both from a critical and creative development of innovation and tradition is born as a retrospective of the consideration from the standpoint of the most fundamental and most critical? problems of modern life, produced by the prospect of historical development.
By the 1580th years, Elizabeth has got to disgrace at defined Phillip II to Spain. Not only that she was Protestant, not only she refused its marriage of offers of years back, it also has directed Leicester to the Netherlands for struggle against Spaniards in 1585. Besides, it secretly supports attacks of sir Frencis Drake on Spanish galleons treasure coming back of New Light, in September, 1580 Drake has returned from sailing worldwide with cargo of the Spanish gold. When Elizabeth killed its Catholic contender Maria, the queen of Scotland, Phillip has lost patience. England for themselves are personally revolted and wanted England for himself, has decided in 1587 that time for intrusion into England has come. was preparing Armada when Drake has resulted a touch on armada in Cadiz in April, 1587. This attack was for Spanish completely unawares, and Drakes maneuver set back Spanish of intrusion about one year. Drake also was possible to steal some Spanish treasures in the spot-check. In July, 1588, Phillip, at last, was possible to start ostensibly invincible Spanish Armada. Its hope of a swing of fleet of the Netherlands to take away the army there, and to transport them through English channel for land intrusion.
The conflict to the Spanish Armada are presented height long struggle between Protestant England and Catholic Spain. Up to attempt of intrusion of Phillip, Elizabeth constantly tried to carry on negotiations the way to the world. Really, persistently believing, that the world can be reached without struggle, it was not present enough that are ready its fleet which as the result, has entered fight a little unawares. Nevertheless, navy fleet was priority Elizabeth throughout the board and when Armada the British vessels face, they were in for surprise. Englands 34 ships were in a good condition, and Phillip, working on scandalous am mistaken information, that the British ships were rotting hull. During war, Elizabeth micro-operated all expenses infuriating walsingham.
Elizabeth had a private arrangement with Sir Francis Drake. She encouraged and partially financed him in his raiding of Spanish treasure ships, and rewarded him handsomely for his exploits. She even promised to disavow any knowledge of his actions were he to be caught. As Elizabeth loved nothing so much as making money, Drake was one of her famed “favorites”. When the voyage that returned in 1580 brought a 100% return, doubling Elizabeths investment, she held a massive feast aboard his ship, the Golden Hind, the following April, knighting him for his service. Drake was ready with an exotically themed gift for the Queen: a frog made of diamonds.
Phillip had other reasons for intrusion into England Besides, its indignation on Drakes feats, its companions, performance Catholic, and numerous traumas of its pride: on not clear genealogical a way, Phillip some insignificant claims to an English crown of. Though he should know better, it covered imaginations, that English Catholics waited for him to come and liberate them. . If he had been a better judge of human nature, he would have realized that the English people would never accept their Spanish foe as a ruler. Philip tried to diminish the English peoples anger regarding the invasion by claiming that the attack was not aimed against the people, but at the illegitimate Queen. This was a well-calculated move to get the Catholics on his side, but unfortunately for Philip his army never landed.
Philip blamed the weather (the so-called “Protestant Wind”) for his loss, and excused himself with the statement, “I sent the Armada against men, not Gods winds and waves.” But the weather alone did not bring the English their victory: the English vessels outmaneuvered and outfought the Armada. They won several decisive battles with a naval technique called “broadsiding” that they had newly begun to perfect: this technique involved facing the enemy with the port (left-hand) or starboard (right-hand) side of a ship, rather than facing them head-on; this brought a higher number of guns into action at any one time. Furthermore, popular legend has it that the English ships were smaller than the Spanish, and because of this the ships were more maneuverable. Whether or not they were actually smaller is still debated; however, they were more maneuverable: the English ships were designed lower to the water than the tall galleons, which were meant to be intimidating but which ultimately presented large targets towering out of the waves.
Even as England faced invasion from Catholic Spains Armada, the large number of Catholics in England remained loyal to Elizabeth. After leading England through 30 years of prosperity, she enjoyed popularity even among her religious opponents.
Why did the English win
1. They were near to their naval ports and did not have to travel far to fight the Armada.
2. The English had many advantages with regards to the ships they used. The Spanish put their hope in the power of the galleons. The English used smaller but faster ships. However, they could do little to penetrate the crescent shape of the Armada even though they had powerful cannons on board.
3. The Spanish had different tactics to the English. The English wanted to sink the Spanish ships whereas the Spanish wanted to board our ships and then capture them. To do this they would have to come up alongside our ships leaving them exposed to a broadside from English cannons on our ships.
4. Our ships, being smaller than the Spanish galleons, were more manoeuvrable which was a valuable advantage.
5. The biggest reason for the victory of the English, was the fatal error in the plan of the Spanish. While it sailed in a crescent shape, the Armada was relatively safe. But part of its plan was to stop, pick up sailors and then sail to England. The simple fact that the plan involved stopping the Armada, meant that it was fatally flawed. Warships on the move and in formation gave the Armada protection. Once the ships were still, they were open to attack.
The victory over the Armada was to make Sir Francis Drake a very famous man. The victory was even remembered at Christmas when Elizabeth ordered that everybody should have goose on Xmas Day as that was the meal she had eaten on the evening that she learned that her navy had beaten the Armada.

The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles or essays advocating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven of the essays were published serially in The Independent Journal and The New York Packet between October 1787 and August 1788. The Federalist Papers were published by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay in New York during 1787 and 1788. They were published to sway opinion in New York into ratifying the new American constitution. One of the most important papers in federalists is the tenth, The argument Madison makes is that faction and liberty are inseparable. Instead of focusing on trying to eliminate the causes for faction, the choice of government can control the effects of faction. Madison makes the argument that the means to control the causes of faction is to stamp on dissenting opinions, and remove liberty. In other words oppress until all the polity is of the same opinion. This is totalitarianism. Madison dismisses this as being against the nature of man;
Any individual needs to be concerned about government using the apparatus of the nation-state for the purposes of coercion. Madison was also concerned with this issue, he saw the violence of faction being when a group of individuals created a faction with a common interest that was adverse to individual rights, the rights of minorities and against the common good. Madisons view of common good is similar to the Aristotlean notion of virtue being necessary in the ruling elite.
The Federalist Paper No.10 argues that a republic is capable of controlling the effects of faction, more so than a democracy. The reason put forward is that a system of representation is more capable of protecting the rights of individuals and minorities, as well as being better able to balance the needs of the public good. Madison notes that representatives are more divorced from the issues being raised by factions and consequently better able to create just legislation that is compatible with rights and the public good.
While many of the Federalist Papers seem repetitive, emphasizing the same points over and over again, it is important to remember that the Federalist Papers, were not designed to be like a book, read cover to cover, expounding the strengths of the Constitution, but rather, a piece of propaganda appearing in a newspaper. Clearly, Hamilton, Jay, and Madison did not assume that their readers were familiar with all of their words and hence the repetitive nature of their work.
The “precious advantage” that the United States had in 1787 that offered hope for a “republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government the circumstance which would delay the necessity of accepting Hamiltons favored form of mixed monarchy lay in the predominance of small freehold farmers among the American population. Since the time of Aristotle, it had been recognized that yeoman farmers a middle class between the greedy rich and the envious poor provided the most stable foundation upon which to erect a popular government. This factor, commented on by Madison, Pinckney, Adams, and others, helps explain why the Convention did not feel it necessary to sacrifice either majority rule or popular responsibility in their new Constitution.
It is interesting to note that the plan that Hamilton defends in this paper was not ?theoretically the soundest. The leaders of the Convention realized that a theoretical best and member after member went on record praising the British constitution as the best ever created by man a theoretical best might be the enemy of a possible good. As Pierce Butler insisted, in a different context, “The people will not bear such innovations?Supposing such an establishment to be useful, we must not venture on it. We must follow the example of Solon who gave the Athenians not the best government he could devise, but the best they would receive. The influence of factious leaders may kindle a flame within their particular States, but will be unable to spread a general conflagration through the other States. A religious sect may degenerate into a political faction in a part of the Confederacy; but the variety of sects dispersed over the entire face of it must secure the national councils against any danger from that source. A rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project, will be less apt to pervade the whole body of the Union than a particular member of it; in the same proportion as such a malady is more likely to taint a particular county or district, than an entire State.

In the extent and proper structure of the Union, therefore, we behold a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government. And according to the degree of pleasure and pride we feel in being republicans, ought to be our zeal in cherishing the spirit and supporting the character of Federalists.

Clausewitz was born on June 1, 1780 in Burg bei Magdeburg, Kingdom of Prussia, the fourth and youngest son of a lower middle-class family. His grandfather, the son of a Lutheran pastor, had been a professor of theology. Clausewitzs father was once a lieutenant in the Prussian army and held a minor post in the Prussian internal revenue service. Clausewitz entered the Prussian military service at the age of twelve as a Lance-Corporal, eventually attaining the rank of Major-General. Clausewitzs writings are of fundamental importance not only for their actual content but because they have done so much to influence almost all subsequent Western military thinkers. Even Antoine-Henri Jomini, often improperly understood as Clausewitzs “opposite,” read On War. His own Summary of the Art of War (1838) contains not only several personal insults to Clausewitz but also a great many adaptations of and adjustments to his arguments. The Marxist-Leninists carried him off in their peculiar direction, navalists like Sir Julian Stafford Corbett and the airpower theorists in others, and American nuclear strategists in yet another. It is therefore hard to understand or appreciate the ways in which modern thinkers diverge without an understanding of this central influence. This is true, not despite, but because of the way in which Clausewitzs original concepts have been denied, misunderstood, confused, distorted, evolved, adopted, adapted, and mutated through varying historical circumstances over the past 164 years. This represents not a weakness of Clausewitzian theory but its fundamental, flexible, adaptable stength??”if also sometimes the willfulness or boneheadedness of its consumers. The great value of On War is that it integrates a vast range of military concerns (political, strategic, operational, tactical, analytical, historical, and pedagogical) within this fundamental socio-political framework. No other coherent body of theory comes close to successfully interrelating such a wide range of considerations, and none is so flexible in adapting to political and historical change. Otherwise, we would not still be arguing about it. The theory of warfare tries to discover how we may gain a preponderance of physical forces and material advantages at the decisive point. As this is not always possible, theory also teaches us to calculate moral factors: the likely mistakes of the enemy, the impression created by a daring action, . . . yes, even our own desperation. None of these things lie outside the realm of the theory and art of war, which is nothing but the result of reasonable reflection on all the possible situations encountered during a war. We should think very frequently of the most dangerous of these situations and familiarize ourselves with it. Only thus shall we reach heroic decisions based on reason, which no critic can ever shake.
War is a combination of many distinct engagements. Such a combination may or may not be reasonable, and success depends very much on this. Yet the engagement itself is for the moment more important. For only a combination of successful engagements can lead to good results. The most important thing in war will always be the art of defeating our opponent in combat.
Carl von Clausewitz??™s purpose in analyzing war is purely theoretical and not prescriptive. To the question ???What is war??? he answers: ???War is an act of violence to compel our opponent to fulfill our will War is not an isolated act; it is an extension of Politic??”a blatant instrument of such policy. The decision to go to war and the proposed goal beyond victory are political, not military. Theory must, however, be analyzed in the context of real events. A paper war is not a real war; a real war is subject to influence by chance and circumstance. Real war is dangerous for its participants and is a test of their exertion.
War is not only ???an elaborate duel??? a vast drama??”a comedy for the victor, a tragedy for the loser. From another point of view, war is a game and a ???gamble???, both objectively and subjectively. A theory of war must be an analytical investigation that later might prove beneficial to reason and judgment. It must consider the ends and means of warfare, which consist of strategy and tactics. Tactics are the uses to which the army is put to achieve victory. Strategy has to do with the plan for achieving victory. The real activity of war lies in the tactical aspect of battle, since tactics govern fighting. The immediate object of battle is to destroy or overcome the enemy, but the ultimate object is to subject the enemy to one??™s will in a political sense. Toward this end a combatant may desire to enforce whatever peace it pleases; it may occupy the enemy??™s frontier districts and use them to make satisfactory bargains at the peace settlements.
Main goal in this paper has been to explore Clausewitz??™s ideas in two main areas. The first is Clausewitz??™s ethical outlook on the problem of war, and the second is his view on the role of moral opportunity in international affairs. In both foreign policy and war, Clausewitz seems to accept that those in the service of the state should act in accordance with an ethic of responsibility, and subordinate personal moral concerns to the state??™s interests. However,
Clausewitz does not argue that the content of these state interests is predetermined. Their variance over time has implications for limitations on decisions to go to war, limitations on actions within war, and opportunities for developing amity in international affairs.
Many of Clausewitz??™s key themes also contain an either implicit or explicit argument for the benefits of moderation. Clausewitz??™s work on war reflects sensitivity to its costs, and a seeming disapproval of senseless violence and destruction. In fact, he is more likely to look on the use of force with the tragic acceptance of Max Weber than with the almost gleeful anticipation of Machiavelli. At the same time, he accepts that war is a continual prospect. Its devastation can at best be limited, and this limitation is possible only to the extent that statesmen and commanders on both sides of a conflict are able to manage a rational balancing of means and purposes. As for the opportunity to seek and act in accordance with common interests in international affairs, Clausewitz is likely to have seen it as a theoretical possibility, but also to have thought that it had little role to play in his own times.
What one will not find in Clausewitz is a story of progress. He does not explore how the subject of his master work could become obsolete, or even more rare, in the affairs of mankind. However, Clausewitz does suggest that
limitations on the use of force between states are dependent on the characteristics of the age. To evaluate the prospects, statesmen must judge the nature of the societies and governments involved, and the relationships between them. It seems likely that, if statesmen were to undertake such an examination in today??™s world, many of them would not find their state??™s existence so threatened that there is no room for choice.

Categories: General

The economy and the mainstream of British cities

March 29, 2017 • admin

paper:The economy and the mainstream of British cities?

Sheffield is a large city located in South Yorkshire, England. As a city with abundant classical music heritage, Sheffield shares common trends but also differs from other UK cities in certain aspects. Its biggest success is to combine tourism with such music heritage and to bring the music industry into the next level. This article will provide detailed comparison in terms of historical background, economy and major industry, cultural strategies, and social identity between Sheffield and other cities in the UK, such as Manchester, London or Birmingham.

Sheffield is located in central England with a population of more than 540,000. It is the UKs fourth largest city. Being in the center of Britains railway and highway network, its traffic is very convenient. As a city of famous education and multiple cultures, Sheffield™s biggest industry used to be the steel industry but gradually shifts towards a cultural renaissance.

Like many cities in Britain, Sheffield has a long tradition of the manufacturing industry that nurtured the working class who entertain by the form on music and avant-garde performance.

Like other cities, Sheffield went through de-industrialization during the 80s. While many cities draws competition between each other by attracting new investment opportunities and forming business integration, Sheffield recognizes that establishing a key industry around music falls along with its development schemes. Its development of the Cultural Industry Quarter (CIQ) as a reaction of the declination of steel industry and prosperity of local music bands prompted the City Council to think of cultural industry as a new growing sector (Brown, OConnor, & Cohen, 2000). Buildings were renovated into studios and rehearsal facilities for adapting the music industry, following with the opening of the National Centre for Popular Music (NCPM) as a visitor attraction (Brown, OConnor, & Cohen, 2000). The fact that Sheffield has this council-supported music industry is crucial because it not only promotes the city™s economy, but also helps build up its image.

Popular music is a cultural strategy for many of the British cities, such as Manchester, Newcastle and Birmingham, but especially in Sheffield. When fans go visit these cities, they will associate the experience with the musicians from there and participate in a variety of music scenes™ with great satisfaction (Long, 2014). In the current economic landscape of globalization, the right cultural strategy is crucial for a city™s social development. In Sheffield™s case, it has a marketing campaign called Creative Sheffield™ which developed programs focusing on music and cultural legacy, focusing on local artists, music festival venues, and music scenes (Long, 2014). This could help attract more tourists who share the same value in terms of music and culture. Meanwhile, it also help on transforming the traditional music industry which is being crushed by internet digitalization.

Manchester, which is also a city known for pop music and bands, has a slightly different approach and cultural pattern.

London™s main cultural strategy lies in the combination of landscape and buildings. The most obvious culture attraction in London is the Royal Family and related heritage.

In terms of social identity, surveys were conducted among a certain groups of musicians who had recorded and performed in different British cities. According to one of the famous Sheffield producer who has worked with many well-known artists, Sheffield is a city without distractions from public and media attention, whereas in other major cities he has experienced such problem (Long, 2014). The interviewee also praised Sheffield for having affordable and accessible music facilities for recording and rehearsal purposes compared with London, and the local government supports these facilities as we have discussed in the beginning of this article. Other interviewees claim that the music industry in Sheffield has nice resources and networks, which are surrounded with a cool, non-surveillance atmosphere (Long, 2014).

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Categories: General

The Indian Uprising Sepoy Mutiny of 1857

March 29, 2017 • admin

Seattle University
The Indian Uprising/ Sepoy Mutiny of 1857
Paper One
Submitted to
Dr. Hazel Hahn
History Department
Thaleedah Gusti
Seattle, Washington
Although the British had denied it over the next few months they had lost control of much of north-central India. There were civil rebellions along with the military rebellion which intensified the tone to an all-out popular revolt that enveloped all classes of the population. At that time, the total amount of British forces in India was about 40,000, a relatively small number. They could do little to curb the progress of the revolt. Rebel forces took Delhi, Lucknao, and Kanpur in the spring and summer of 1857 establishing the cities as the three most important centers of revolt.
It wasn??™t long before the British counter-rebellion forces began to make an impact on the revolt. The small British and Indian force that had been attacking Delhi were reinforced by a moveable column from the Punjab and they recaptured the city on September 21, 1857. Just a couple months later General Sir Colin Campbell, who was the Commander-in-Chief in India, successfully broke the siege and evacuated Lucknao on November 17th. However, the fighting did not end with the end of the siege, combat continued around Lucknao, Jhansi, Gwalior, and Bareilly until the middle of 1858.
The rebellion greatly influenced popular opinions of the Indians and the East India Company in Britain. An expansion of British media allowed the events of the rebellion to reach a mass audience in Britain. The British used the events of the rebellion as a way to provide proof of the racial depravity of the mutinous sepoys. This was donewhile also justifying vengeance on a scale that might have otherwise provoked moral outrage in Britain. The British also silenced any competing narratives about the rebellion, putting in their place narratives that depicted the British response to the rebellion as righteous.
British morale went up as they their support grew, and they won many more battles than before. Some British troops adopted a policy of ???no prisoners??? so any rebels found were executed often brutally. Many rebels were hung or faced a firing squad as punishment. Some others though faced much more gruesome punishments, such as being blown from a cannon. A process in which the prisoner would be placed before the mouth of a cannon and blown to pieces. The end of the rebellion was followed by the mass execution of combatants from the Indian side as well as large numbers of civilians perceived to be sympathetic to the rebel cause. The British press and government did not advocate clemency of any kind.
The East India Company invaded India with such forceful lack of respect for the native Indian culture that the Rebellion now seems to have been inevitable. The Company??™s first mistake was treating the sepoy and Indian civilians not as people but as sources of cheap labor. Had they also respected the deeply engrained traditions and culture of the Indian people they may not have suffered through the violent Rebellion. Prejudices were also encouraged and strengthened as a result of the Rebellion and one sided media coverage. Historians must study the passionate accounts of the Rebellion to piece together what happened.

Categories: General

Policy Analysis

March 29, 2017 • admin

PAD 260

Substantive and Supportive Activities
Ch. 7 ???Organizing??? p.329
Ch. 4 ???Administrative Responsibility???
Program implementation needs substantive and supportive activities in order to function.

Substantive activities: are directly goal oriented. Result producing. There must be a mandate, a policy declaration. The UN declaration is an example. Example is, submitting papers.
Support activities: machinery of implementation for reaching the goal. Result contributing. Example is getting to school, getting the books (from the library or online).
Commonalities, they both require a mandate and a budget. Difference is that substantive is goal directed and support is a machinery. Substantive should take 70% of funds while support take 30% however, this is not the case. Support activities are more expensive in some cases.

Activities of organizations fall into 4 categories:
1. Top management activities ??“ have to maintain external relations to achieve the mission, you have to design plain responsibilities for budget and planning.
2. Result producing substantive activities ??“ you need to do a performance evaluation and assessment of the staff and the unit as a whole.
3. Result contributing (support) activities ??“ training, home resource management (they are not directly involved in the end result but the make sure that the company has the right stuff), budgeting
4. House keeping ??“ discussing what??™s needed for the organizations, building, premises and maintenance of it.

Areas of support activities:
* Management and Budgetary Administration
* Budgeting and Accounting
* Human Resources Management

There are some special support services when it comes to IPA organizations
Special Support Services (IPA Org.):
* Security and Safety
* Interpretation and Translation
* Transportation
* Public Information
* Premises ??“ Supplies
* Inform Technology

Meetings (away from HQs)
* Substantive ??“ identify the problem and come up with a plan
* Location and purpose of meeting ??“
* Determine desired and needed participants (establish a ratio) – experts, people who were affected, the media, people involved in public opinion, the gov??™t
* Design a Conference Program (come up with an itinerary, what will happen during four days of the conference). Also have key speakers
* Budget requirements and budget allocated
* Result. Final Document ??“ Plan of Action (follow-up)
* Support Activities:
* Invitations for attendance
* Program and budget estimates
* Arrange for conference site
* Translation/Implementation and other conference services (we have to process documents paper, all the invited ppl. have to know about the background of the topic/issue/s).
* Public Information Arrangements ??“ the public needs to be updated about what happened in the meeting.

Mission (Peace Keeping Operation, PKO Relief)
* Planning and programming the daily operation
* Ensure budget requirements
* Consult governments for provision of administrative civilian, police and military staff.
* Travel to area
* Monitoring/Evaluation

Categories: General

Research on human senses

March 29, 2017 • admin

Research on human senses,(),?

The density of receptors for each sensory system is related to the level of necessity for the stimulation to evoke sensation. As a consequence, different body parts have different levels of skin sensitivity. To test which part of our skin is more sensible than others,we used the method of limits in an experiment among a group of year one students at the University of Southampton to find out the sensory threshold of the five body parts: middle finger, forehead, cheek, forearm and calf. In the experiment, we made use of the ascending series and descending series of the method of limits to determine the threshold of sensory (distance between two points of compass) at which two points of the skin can be detected. From data of the experiment, we conclude that finger have higher sensitivity than other parts of skin.

When we touch our skin,different part of skin have different level of sensitivity.Some part of skin is dull,while some part of skin is sensitive.It is because different region of brain receive information from different part of body.Martin, Carlson, and Buskist (2013) explained that Some parts of the brain are disproportionately involved in certain bodily movements, such as those involving the lips and hands(P126). How can we measure the sensitivity of skin?We choose some students from a year 1 practical class as participants randomly, and each was designated a body part, finger, calf, cheek, forearm, and forehead. In the experiment,we use method of limits,which is used to determine the threshold of sensory feeling by either gradually increasing and/or decreasing the magnitude of the stimulus in discrete steps until the stimulus becomes noticeable or unnoticeable by the participant.

Martin, Carlson, and Buskist (2013) think that the most common measure of the tactile discrimination of a region of skin is the two-point discrimination threshold.To determine this measure, an experimenter touches a person with one or both legs of a pair of dividers and asks the person to say whether the sensation is coming from on or two points(P179). According to the theory above, we touched the participant with two or one point to test the discrimination of different part of skin.To insure the accuracy of the result,we set a high standard of answering( 3 out of 4 trials correct). Besides, we control the variable of gender and age to make sure that the difference of threshold is not because of the two variable.

Participants in the study were recruited by convenience sampling, as there were 120 year one students who study the module Empirical Studies at University of Southampton. The average age of 120 participants in the group was about 19.98, and there was a high female to male ratio(97:23). Participants were then separated into groups of four or five depending on where they happened to sit next to or close to and within themselves, they decided what area of the body part they wanted to assigned to. Then the tester will start the experiment.

Independent measure was used in the experiment as different participants were used in each condition of the independent variable. Independent variables (IV) were body parts that the participants were assigned to (Calf, forearm, cheek, middle finger and forehead) while the dependent variable (DV) was the sensitivity (Threshold at which two points of the skin can detected)

The DV was measured using the method of limits, which is used to determine the threshold of sensory feeling by either gradually increasing (Ascending series) and/or decreasing (Decending series) the magnitude of the stimulus in discrete steps until the stimulus becomes noticeable or unnoticeable by the participant.Ascending series is to set the distance between divider points to 2mm and increase the distance to 12mm until two points are detected, while descending series is to set distance started at 12mm and decrease the distance until two points can no longer be detect.The procedures of ascending series and descending series were both performed four times, two with 2 points, two with 1 point.Compared to practice1,only when the participant was correct on 3outof the 4 trials can the procedure stopped. Ruler was used to measure the distance between the points of the compass (cleaned by antibacterial wipes before use) before the simulations. A Results sheet for each body part was used for each body part and each participant while a Small Group Results Summary sheet was used to collect results from each group (all 5 body parts).

According to table 1,calf has the highest mean threshold of sensitivity of 7.52 while finger has the lowest mean threshold of sensitivity of 2.36. And ,the mean threshold of sensitivity of forearm, forehead, calf and cheek are all relatively close (ranging from 6 to 7); besides, the mean threshold of the finger is comparatively low and is further away from that range.In addition, the highest standard deviation of the body part is 2.73 of calf while the lowest is 1.15 of finger. Therefor,we can conclude that, calf has the greatest devotion to the data of thresholds, whilst finger contribute least.And,the data of distribution of threshold in the calf group is positively skewed while the data from the other body part groups tend to be more normally distributed.

As shown in figure1to figure5, When tester touches the skin of participants, the skin on finger is more sensible compared to skin on other parts, which maybe mean that finger and cheek has more relevance with brain.And the distance between two points people can feel ranging from 2.0”3.9. As you know, when brain of people suffers from some damage,some function of body may lose to varying degrees.From the experiment, we may have an assumption that , the function of finger is influenced most by the brain.

Besides, we have verified control variables of gender and age. In the table2 and table 3, both number of sig is higher than 0.05.Therefore, we can conclude that variables of gender and age have no relevance with threshold in a significant level of 0.05.

The experiment has devoted some data for me, and I also conclude some conclusions. The standard deviation of finger group, forearm group and forehead group are both low, which means the reliability of the data of the three group is  higher than the others. The data of finger group is a good proof that finger has the highest sensitivity among the five parts of skin, which further explains some part of brain controlling the sense of skin involves more in finger™s movements. But whether the experiment is efficiently measuring the relevance between brain and different parts of skin still need our more attention, and we have to improve our method of measuring.

As far as I can see, to enhance the reliability and validity, except for increasing the standard of measuring threshold, we can rely on increasing the number of sample, introducing more control variable and decreasing the incremental distance between two point as well as increasing the frequency of testing procedure.

As for control variables, I have excluded gender and age.In my opinion, we can introduce variables of physical condition and psychologic status into experiment, which may have great influence on the results. As for age, we must considerate that the participants in the experiment are of similar age.And due to the similar age, the result we have concluded may be incorrect. Besides, the sex ratio of the participants in the sample is too lopsided. And due to the small sample we based, the conclusion that gender has no relevance with threshold is not so convictive. Therefore, in the following experiment, size of sample, the control variable and age as well as the condition of participants should be taken great attention.

Martin, Carlson, and Buskist(2013) think the three regions of primary sensory cortex in each hemisphere receive information from the opposite side of the body(P124). From the experiment, we can see that different part of skin have different sensitivity, but we can not obtain more tight relevance between body and brain. To test the connection between body and brain further, we may test the different sensitivity between left arm and right arm as well as left cheek and right cheek, or touching different part of skin at the same time. What™s more, we can set interference factor when we do research, we can let participants listening wonderful music or smelling the perfume while we are touching his/her skin.If a mean of somewhere of body is lower than other parts, it shows that brain has very tight relevance with the part of skin.

Martin, Carlson, and Buskist (2013) think that sensitivity to subtle difference in touch and pressure varies widely across the surface of the body (P179). But what is the most subtle difference touch our different part of skin can detect. We can use different level of strength to touch different part of skin until we can not notice the touch in our skin to measure the sensitivity of different part of skin.

What I have expounded is not full, we can develop more efficient and scientific method of measurement to measure sensory threshold and the relevance between different part of body

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Categories: General

The Inconsistency Between the Title of the Two Gallants, and the Characters of These Short Story

March 28, 2017 • admin

The inconsistency between the title of the Two Gallants, and the characters of these short story
James Joyce gave an ironic title to her short story. Both of its two main characters, Corley and Lenehan are totally different from the concept of a gallant. Considering that the story is about two adult men, those who persuade a young woman to rob her employer, that criminal act is an apology for gallantry.
The gallant word signifies a fashionable, generous man, who gives polite attention to women, namely it has an absolutely positive meaning. The main characters do nothing in the story, which may be called generosity. They ignominiously exploit the young maid – her emotions and naivety – which is an unprincipled conduct.
The theft was craftily convinced of and executed by Corley. His occupation is not mentioned in the short story, even though it is obvious, that he does not have much money. The slave has an affection for Corley and hereby he influenced her judgement. First he induced the girl to do her some oddments, like ???paying the tram??? or taking some cigarettes, finally the maid steals him a gold coin from her employer.
The other character, Lenehan takes part of the stealing only on an indirect way however he was anxious about the plunder too. He is sceptical about the result of the activity besides he worries about getting nabbed. The personality of Lenehan and Corley are similar, they both live dissolute lives in their thirties. They have no secure job or background, for this reason of that they choose the easier way to get money: the guiltiness instead of the uprightness.
Considering the fact that the two ???gallants??? tempt to stealing the gullible slave in their own interest, they are not generous to anybody but us. That causes the inconsistency between the title and the personality of the main characters.

Categories: General

Policy Address 2011-2012

March 28, 2017 • admin

The current policy address 2011-2012 is the last policy address announced by the Chief Executive Donald Tsang.
There are five main aspects of the policy address, they are housing policy, caring for the elderly, supporting people in need, investing for the future and the quality life, whose are the policies geared towards the continuous improvement of people??™s livelihood. The topics that cause most people concerns are the government will provide 7500 public renting housing in the next five years to fix the insufficient of housing problem in Hong Kong.
The other topic is the employment support by the government. The government allocates $100 million to help NGOs establish small enterprises employing people with disabilities and provide 1 000 additional education and in-service training places in service industries for young people.
For the ageing population in Hong Kong, the government increase subsidised community care places for the elderly and increase subsidised residential care places for the elderly, which provide nursing and a continuum of care.
I think the current policy address can improve the people??™s livelihood on some ways, because I think there are some limitations on it. As the address can provide a large amount of public renting housing to people in need it can surely solve the insufficient supply of public housing and the high property prices will be fix. Besides, the solutions made by the government are good to face the ageing population. Hong Kong people become more longevity, the number of elderly will keep rising, so the subsidized community care places and residential care places for the elderly is essential.
However, there are limitations on the address of the employment support. The government decided to provide 1 000 additional education and in-service training places in service industries for young people. Is 1000 training places are enough for the young people to find their jobs in the future, of course not! Therefore, I think the government should consider more about the unemployment rate of young people.

Categories: General

Homosexuality is legal

March 28, 2017 • admin

Homosexuality is legal?,?

Homosexuality is a problem worthy of consideration, and opinions are divided on this issue. Some people agree with the recognition of same-sex marriage, the recognition of its legitimacy, and some people hold a negative attitude. But I do agree with the recognition of same-sex marriage.On the issue of homosexuality of support or not ,this paper has analyzed and researched the total view of different people,and their supporting points and opposite points,as well as deliver my own views on these arguments. Their arguments are supporting the homosexuality or not,and if so,analyzed their supporting points on this issue.Or if not,analyzed their opposite  points on this issue. I give the detail response on these arguments,that is I do agree with the recognition of same-sex marriage.So,please see bellow researching.

Research on the Total Views of Homosexuality

It is often considering the existence of homosexuality in today™s life, it makes us very worried. We worried about the impact of the health of the community, and worried about the future of human evolution and development. Human reproduction is from the beginning of biological origin, from the physical and polar movement and the formation of natural. In the historical course of biological evolution, the opposite sex reproduction natural response(Shannon Ridgway, 2014), on this issue, even if specific anatomical structure, organ function, and physiological functions are different but complementary and unified (Stephanie Pappas), it is mutual needs and become instinct of human emotion ,it is the healthy people in love healthy  reflected, thus allowing humans to infinite generations and health evolution.(Zremski, J. 2010). For some people to talk about, the recognition of same-sex marriage, the recognition of its reasonable, legitimate, people feel very worried. What is more worrying is that people do not have a correct understanding of this issue,is it in the end recognized the reasonable health? Or denial of reasonable health? The answer is, “no,” to be reasonable. From the dialectical view, the microscopic nature of the decision, and the impact of its movement, but the macro stage of the movement will make changes in the micro, and promote the next movement stage.

Similarly, homosexual marriage movement, in a certain period of time after the movement, will certainly affect human beings from the psychological to physiological movement of the micro, until the change. It has a negative impact on all aspects of this will be unbearable to contemplate on human reproduction, evolution and development. Therefore, for same-sex marriage, must be denied. Whether it can promote same-sex marriage, it must be negative, because, in the society to promote this unhealthy marriage, will break through peoples inherent feelings about love, and some related physiological reactions, psychological adverse. A certain period, into a disguised recognition, this way, will be in peoples psychological and spiritual formation of a potential guidance, a serious consequence, the formation of a certain degree of vicious circle. Therefore, it should not be recognized, does not recognize, in order to benefit the human mental health. But whether they are gay or straight, they are people, they should have the right to have a natural person, so people should not discriminate against them. But I hope that people can find a way to treat this kind of psychological and emotional disorders as soon as possible.(Riess, J. 2000 )

Research on the Opposite Side of the Homosexuality

But oppositely ,some people have argument that ,no one is born with a natural sexual orientation, nor does any mammal have a sexual orientation. Many people call the title of homosexuality is itself a kind of wrong understanding and cognition, the same sex is not allowed to have a love. This is a problem that is against the natural evolution and ethics of human beings. It is not a question of what rights. The so-called sexual orientation is acquired to develop, is a male or female growth process of human factors caused by the sexual orientation of the twisted and abnormal problem. This is a mental illness! It is the sex distortion caused by the psychological metamorphosis! There is a part of man-made mistakes lead to individual sexual orientation appear extremely distorted and eventually become a social cancer. Homosexuality is not the right of the mental disease itself, but the existence of this kind of growth environment in the presence of abnormal distortion of the state. So, this kind of so-called gay many are not eradicated, but there is a part of it can be corrected by psychotherapy.(Schaub, D. 1996)

Research on the Supporting of the Homosexuality

The supporters said ,the sexual orientation of human being is a kind of emotional reaction in psychology. Emotional reactions are usually contained within the body of the endocrine activity, is a physiological process, this physiological activity process to bring people to certain or pleasant or sad or happy(Sara Stewart, 2015), such as the perception of reaction, and conduction to the brain and other central, people have the judgment and choice, people from this behavior. Homosexuality, is a reflection of the emotional disorder, the complexity of the process of endocrine activity, and is the nature of the response by people.I agree with them. (Kirby, D. 2000)

There are gay and lesbian, should pay attention to adjust their own emotional reflection, adjust their relative to the opposite sex psychology.(Brett White, 2014) For example, you can imagine yourself face to the opposite sex, and then I must be happy, and then open the mood to work and learn to live, so that a day or a work plan, so as to adjust their emotions, and slowly tend to normal physiological activity. Healthy sexual orientation not more mysterious, because too much thinking but will damage their health emotional instincts, doped too much rational consciousness reflect, disadvantageous.(Azzolina, D. 2004 )

My Response on these Supporters and Opposites

After the analyzed above ,in my opinion, there are no unhealthy people in the this word–Homosexuality, that is, ordinary people, but the sexual orientation is different from most people.( Paris, J., Zweig-Frank, H., & Guzder, J. 1995)Lefties used is considered to be bad, the parents found the child is left handers will beat and scold, forcing him or her to only use the right hand, now is not accepted. I used to think that homosexuality is sick, and later on a set of special programs to see the National Geographic, confirmed that the animal community generally exist in the phenomenon of homosexuality, from the lower level of the insects to the senior mammals are, almost all species exist, then changed the view. On the other hand, as long as the gay not malicious harassment violates the rights of other people, we also do not have the qualifications to accuse them of, other peoples way of life, to do with others.


On the issue of homosexuality,this paper has analyzed and researched the total view of different people,and their supporting points and opposite points,as well as deliver my own views on these arguments.My conclusion view is that ,human should support their own rights to fall in love with whom–both heterosexual or homosexuality.Looking ahead,the homosexuality people will be more and more democracy and equality as the common people ,and they will have a happy life to live in the society. The society will make more and more progress.So,let us have a deepening research in the future.

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Categories: General