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Month: March 2017

Policy Process

March 31, 2017 • admin

The Policy Process of the Health Reform
Maxine Brown
University of Phoenix
HCS/455
January 30, 2011
Denise Morrow

The Policy Process of the Health Reform
Health reform has been the topic of discussion for many years but the government has not came up with a plan that would benefit the both the American people and policymakers until recently. The health care deficit has raised out-of-control the past several year because of uninsured Americans and the cost to operate the health care systems. The American people rely on health care and the government simply cannot afford to finance health in the condition it is currently in. This is why a new health reform has to be form to meet the need of uninsured Americans and simply cannot afford health care. The reform is also design to provide assistance to policy officials a financial balance in health care is available. Before a new health reform can become law, there are steps in which has to take place with the government. This is the policy process and within this process there are three main stages such as the formulation, legislative, and implementation. On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the new health reform bill (H. R. 4872) that gave all Americans the right to have affordable health coverage. This paper will cite a breakdown of the policy process it took to pass the new health care reform law (H. R. 4872).

The Formulation Stage
As in any development stage, there has to be a starting point. This is true for the health reform to create a plan to implement that will drive down the cost of health care as well as provide the necessary health coverage Americans can afford. Before a bill becomes law, it has to enter the first stage. In the formulation stage, the President, who is the commander and chief, and is responsible for the shape of Americans economy, has to recognize that there is a problem with the health care system in America, and then develop a plan. In time, this plan will be known as the health care bill that addresses the needs of the current health care situations. After the development of this plan, the president will then present the bill to Congress. In the text, authors David Blumenthal and James Morone (2008) states ???When the president identifies a problem it immediately zooms to the top of the political charts.??? At this time, the bill will carefully examine by the Congress and discuss how it will best benefit the American people. Some president from the past has tried to maneuver Congress by speaking straight to the people concerning the bill (Blumenthal & Morone, 2008). This is a critical time for the president because Congress could kill the bill at any time.

Legislative Stage
When the health reform bill (H. R. 4872) enters the second stage of the policy process, which is the legislative stage. This is stage when Congress receives the bill from the president for reconstruction so the best solution to solve the health care problems be presented and discussed among other congressional leaders. The other levels of the legislative stage that the bill has to go through were the introduction, reading of the H. R. 4872, and reading and voting of the bill. In the introduction stage, Congress has much to consider but most of these consideration will not pass. In an article from About.com, author Robert Longley (2011) states, ???In a typical session of Congress well over 10,000 pieces of legislation are introduced for consideration, but only about 2 percent will make it through the legislative process to end up being signed into law by the president.??? During the introduction process, the bill may be given to House of Representative or the Senate for review. Mainly, bills are usually introduce to the House of Representatives in which it is printed in a journal of the House or Senate instead of read aloud on the floor. This was done to expedite time by referred the suitable group or committees.

Once the groups or committees have receive their journals, they will began to break down the health care bill and obtain input from the government agencies most affected to meet the needs of the people. If a decision of a specific situation cannot be resolve, the committee may call a public meeting to discuss important matters. The other different level of committee is called a subcommittee. The subcommittee asks for a whole committee approval, disapproval, or table of the bill (Longley, 2011). It will also ask for the bill to be amendment at that time. After the committee review the health care bill and make decisions on its findings, the bill will be returned to the full House or Senate for review again. Although majority of these bills that once were presented earlier in the process died in the committee process.
The second level of the legislative process is the reading of the bill from the House or Senate. This is when the House or Senate will take under consideration, and the bill will be placed on an official calendar (Longley, 2011). The other round of floor debates from the Senate or representatives concerning the bill and possibly adds an amendment to the health care bill. If an amendment is added, the Senate and representative usually debate and vote on it at a different time. The last section of the reading of the bill is the filibuster that involves Senates only. With filibuster, the majority of the bills will be defeated because it allows any officer of the Senate to voice his or her opinion reason the bill should not pass. If the Senate would want to avoid a filibuster they would need to pass a cloture with three-fourths of the floor votes. By doing this the majority of the House with the votes will reduce the time for debating and filibusters.
The third and last level of the legislation process is the reading and voting of the bill. This is when the full House or Senate votes within two ways, a single voice, or roll call (Longley, 2011). The policy process continues to another part of Congress to pass the health care bill in which it goes through the same process as before through the House and Senate. If another amendment is added, it may be approved as is, voted out or approved with other amendment attached by a joint House or Senate conference committee. The conference committee will make changes to the amendment so it is passable and file a report of the bill changes. After the bill changes are presented, the House and Senate once more have to vote on passing or denying the changes of the bill.
If the bill passes the legislative stage, it goes back to the president from once again. The president has to review the changes of the health care bill and make a decision whether to pass or veto it. His decision will be based upon the amendment changes and if the health care bill still beneficial for the American people. If the president believes that the American people can benefits from the bill, he will sign it and at that time the bill will become law. On the other hand, if the president decides the American people will not benefit, he will veto the bill and send it back to Congress again. This

Implementation Stage
On March 23, 2010, President Barack Obama agrees with the changes and sign the health care reform H. R. 4872 into law, although the implementation stage suppose to begin affecting American by 2014 but citizens will experience it much sooner. The implementation stage will take effect immediately with changes in the Medicare Part D program, by closure of the ???donut hole??? on prescription drug coverage; providing free preventive care under Medicare and offering early retirement benefits. The other programs the health reform provides for American are insurance for the uninsured, extended covered for older children, health coverage for people with pre-existing conditions and more health care facilities and workers. The reform offers more implementation programs that will improve the quality of care for Americans and reducing the budget.

Conclusion
The health reform went through several changes before becoming a law. The law was examined closely by the House of Representatives and Senate in which amendments were added better to serve the American people. Although the amendments adjust the original plan that President Barack Obama submitted, it still was in the best interest of the people. Some American may argue that the health reform is not perfect, even though it is not, but it requires that all Americans have affordable health care coverage that will help decrease the cost of health care. The health reform survives the Congress and ready to provide coverage to Americans with pre-existing conditions. In an article from Businesspundit.com (2010), states, ???We need reform. We??™re in a situation where healthcare is even becoming unaffordable to employers, leaving employees with higher out-of-pocket expenses even if they are ensured. Healthcare costs have jettisoned innumerable people from the middle class. People get sick and die because insurers won??™t take them. This isn??™t functional. Any kind of reform helps.??? Even though some elderly are suffering because the reform cause for more cuts will be made to Medicare, it is still necessary to have a new health care reform so America can start repairing it is health care deficit problem.

References
Blumenthal, David and Morone, James. (2008). Presidents. In Health Politics and Policy, Fourth Edition Chapter 5:. Retrieved January 28, 2011, from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx.

Business Pundit. (2010). 9 Pros and Cons of the New Health-Care Reform Bill. Retrieved January 29, 2011, from http://www.businesspundit.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-the-new- health-care-reform-bill/.

Longley, Robert. (2011). The Legislative Process. In About.comUS Government Info. Retrieved January 28, 2011, from http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/a/studylegproc.htm.

Categories: General

The Influence of a Poem

March 31, 2017 • admin

The Influence of a Poem
Charity Alexander
ENG 125: Introduction into Literature
Mr. Stephen Rogers
March 10, 2013

The Influence of Page 1

The poem that I chose for this assignment is The Oak by Alfred, Lord Tennyson. This poem has a way of gaining a reader??™s interest and Tennyson uses several different elements of poetry to help a person to understand his poem. Tennyson uses the elements of figurative language, symbolism, and rhyme to describe an oak tree and it??™s similarities to the various stages of a human life. I was able to use these elements to better understand this comparison and enjoy this poem even more.
At first reading , I really did not grasp the concept of a tree going through the same stage as a human. After reading this poem several times, however, I began to understand it better and found it to be a great poem. Tennyson uses figurative language by the use of a simile to compare human developmental stages to that of the seasons of nature and their effects on an oak tree. This comparison made me feel as if the author was relating these two things throughout the entire poem to show how alike our lives are to the life of this strong oak tree. The author also personifies the oak tree by using ???he??? to refer to the changes of the oak tree and its relationship to the stage of our lives. ???All his leaves, Fall??™n at length, look, he stands trunk and bough, Naked Strength.(Clugston, 2010). These lines demonstrate personification of the oak tree and helped me to see the oak take on these human qualities.
The oak tree, through the use of these words, seemed to me to symbolize a human man going through the stages of life . Just as the oak tree goes through spring, summer, fall and winter, a human also goes through these stages only in different ways. Tennyson uses the way that the tree looks in each of these seasons, to show the similarities of each. The use of this symbolism helped me to see the way the tree looked and then to transfer this to the way that a human may also look during these changes.
I think that the use of symbols and symbolism through this poem is important to being able to understand the poem??™s underlying message. I think that Tennyson used the tree to symbolize strength and wisdom, and to allow the reader to see the strength within themselves and within a human as they go through the various stages of their life. There are several different symbols that helped me to understand this underlying message, but this I feel was the most important of them.
The way in which the rhyme that Tennyson used helped me to understand this poem better is that it made the poem easier to read and allowed me to concentrate on the meanings of the words and not spend time trying to decipher complicated words and how they were being used. I enjoy reading poems that are written in rhyme patterns because sometimes even the rhyme patterns are meant to express a certain feeling or ???music??? for the reader to find. In reading this poem out loud, I found that each line seem to have 3 beats per line. This made it easier to read and more interesting to do so. Tennyson also used rhyming words to make the poem flow
Influence of Page 2
easier. An example of this is the line??? Young and old, like yon oak, bright in spring, living gold.???(Clugston, 2010). I also noticed that this poem seems to be written in a zig zag pattern, I like to think that even this may have been intentional. By writing the poem in this pattern, It seems to follow the trail that a falling leaf might make as it travels down to the ground. This may have been intentional or just a fluke of writing, no one but Tennyson would know for sure.
This poem has become one of my favorite poems and I think that Tennyson did a great job ???illustrating??? the similarities of the life cycle of an oak tree and the stages of human life. By using figurative language, symbolism, and rhyming, the poet was able to give the readers a greater meaning than that of a poem about an oak tree. These elements were helpful in creating the meaning of this poem and making it easier and more enjoyable to read. I think that the comparison of an oak tree and a human going through the stages of life was a unique way to lead readers to a new understanding of the beauty of human life in all its stages, and the strength that each one of those stages has.

References:
Clugston, R. W. (2010).? Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Information retrieved from: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUENG125.10.2/sections/sec10.3

Categories: General

Compare Two Artists

March 31, 2017 • admin

paper:Compare Two Artists

Among all the world™s famous artists,
there are two of them that left me a deep impression. One of them is
Michelangelo and the other one is the famous Leonardo Da Vinci. A lot of art
experts have mentioned that Michelangelo is a better artist then Leonardo Da
Vinci, However, I respectfully disagree. I claimed that not because of my
particular obsession with Leonardo Da Vinci. On the contrary, I believe these
two artists both share similarities and at the same time, they differ in some
ways that show their unique talents.

In fact, Michelangelo
is regarded as the rival of another Renaissance artist called Leonardo Da
Vinci. It is obvious that these two artists shared the same period of time.
Both of them lived and worked in the same period. However, Michelangelo is more
than twenty years younger than Leonardo Da Vinci. Therefore, it means that when
Michelangelo decided to start his career as an artist, Leonardo Da Vinci has
already established his reputation. What™s more, at the period of time when
Michelangelo and his work became well-known to the people of his time, Leonardo
Da Vinci had already planned to retire and enjoy his peaceful time. That
explained why the name Leonardo Da Vinci is more likely to ring a bell for the
common citizens than Michelangelo.

When it comes to what
these two artists painted, in fact, they painted almost the similar topics.
This is not because they shared the same taste. Just like the majority of other
author and artists in the Renaissance, they had to be commissioned by the
Church to make art, paint stories and even create works that are based on
Biblical stories. Therefore, what they made or created did not truly reflect
what they think of. On the contrary, they might have been forced by the
powerful to paint stories about a belief that they did not believe in. for Leonardo
Da Vinci, one of his most well known paintings is about a painting of Jesus and
Jesus™ disciples called The Last Supper. For Michelangelo, his famous work is
related to the painting of Leonardo Da Vinci. It is called the Sistine Chapel
Roof, which showed many stories from the Bible.

However, although they
painted art works that are based on Biblical stories, that does not mean that
they share the similar styles. For Michelangelo, he is more famous being
recognized by the ordinary citizens as a sculptor. On the other hand, people
know Leonardo Da Vinci as an artist who can do sketches well. What™s more,
although both of have had worked in realistic compositions characteristic of
artists, they did it in different ways. Leonardo Da Vinci had a tendency of
placing a lot of attention on the fabric. However, for Michelangelo, he
preferred to make large shapes and minimal clothing.

Clearly, both artists
are both known by different subject matter and styles. It is never fair to say
one beats anther because both of them passed on to the world the stories from
the Renaissance and they have contributed the most impressive creations in art
history.

paper

Categories: General

Policy Process Part I of 2

March 31, 2017 • admin

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The Policy Process Part I

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* The Policy Process: Part I
* The challenge to maintain and improve health care today is an everyday job for government and state officials. Health care professionals around the world work in servitude to ensure the well being of others and maintain a systematic way of providing these needs. These officials are in constant preparation and negotiation of improvement policies for a more effective health care system. The decision to incorporate, revise, and sometimes remove these policies are vitally important to the American people, therefore cannot be taken lightly. The three stages of the process of a topic becoming a policy will be discussed: formulation, legislative, and implementation.
* One must realize the importance of understanding the process of how a topic eventually becomes a policy. A political process must be undergone to make a topic a policy. The idea, or the brainstorming effect, is the initial onset of beginning this process. Once the topic in evident, administration begins the routine sorting of advantages and disadvantages. In the problematic world today, more problems are evident than any organization can handle. Many of the issues today never make it to the political surface.
* Formulation
* Upon arriving at the recognition of becoming a topic, formulation can begin. If knowing is half the battle, the battle has begun. At this point, policy makers begin to concoct solutions. Numerous and inherent solutions come into play early in the process. Education and cultivation is vital at this stage. Policy makers can present it in a way of educating, funding, taxing, regulating, or simply not acknowledging. A variety of these tactics have proven to work effectively. The importance relies upon finding balance and structure. For example, simply cutting out products proven unhealthy is typically impossible. This is unconstitutional to the majority of Americans, minimizing freedom. On the other hand, policy makers can present these tactics in a different manner, producing anticipated results.
* Health policy analysis studies governmental policy regarding health care, including all aspects of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government that deal with the pursuit of health, the organization and employment of health care professionals, and the administration of health care services (Health Policy Analysis, para. 1, 2001).
* Furthermore, the social frame of reference concerning the formulation of health policy is a contributing factor to the makeup of health policy. Predominantly, social policy is made up of national health policy. After the fact, health policy formulation is altered by the variation and array of social and economic components that influence social policy development. The disposition of social, political, legislative, and judicial connections on policy, coupled with the brunt of public opinions. Notwithstanding, the media causes the formulation of an encompassing demand of health policy an overwhelming burden (Health Policy Analysis, para. 1, 2001).
* Legislative Stage
* ???From 1930 to 1980, the U.S. federal government became increasingly involved
* in establishing health care policies??? (Health Policy Analysis, para. 3, 2001). By 1965, Medicaid came into play because of the extreme lack of access to medical care and services. The funding for Medicaid came from both federal and state levels for lower-income citizens. During Reagan??™s presidency, he worked hard to obtain a reduction in the rising Medicaid budget. He pushed through legislation that constrained access. The cost reduction was apparent but, on the other hand, the fraction of women and children without insurance drastically increased. This had a domino effect, consequently, instigating new legislation expanding Medicaid eligibility and benefits.
* From the 1980s through the end of the century, health care remained in the spotlight of public policy and partisan politics. According to the Health Policy Tracking Service??™s (HPTS) report Major State Health Care Policies (1997), in 1997 the United States spent 14.2 percent of the gross domestic product on health care. Also, reporting on the activity of the fifty states??™ legislative sessions, HTPS noted that during 1997 over 25,000 pieces of legislation??”almost one of every five billed introduced-were health care-related (Health Policy Analysis, para. 3, 2001).
* Bringing a topic into the place of a decision occurs in a number of places. Within the stages of developing a policy in health care, most will in fact, be obligated to receive approval and involvement from Congress or the state legislature. On the other hand, each individual organization has its own way of the decision-making process. The legislation can be unrealistic and there can be clauses not possible to implement as is stated in the policy
* Great Britain formed a standing committee and member of Parliament, equivalent to the American house of representatives, to analyze a health care program. However, during the Clinton administration, when a health insurance recommendation was sent to Congress, more than 30 various committees attempted to lay claim. Seven of these committees and subcommittees conquered the proposal, substituting personal proposals for the presidents. According to KaiserEDU.org, para. 2, (2011), the Constitution bars members of Congress from holing posts in bureaucracy.
* Implementation Stage
* During the implementation stage, public officials and representatives establish the rules and regulations for the policy. This stage in the process can be considered the most difficult because many times sides are divided. This is the stage where each side can argue the advantages and disadvantages. Dispute and suit demands are part of this stage. During this stage, new policies and procedures are introduced and reinforced. The Court system does, in fact, play a huge role here.
* The implementation stage can be described as the technical stage of policy development that can take years. Each stage of policy formulation, legislation, and implementation is vital, especially in health care. Health care and policy officials are responsible for the evaluation of each stage. Each stage plays a key role in developing policies that affect everyone. Policy holders must be insured with the right coverage. This process has been formulated to brainstorm solutions to the problematic encounters in the way health care is delivered today.
* Implementation and evaluation go hand in hand. Upon implementation, many times decisions are questioned from political officials, policy holders, and the public. At this point, consequences are weighed heavily upon many contributing factors like: customer feedback, data analysis, and critics. This is how the decision of success versus failure can be determined. At times, a modification stage is necessary.
* As stated above, many activities must take place in developing a topic to a policy: setting the agenda, policy formulation, legislation, and implementation. Timing is everything, and as political officials know, much time is invested. Developing a time timeline is vital, although many times this process can take much longer than anticipated. Next, the policy must be formulated in accordance with what is needed and adopted in an attempt to make the necessary changes. In health care, this affects the way health care is delivered.
* Policy making is indeed an elaborate and complicated process. Each individual phase has its own exclusive way of progressing. At the beginning stages, the topic or problem is in the spot light. According to Monroe, Litman, and Robins (2008), the solution is preceding the problem.
* Health and government converge on different levels: through the law established by the federal and state legislative bodies, through the ruling of the judicial system, through principles characterized by federal and state organizations, and decisions put to public votes. So, health care policy is constructed through a sequence of each of these governing sectors at the local, state, and federal level (Kaiser EDU.org, para. 1, 2011).
* Conclusion
* The process from topic to policy is complex, ranging in a number of stages and
* tasks before being brought into practice. As discussed, formulation, legislation, and
* implementation are vital stages that must come into play during this process.
* Though each stage differs; however, one is in alignment with the other, leaving no
* room for failure. Brainstorming, administering, and testing are part of process
* during the developmental stages. The changes brought about within these stages do
* not happen overnight, therefore, methodical and analytical thinking must be put into
* each topic before it can genuinely become a policy.
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* References
Health Policy Analysis. (2001). In World of Sociology, Gale. Retrieved from
http://www.credoreference.com/entry/worldsocs/health_policy_analysis
Kaiser EDU.org, (2011). Health and government. Retrieved on January 24, 2011 from
http://www.kaiseredu.org/Topics/Health-and-Government.aspx
Morone, J.A., Litman, T.J., & Robins. L. S. (2008). Health politics and policy (4th ed.). Delmar Cengage Learning. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, rEsource, HCS-455- Health Care Policy: The Past and the Future Course website.

Categories: General

The Inescapable Fate

March 31, 2017 • admin

The Inescapable Fate

Sophocles??™ play Oedipus the King is one of the most ironic tragedies ever written. The character of Oedipus is complex and multidimensional; on one hand he is a loving, just and upright king but his arrogance and desire for justice eventually show to be his tragic flaws. Memento Directed by Christopher Nolan, is an ironic film follows the hollow and the relentless pursuit for justice of Leonard, despite his sever short-term memory loss. The film Memento and play Oedipus the King both follow the main character??™s heroic search for the truth and ironically ends with both Oedipus and Leonard being culprit in their own stories. Although they are both in one way a victim of fate, they ends up being a noble yet arrogant heroes who make critical errors in judgment and turth that set off the events through the course of their story.
When Creon informs Oedipus that someone murdered his predecessor, Laius, Oedipus states that he will stop at nothing in order to have justice. He calls for anyone with knowledge of the murder to come and shed light on the culprit. Foolishly though in his arrogance he states, ???Nor do I exempt myself from this imprecation: If, with my knowledge, house or heart of mine receive the guilty man, upon my head. Lie all curses I

have laid on others??? (Page 32: 249-253). Much like Oedipus, Leonard is a man desperate by tragedy with having his last full memory of his wife being raped and murdered. Oedipus and Leonard are both driven to find the murderer, almost as if a god has sent him on a quest for justice. Both Oedipus and Leonard are completely dedicated to their cause and do not protect anyone, including themselves from there ???divine??? investigation.
Even though Oedipus does not protect himself from justice, it is even nobler that he is willing to let the people of his household pay the price if they are guilty. It is always easier to sacrifice ourselves rather than our loved ones and this illustrates his devotion to this cause. Memento having the on the edge of your seat detective story of a upright lawman trying to punish the guilty and establish the truth, with Leonard??™s ruthless pursuit of justice is at total odds between not being able to recall the past and forgetting the actual truth.
Oedipus then dooms himself when he says, ???The gods curse all that disobey this charge??¦ pursue them to their death!??? (Page 33: 302-306). Having Leonard??™s story explained in reverse chronological order, with each scene jumping backwards in to end where the one before began allows the experience of Leonard??™s struggle with amnesiac. Leonard??™s amnesiac allows everyone from the motel manager, Natalie, and the cop Teddy to take advantage of his condition. For example, Natalie comes to Leonard with a fresh bruise on her face convincing him that she was assaulted, asking Leonard to help her against her attacker. When just moments before she tricked Leonard into hitting her. These decree sets in motion the chain of events that eventually shows Oedipus and Leonard to be the killers. They are so consumed by the pursuit of justice that they never

even considers that they could be the guilty man. Leonard refuses to look at his long-term memories he remembers. His obsessiveness over the pursuit of justice creates a false memory of his wife dying in the attack. When in reality the insulin injection to a playful pinch with his wife was Leonard trying to change the truth, altering the diabetic story of Sammy Jenkins. Even when Leonard??™s ???FACTS??? information tattoos and the play??™s clues start pointing at them they refuses to cease their search. Both Oedipus??™ Leonard??™s arrogance, end up being their downfall and as a result, they follows the course that fate has set on them.
As Oedipus investigation continues and signs hint that Oedipus is the culprit he does not stop, rather he doubles his efforts to find justice. When the seer Teiresias is brought in Oedipus forces the man to tell him the truth and Teiresias says, ???Upon your head is the ban your lips have uttered- from this day forth never to speak to me or any here. You are the cursed polluter of this land (Page 35: 353-355). Teiresias states that Oedipus is the killer, the bringer of the curse and that his ban on the killer has doomed himself. After the truth is told, the king refuses to accept it. He needs to be proven without a shadow of doubt who the actual ???villain??? is. Although he was fated for this Oedipus??™s actions set him on this course. It is honorable that Oedipus wants to continue on even though circumstances look bad for him, but at the same time his vanity dooms him. This is evident when Jocasta, aware of the truth says, ???Yet do not do it. I implore you, do not do it.??? He replies, ???I must. I cannot leave the truth unknown.??? She finishes by saying, ???I know I am right. I am warning you for your good??? (Page 55: 1094-1097). .

Jocasta knows that Oedipus is her son/husband and still she begs Oedipus to ignore the truth to cease his efforts in finding the murder of Laius. Oedipus refuses to listen though.
Repeatedly, his tragic flaw is that he cannot let matters be as they are; he must get to the bottom of things. This is a heroic sentiment but at foolish. He refuses to listen to everyone??™s advice, to stop searching for the truth. They love and know that it will hurt him but their pleas fall on deaf ears.
The tattoo on the flesh of Leonard is a reminder that he lies to himself to hide from the truth, not just about the Sammy Jenkins tale. Ultimately if Leonard accepts the truth, then he will find out his is the killer, but he rejects the truth. If he accepts the truth of him killing his wife, the memories he trust and tattooed under ???FACTS??? will be lies. Finding out he is the culprit of his own investigation.
If Oedipus had not been fated to kill his father and marry his mother he would be a far less sympathetic character and his actions would seem stupid, but, because his fate was seemingly unavoidable and his character so noble, this quest for truth ends up being a tragic story. So when he finally realizes that he is in fact guilty of patricide, regicide, and sodomy he goes above and beyond his decree of punishment; stabs out his eyes with a knife and then flees his kingdom. Oedipus??™ story is heartbreaking because he let his pride get in the way and pursues justice so relentlessly. This ends with him punishing himself for a crime that he had little to no control over; a crime he was fated to do.
Oedipus??™s character is heroic in that as a king it is his duty to see justice done. He acts as a bloodhound throughout the play, never resting until the guilty party pays the price. Ironically the guilty person ends up being himself and as a result his greatest
quality also ends up being his greatest flaw. His search for the truth is a heroic one, even when all the signs point towards him, he continues on, unable to escape fate.

Categories: General

Policy Process (Part 1)

March 31, 2017 • admin

Introduction
There are too many holes in the health care system to narrow any one of them down. Each of them connect to one another and either benefit or leave someone out. Health care professionals have become somewhat of an advocacy on behalf of their patients to help influence changes in the current policies. Doctors and nurses alike have to step out of their comfort zone of practicing medicine and step into policy and politics. When headed to Washington to change or add new policies it takes pure dedication, determination, time, and energy to keep going even when it seems bleak. This paper will discuss the formulation stage, legislative stage, and implementation stage of introducing or changing policies. The main goal that everyone has to have better health care for everyone young, old, rich or poor.
Formulation Stage
The current health care system is inedited with polices, regulations, and laws set by the federal government, private agencies, insurance companies, and institutions. Access to health care at times is very difficult and accord to the United States Census Bureau data collected 254 million Americans were without health insurance in 2009 (English, 2010). That figure has more than triple in the last five years. These findings are very disappointing and only show the desperate need for health care reform in the U.S. today. Health care professionals are on the front lines each and every day giving them the edge to take action and bring about some serious changes that will benefit everyone and not compromise the quality of care for the patients. There are many stages to turning an idea in to a law and many steps must be taken in proper order (English, 2010).

Policy and Process
The policy process refers all decisions and events that are required before a policy can be proposed. In short there are three phases of policy making: the formulation stage, implementation stage, and the evaluation stage. The formulation stage may possibly be the most important simply because the change has to start somewhere. The formulation stage involves key players doing research and ideas from people, organizations, and interest groups. When this process is complete the foundation will be laid. The purpose, direction, and outcomes are clearly explained. Recourses become identified and a plan is put into motion to obtain what is needed. The implementation stage involves gathering all the information about the policy and putting it into action (Abood, 2007).
Political Action
The second stage of the policy process cycle is political action can be a single interest group or just one individual ready to make a change. There are many different ways this process can begin, for example a statement or letter can be written from a political leader. Political action can also start at a ???roundtable??? discussion, a promise of investigations by law enforcement if changes do no happen, or informal meetings. There are also political promises when an official is trying to be elected or re-elected. It is amazing how certain changes that needed to happen long ago suddenly get pushed to the front of the line when election time is near (Petersen, 2009).
Legislative Proposal
When impasses are imposed on legislation it forces Congress to respond and create bills to resolutions to a request for research by the Congressional Research Service. Issues are also referred to congressional committees which are influenced by politics, seniority, and what seems to be priority at the time. It can be very difficult to move an issue through the whole legislative process and even though such as education process or health care reform, yet when it comes to policies such as national security those pass through Congress with hardly no word from the public. Education, Health Care Reform and of course National Security are all important but advocacy is very important and make the difference between a proposal being stuck in limbo and becoming a law (Petersen, 2009).
Law and Regulation
Only after a bill has passed through Congress and signed by the president does it become a law. The start of the new law depends on how quickly it needs to be moved into action. However, there are many hurdles and details to get through first and in efforts to help this process there are many different divisions such as congressional affairs, regulatory affairs, and many other divisions each specializing in each field and having the ability to influence government (Petersen, 2009).
The Connection Between Policy and Politics
As any health care issue moves through phases of the policy process, from a proposal to an actual program that can be enacted, implemented, and evaluated. With having many different people in positions and areas of interest not everyone will see eye to eye on how things should be handled all though the political parties have the upper hand. It is very difficult working in the politic world, having to find different ways of representing each individual person and come up with policies and laws that best benefit everyone. The more difficult the policy or change, the more time and more difficult it will become to put the change into effect. Throughout each and every day of our lives especially those of us working in the health care industry the government has a say so in just about everything. For some the government decides who gets what, how much and even when, it can be very difficult, but deep down as a nation the government is doing the best they can with the resources they have (Abood, 2007).
Compliance
Once all sides have been heard, the policies are in place, and all regulations have been ironed out everyone must comply or face breaking the law. When a new law has taken effect, new regulations and offices must be put into place to ensure policies are being met to help fix the original problems (Petersen, 2009).
Conclusion
Whether they acknowledge it or not, everyone working in the health care industries are governed by policies, regulations, legislation, and rules which govern how they are to conduct business each and every day. Many special interest groups involved in health care actively participate in the development of health care policy by providing critical information legislators need to make decisions. Without someone taking interest in the constant changes needed in health care noting would ever improve and the patients would be the ones to ultimately suffer the consequences. On the forefront of health care reform are the nurses themselves, they are the single most group of people working in the health care industry each day. Who better to advocate for health care reform, then those on the frontlines. With their perspective on what truly needs to change in order for everyone to have adequate health care without having to cut corners nothing has to be left out. However without having a solid foundation and a good understanding of how policies and legislations their efforts could be wasted in their ideas could be left sitting in a pile amoungst all the toher hundreds of bills that pass through Washington each year. There are many options available to get help to ensure the policy gets off to the right start. Knowledge is power.

References:
Abood, S. (March,2007). Influence Health Care in the Legislative Arena. Retrieved December 13, 2010 from, http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/553404
English. Consumer Health News. (2010). Health Highlights. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-237267981.html
Petersen, R. (Jan/Feb, 2009). The Policy Process Life Cycle. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from, http://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Review/EDUCAUSEReviewMagazineVolume44/ThePolicyProcessLifeCycle/163805

Categories: General

The Influence of President Roosevelt in the United States and World History

March 30, 2017 • admin

paper:The Influence of President Roosevelt in the United States and World History

In the history, in the eyes of the Americans, President Roosevelt is most of the positive evaluation, President Roosevelt is a great president of the United States. In the world, including many socialist countries are given a high evaluation of President Roosevelt, he changed the world. This is the basic point of this article.
In many peoples eyes, President Roosevelt does have a lot of controversy, especially his opposition. President Roosevelt began in 1933 as the president of the United States since, until his death in 1945, his re-election, the 4 terms president , 4 terms government, far beyond the currently prescribed by the constitution of the United States presidential term of office, in many peoples opinion, this is a manifestation of democracy, because of this, he was much criticism. Another point is that the implementation of President Roosevelts new policy is also the most controversial. On the one hand, President Franklin D. Roosevelts new deal is known fascist, dictatorship and, on the other hand, President Roosevelts new policy was also many new forms of Bolshevism is to strangle the capitalist system of the United States, the Communists. Even some people will President Roosevelt and the same period of Hitler and Mussolini parallel contrast and vilifying President Roosevelt.

However, the contribution made by President Roosevelt is not to be denied, and he made a contribution far beyond his shortcomings. First, President Roosevelt over economic crisis of the great depression in the US, the America into a thriving world superpower, not only in economy far ahead in the world and military strength and political and diplomatic influence are greatly impact on the world.Secondly, headed by President Roosevelt, the United States led the Allies largely overcome the fascist aggression, the end of Mussolinis aggression in Europe, great threat to Hitlers arrogant, in the Far East, shortly after the death of President Roosevelt, two atomic bomb to Japan forced to surrender. Once again, President Roosevelt has set up a new world order in the world, and has brought the worlds new diplomacy, internal affairs and anti colonial ideas to the people of the whole world. Finally, President Roosevelt, in the United States, the most important is to establish a new national intervention of liberalism, which makes the United States to revive, and thus also get the world to emulate.
President Roosevelts role is positive, and he has a good reason to become an American and even the worlds people. He opened up the a new political concept, save the United States, the United States toward prosperity; he ended the Second World War, save countless human life; he changed the pattern of the world, since then, the world will not tolerate tyranny, not tolerate aggression, does not support the war. President Roosevelt deserves the respect of the people of the world.As for those negative for the president of the evaluation, we can not be ignored, or against people slander President Roosevelts contribution to the United States, to the world and make contribution, the contribution made by human beings in the future, we should also contain President Roosevelt as president 4 facts, that is because caused by the United States and the world has a special historical period, when the world is at war, when the country is in the crisis of the great depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt re-election four U.S. presidents is understandable, should also respect, even to think of it, the death of President Roosevelt, is for the United States and to give his life for the world of. Posterity should respect President Roosevelt.-Y

Categories: General

The Industrial Revolution

March 30, 2017 • admin

The Industrial Revolution
Robert Bachman
His 104: World Civilizations II
Matt? Laubacher
July 29, 2010

In the late 18th century Europe a revolution occurred that??™s power was so immense, and strong, it would change the course of World history forever. This wasn??™t a violent, or political one either, it was one that changed profoundly the way goods were created and sold in Europe. This was the Industrial Revolution, and it marked a time in history when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, social and economic changes. These changes began rapidly in Europe, and spread virally throughout the World. Such changes like the cotton gin, changed the face of slavery, or the use of metal in farming equipment, and many other changes all made possible the more readily available good and services at everyone??™s fingers. This change didn??™t create the best living conditions, at least not right away, and the demand for labor was so great not even children were spared in producing goods. It is proven that the Industrial Revolution changed the face of World Civilization as a whole, but with many great advances, but also great consequences. The Industrial Revolution had profound changes in the World abroad in manufacture, mining, agriculture, and the socioeconomic conditions of the World.
The smaller, slower production of goods was changed almost overnight with the introduction of the Industrial Revolution. Up until the Industrial Revolution, great economies of the World relied heavily on guilds to produce skilled products, and large labor groups which main goal was the output of agriculture. Production of goods in manufacturing and agriculture was local manual labor, and larger village groups came together for harvesting and building of streets. Slavery was used for the mass production of commercial goods like sugar and tobacco. But during this era very little ingenuity created new inventions, or new ways of doing business. Basic elements for doing agriculture remained deep rooted in agricultural societies, and new inventions ceased to exist for up until this point. Historians have realized why the Industrial Revolution did not start earlier in World history because of the simplicity of the manufacturing system. Domestic manufacturing used simplistic equipment, that they purchased themselves, requiring very little amount of investment. Wealthier members of society purchased raw materials to be manufactured into sellable goods, and arranged for their sales. Output only expanded because of population growth, not technology. Although the system worked in producing goods to sustain smaller economies, the low wages that were paid reduced the inspiration to implement technological change.
The agricultural changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution led to major population growth with the larger food supply it produced. By the late 17th century major changes in agriculture led to large growths in population. This started primarily by the way they grew crops. Up until this time grains were the primary form of agricultural products. The major problem with growing grain was the lands were left fallow because the initial growth of product robbed the soil of vital nutrients for production. It was eventually learned that certain crops like potatoes, often looked with scorn because of the high calorie, and the misunderstood use, became a major staple. This happened because the crop actually added nitrogen to the soil, and land wasn??™t needed to fallow because it didn??™t rob the soil of nutrients like grain did. The Dutch also showed the World new methods of draining marshlands, and uses of fertilizer, expanding more land available for crop production. With more crops equaled more people. At this time there was also a lag in mortality rates from disease like the Black Death, which decimated 1/3 of Europe centuries prior. The growth of the population required people to push further than they were used to into society to find work. They often were subjected to taking new and sometimes unpleasant jobs, providing growing markets for inexpensive goods.
Vast improvements in European science added another avenue for the Industrial Revolution to take place. Europe was already starting to be more active commercially, when advances in science became a driving force. Scientists and researchers got with merchants and manufacturers to talk about the very real possibility of inventions to be made that would advance society at a whole. Chemistry advancements during this time expanded exponentially. New techniques for manufacturing and glazing pottery came about through these changes. A more impressive use for chemistry was the research that led to understanding of how gases worked. This scientific discovery pushed the invention of using steam, and the power it held. Before this discovery wind, and water were used, but both of these mediums required certain rules that wasn??™t always conducive to mass production. For instance location was always important for using water, the factory always needed to be built near a river or stream, and did little to expand outward. Wind was always left up to nature, and was very unpredictable. Through numerous ideas of the steam engine, Thomas Newcomen, who took applications from the drainage pumps used in the coalmines, perfected it around 1700. Eventually the technology was used as a driving force in manufacturing in the Industrial Revolution.
The use of coal burning provided a catalyst to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. Coal production had increased before the Industrial Revolution, but its use was minimal in relation to its needs for industry. Coal was a non- technological advancement that powered Europe during these times. For the first time through the use of coal you could switch the labor from human to machine quickly, and this power was crucial to developing the high output of goods necessary in this period. During this period Europe was chocked full of coal supplies imbedded deep in the earth, and with these natural resource provided a way to enhance the industrialization of Europe. With the abundant supply of coal, and the increased ingenuity of coal burning machinery, it was a very real possibility at this time to increase mechanization. The increase in mechanization provided small manufactures the ability to grow to large industries. More industries transitioned to burning coal to power their machines: steam engines powered spinning and weaving machinery, coal provided the extra heat necessary in iron making, and the nonferrous smelting, and firing and glazing of pottery. Even lesser businesses like flour milling and breweries eventually transitioned to using steam-powered machinery, which all demanded the use of coal.
One industry in the Industrial Revolution that caused such a profound effect on World history was the textile industry. Prior to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the manufacture of textiles was primarily done exclusively in the home. Women knit clothing in the household, and supplies were purchased at wholesale outlets. In the early 18th century inventors soon realized the possibility of inventing certain machines that could mass-produce textiles, making household knitting obsolete. The first example was the flying shuttle in 1733. The machine consisted of a large frame in which a series of thread through which a shuttle carrying more thread could be passed. The laborers eventually came so proficient with the invention that they make the shuttle ???fly??? through the framework as cloth was being woven, hence the name. Over the next fifty years many other inventions were made in the mechanization of cloth. Some of these inventions were the spinning jenny, water frame, the spinning mule, the power loom and the cotton gin. The quicker advancement could be made the more money it made for the inventor and the factory owners. During this time ingenuity and businesses growth was indicative of the inventions made. The high demand for cheaply made textiles, furthered the in depth advancements of inventions. Another way of looking at the rate of technology was the amount of patents being filed during this time. Historians have also agreed that the dates to which the inventions were made can be disputed by the dates the patents were issued. With textiles being one of the most prominent businesses of the revolution, with the increased demand of textiles came the encouragement of business expansion, and the search for more efficient and cost effective forms of technology.
Just as technology improved as a necessary resource to the Industrial Revolution, the need for labor increased heavily during these times. One of the negative repercussions for the Industrial Revolution was the heavy use of child labor in the production of goods. Children had been a main source of labor for years leading into the era of Industrial Revolution. The parents wanted, and needed children to work for many reasons, but mostly it was for the sake of survival. The contribution of the children provided more food on the table, as it provided more coal for the furnace. It also was a matter of necessary child development, because the parents needed the children to learn a skill or craft to become functioning members of society. Many occasions proved that this was a social norm, and it didn??™t matter what the parents wanted as much as it was the need for business production. Social norms at the time believed that the poor and working class must adopt strict, strong work ethics, as a way to climb the ladder and move out of poverty. ???A busy child was a ???good??? child??? (Tuttle p.43). By the end of the 18th century, and well into the 19th century the idea of child labor had changed. Children were not helpers to a more family oriented enterprise as much as they were individual wage earners at different places of employment. Child labor was a primary contributor to the workforce in general of many textile, coal, copper, and tin mines. Some rural textile mills solicited for children to become apprentices, while factories used children and youths from large families called free labor. It became more and more familiar for adults to bring their children to the copper and coalmines to help out with the grueling work. As the parents went into the mines the children stayed at the top to work on the surface. Many historians and writers of literature have cited that poverty, greed, parental abuse, large-scale operations, technological innovation, and profit maximization were the leading reason for child labor, but the main reason was there was nothing stopping it. The demand for labor was so high that waiting for a child to reach adulthood took too much time, opening the opportunity for child labor. Families were also rewarded for having large families, because girls and boys hands were readily available to pull in a payday. Child labor was also cheap and factory owners weren??™t going to pay high wages to a child whose job was to watch a machine that was running on coal. These times had no restriction on labor, pay, or hours worked, and the more hands at work meant bigger money and more output. There was no reason to not use children in these times, there were more of them, they worked for fewer wage, and everyone was in a win-win situation.
The social impact of the Industrial Revolution had many consequences. With more work available than ever before, long hours, and long workweeks, wages were kept low, and prices for necessary goods often increased. Along the way some factory workers earned some benefits, but the idea of the revolution itself was to increase the standard of living. Factory life destabilized the traditional way of work life that agriculture and certain crafts had brought with it. The newly invented machines worked quickly, and workers were expected to keep pace. It was a requirement to be on time at the whistle every morning, and if late the doors were locked and workers were fined, or docked a half a days pay. Strict rules of conduct were put in place like no wandering around the factory, conversation, or singing. Work was meant to be fast paced, productive, with no interruptions, for if one person stopped it could derail a whole machines production. Factories were filled with strict rules, fines, and upper and lower management that symbolized the factory owner??™s intent that production was not to be stopped. Work carried on six days a week, often 12-14 hours a day. Sunday was always a rest day, and as the Industrial Revolution moved along it was common for workers to take Monday??™s off extending their one-day off called ???holy Monday??™s???(Stearns p.60). The Industrial Revolution can be seen as a war theatre during these times where factory owners progressively transformed work habits, and workers constantly battled the working conditions. Later in the Industrial Revolution we begin to see a compromise workers were more inclined to follow work rules in exchange for higher pay. This change caused more production for factory owners, and retention of workers. The cities of the Industrial Revolution were denuded places, with very little but housing, churches and factories. Since the hours of work were long, many workers had neither the time nor energy to pursue other avenues outside of work life. There were no social places, extravagant shops, or restaurants. This wasn??™t because there wasn??™t a demand, as much as it was socially unacceptable. Employers and government officials lobbied against any social customs. Traditional village festivals that happened yearly for most individuals ceased to exist because it was deemed dangerous to the work atmosphere. Factories remained the main source of commerce in cities, and controlling the workforce was the utmost priority.
The Industrial Revolution influenced the change of the traditional family into forming an industrial family. The Industrial Revolution had a tremendous influence on family life by administering a change quickly. Statistics show that marriages increased during the Industrial Revolution, but many historians argue that this was more out of necessity rather than the old traditional reasons. Industrialization forced much strain on families causing them to regroup and determine each family members new role. Two models of family forging were evident in the Industrial Revolution. The first model was one in which the husband and wife came together in love and had children to augment their lives, and provide a sanctuary for the demands of factory life. The leisurely time spent with family could be enjoyed on down time with the reading of classical novels, and piano playing. This new family structure added to the desire to for families to decorate and go away from the old shelter and make their places a home. This also created a demand in new markets to manufacture things like carpet, home decor, and home furnishings. The second model of family was very common in the urban working class, and followed a more traditional family. Families still remained strong as one economic unit that relied on everyone to do their part, but the family was not the center of the economy. Families of this model could use their children as additional resources to aid in income. Some families were even able to work in intricate groups outside of husband and wives, and link up with extended family members for loans during tough times, and hints on job prospects.
Women??™s gender roles changed greatly during the Industrial Revolution. Women up until this time took care of making clothes, and knitting, but with new inventions a lot of this work went away. During the Industrial Revolution new inventions that revolutionized the textile industry had made many jobs that women did become more obsolete. Men were always in charge of heavier labor, and there wasn??™t much change in what they offered economically. The women??™s work roles eventually started going away in the factories. This system of using more men for heavier labor shaped the way families now did things. Men now became the earners, while the women took care of the domestic issues such as the cooking and laundry.
The Industrial Revolution changed the face of World civilization. There was never a time in history to this point that change had come so quick and fast like the Industrial Revolution. The idea behind it was the strong desire for capitalists to make money, while providing better living conditions for people abroad. This period of time ushered a new way of doing things economically, and in family lives. It also demanded the very best of technologies and innovation, which led to the creation of faster, better-made products. Production and output were main goals for the capitalist, while the workers had more availability of year round work. Through the desire of capitalists to make money and the peoples willingness to work the Industrial Revolution had profound changes in the World abroad in manufacture, mining, agriculture, and the socioeconomic conditions of the World.

References
Stearns, P. (1998). The Industrial Revolution In World History
Westview Press: Boulder Colorado

Wallace, A. (2004) The Social Context of Innovation: Bureaucrats, Families and Heroes in the Early Industrial Revolution. [Electronic Version]. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 10(4), 913-917

Boyer, G. (1991) Child Labor and the Industrial Revolution. [Electronic Version]
Business History Review. 65(4) 1009-1013

Bentley, J., Ziegler, H., & Streets, H. (2008). Traditions? & encounters a brief global history. U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill
Keys, D. (2010) Revealed: Industrial Revolution was Powered By Child Slaves [Electronic Version] The Independent, p. 18, retrieved from ProQuest database July 29, 2010

Ashton, T. S. The Industrial Revolution. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Montagna, J, Industrial Revolution (2006), Yale-New Havens Institute, retrieved from:
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1981/2/81.02.06.x.html, July 29, 2010

Categories: General

Policy Plan for Detroit

March 30, 2017 • admin

DETROIT: A PLAN OF ITS OWN
Over the past several decades, Detroit has been the target of constant scrutiny and criticism from the rest of the nation. A once thriving city, alive in jazz, techno, swing, and hip-hop, is now facing rapidly rising numbers of vacant and abandoned homes and businesses. This abandonment of properties in general, along with an increase in ???white flight??? and industrial blight following the end of World War II, has slowly but surely labeled Detroit with its current, damaging reputation. In an interview with Susan Mosey, President of the University Cultural Center Association, she stressed that land usage is the biggest issue currently facing Detroit, the Midtown area in particular. In ten years from now, Mosey hopes that ???more buildings will have been built in some of the vacant land and parking areas [and there will be] more commercial and retail for people who are here.??? This is a vision necessary for the advancement and future of Detroit, and with the help of several House bills passed in recent years, we may be on the right track to the economic development and diversification of this great city.
The University Cultural Center Association (UCCA) is a non-profit organization based in Midtown Detroit that focuses on supporting the physical maintenance and development of the area to enhance public awareness, appreciation, and use of Midtown Detroit. They represent the area??™s cultural, academic, medical and service institutions, corporations, businesses, and community organizations (UCCA). The organization is well aware of the current state and availability of property in Midtown, which is why people frequent the UCCA offices in search of aid in opening small businesses and the steps that go along with it, mainly finding an area in which to open their business. However, with so many abandoned establishments still standing, rotting away in what they could have been, Detroit??™s land available for commercial businesses is growing scarcer and scarcer by the day. Detroit is a fairly large city, covering over one hundred thirty eight square miles (U.S. Census). This city was once the powerhouse of the nation; home of the great lakes and the Big Three automakers, it was unstoppable. Production of the automobile began in 1900 and by 1940 Detroit, Dearborn, Pontiac, and Flint produced more than 75 percent of all cars made in the world (Hudgins). Growth of the city progressed rapidly outward and soon Detroit was taking in municipals like Highland Park and Hamtramck. The growth of any city brings about a change in land use, but Detroit??™s growth was so rapid that it presented far more problems than that of a normal city. Following the end of World War II, industries in the city found themselves cramped for space, which led to industrial blight and by the next decade, the number of new industries settling in Detroit decreased by almost fifty percent (Black). Automobile expansion eventually contributed to the construction of highways, during which African Americans were displaced from their neighborhoods and the phenomena of ???white flight??? was introduced. Detroit shows scars of a long painful past, but with the help of recent House bills and various proposals, a brighter future may lie ahead.
An organization called The Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) believes that they have found the solution to the economic distress of Michigan. They proposed a plan back in 2007 that they believed would transform Michigan??™s economy. ???The MEDC was founded in 1999 by the State of Michigan and local communities to help businesses that wanted to grow in Michigan. The corporation today assists with everything that new businesses would need, from job training grants to permits for tax abatements. With access to financing through Michigans $2 billion 21st Century Jobs Fund, the MEDC holds a great deal of potential for improving Michigans business climate??? (Towner). They initiated a three-year solution outline that they termed the Michigan Economic Development Corporations 2007-2010 Strategy Plan. This six part plan included ???1.) Bringing together a variety of partner??™s ?2.) Attracting, retaining, and promoting Michigan businesses?3.) Leading the diversification of Michigans economy?4.) Promoting Michigans economy globally but sharing the successes locally?5.) Advocating for a favorable climate for small business?and 6.) Being accountable for the success of the economic development strategy.??? (Towner). The MEDC has been fairly successful in recent years in assisting companies, both big and small, throughout Michigan and there is no doubt that the corporation intends to continue to strengthen and diversify Michigan??™s economy, but the their strategic plan was not so easily effective in Detroit. This plan, approved by Governor Granholm herself, was a statewide project for the economy of Michigan overall. Detroit??™s economy, however, was in far greater need than any of the other cities in Michigan. Detroit has fallen so far behind in advancement of commercial business and economic development that it is in need of a plan specific to itself. A general plan for the rest of Michigan is not one that Detroit can handle, or even keep up with. This plan left Detroit in the dust and in need of new more localized strategy for advancement.
Solutions, however, may be hard to come by because what might be the best plan of action for the city may not always be in the best interest of all the parties involved with the proposed solution. For instance, House Bill 4142, introduced on February 4th, 2009 would alter different pieces of the Michigan Housing Code and establish standards in determining buildings that were dangerous and needed to be repaired or demolished. This bill outlined a step-by-step plan in dealing with various vacant and abandoned properties throughout the city. First, the Michigan State Housing Development Authority (MSHDA) would be required to keep a record of all abandoned and vacant properties. Second, the MSHDA would now accept information from citizens calling in to a toll-free hotline that would be specifically designated to deal with dangerous buildings in “urban core cities” that represent a safety hazard. Third, the MSHDA has the option of enforcing that the owner of the properties who is in violation of the new law repair the structure. This proposal would give broad powers to the MSHDA in determining whether or not a building is “dangerous” enough to be in violation with Michigan law. ???Many property owners can now be held responsible for dilapidated or decaying structures and forced to improve them in accordance with the standards set forth in this proposal??? (Saxas). If they choose not to comply, ???MSHDA can take these properties and either improve them or demolish them??? (Saxas). Although this bill would certainly be the key to helping clean up many urban core areas like Detroit, it has not been yet been tried or passed because some say that it infringes somewhat on the rights of property owners. Owners may complain that the MSHDA does not have the right to take over property that is not theirs. If the owners have such a strong aversion towards the proposal though, one cannot help but ask why they have allowed their property to become so decrepit in the first place. If their vacant and/or abandoned property brings them no source of income nor does it provide housing for them, then what could they possibly be benefiting from by maintaining ownership of such a property. The solution seems like it would be effective overall for the city of Detroit, but the issues over the rights of the property owners seem to hold back any sort of initiative in passing the proposal.
When people look at Detroit, at the abandoned buildings and the vacant, rundown houses, some see a city with an unsure future, while others, if they look hard enough, see a bustling, successful, beautiful past. Those who look into Detroit with a view like this, their minds are consumed in images of the roaring 20s, the swinging 50s, the mellowed 70s, the Millennium, and the future; what??™s next Ruminants of a past Detroit surround us, constantly reminding us of what Detroit was, and what it could have been today. As times have changed however, Detroit has had a difficult time keeping up. We??™ve found ourselves so far behind in development and diversification that any possible advancement seems like a godsend in this frantic game of catch-up we??™ve engaged in. We have lost precious time, we have fallen into a pit of bleak hope so deep it seems almost as though there is no escaping our said fate, but there are those out there who believe in light for Detroit. With the right policies in place, a greater, brighter city could be in store for the citizens of Detroit and the state of Michigan.

CITATIONS

Black, Harold. ???Detroit: A Case Study in Industrial Problems of a Central City.???
Land Economics 34.3. (August 1958): 219-226. University of Wisconsin
Press. Web. 25 March 2010.

Bluestone M., Daniel. ???Detroit??™s City Beautiful and the Problem with Commerce.???
Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 47.3. (Sept 1988): 245-
262. Society of Architectural Historians. Web. 25 March 2010.

Hudgins, Bert. ???Evolution of Metropolitan Detroit.??? Economic Geography 21.3.
(July 1945): 206-220. Columbia University. Web. 25 March 2010.

Mosey T., Susan. Personal Interview. 15 February 2010.

Saxe, Steve. 01 March 2010. Proposed Changes to Demolition Standards.
http://www.michiganpolicy.com/index.phpoption=com_content&view=arti
cle&id=748:proposed-changes-to-building-demolition-
standards&catid=60:urban-affairs-current-issues&Itemid=248

Towner, Ashley. 18 January 2009. Michigan Economic Development
Corporation. http://www.michiganpolicy.com/index.phpoption=com_conte
nt&view=article&id=264:michigan-economic-development corporation&catid=59:urban-affairs-policy-briefs&Itemid=243

University Cultural Center Association (UCCA). 25 March 2010.
www.detroitmidtown.com.

U.S. Census Bureau. ???State and County Quickfacts.??? Detroit, Michigan.
http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/26/2622000.html

U.S. House. House Bill No. 4142. 01 February 2009.

Categories: General

The Industrial Boom

March 30, 2017 • admin

The Gilded age was an era in the United States from 1860 to the 1900 filled with corruption, unequal rights, and government dishonor. The United States was influenced by countless people and even machinery that molded the American government and its people. There were three major/general groups that promoted this influence of rise in industrialization. The first group was the robber barons and is the smallest group with the largest influence to the country. . Robber barons like J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie were superpowers of the United States influencing the government and basically just running the country through their economic power. The second group was the government (mainly presidents) and was being influenced by the robber barons to run the country in an economic way and corrupt as well. The third and last group that was being influenced and promoted industrial boom was the American people and the ???new immigrants??? arriving in the country.
Robber Barons were the biggest promoters during the years 1860 and 1900. They were given too much power in the country gained first by the people and then by the government. With the stories of being ???self made men??? and accomplishing the ???American Dream??? robber barons received major attractions and support (in the beginning) by the people. Although they portrayed this to the people they believed in social Darwinism. This was their reason to make monopolies and pools seem orthodox through the support of the people and the robber barons received support from the government. When the government supports powerful economic leaders, corruption is the end result. Robber barons began to see a decline in the support from the people when the government began to take more interest in the money then the actual workers. Rail Road companies had the largest affect in the country. The ability of robber barons to increase the railroad mileage from 30,000 miles to 200, 000 miles gave them even more power in running the country. This increase in rail road millage was suppose to make cheaper transportation rates as well as more profits to farmers due to the new areas in which they can send their goods and sell them (document 2). Due to the corruption of the robber barons, they made high prices to ship goods and created monopolies as well as pools to eliminate smaller businesses.
The American government at the time was one of the biggest promoters of industrialization rising in the country due to the economic gain in the country. The government was dishonoring the United States people by taking sides with the robber barons for a certain period of time. When there were strikes done due to the unfair treatment of robber barons to the workers presidents (President Calhoun) would send federal troops in order to fulfill the needs of the robber barons instead of the people. During this time democracy was put aside laissez fair capitalism was being practiced. The only time where the government came into contact with changing anything in the economy was to stop strikers with federal troops. Other then this, government was in full support of robber barons. This was occurring in the beginning of the era. As the strikes and cry of the working class and farmers increased the government began to realize the corruption and need of government stability in the country. With the passing of anti-trust laws in 1890 the people and small business owners where beginning to reach some government support. The main purpose of these laws was to make business compete fair and remove monopolies and pools. Lastly republican dominance of the national government caused increase in growth of industrialization because of their great interest in economy (document 4).
The last group that caused an industrial boom was the American people and the new immigrants. The new immigrants came with an ethic seen in the United States but no longer practiced and also forgotten: the protestant work ethic. New immigrant came from lower and eastern Europe and included Italians, Jews and Chinese. Their religious beliefs and culture had a massive influence in the work place and during this era was the time in which religious rights in the work place was debated. The immigrants decision to work for low wages and long hours were immensely affective in this age because they made more goods for the country and made it keep rising as super power. Lastly the obstacle of American workers getting paid higher wages for fewer hours was overcome by the new immigrants working for lower wages and longer hours (document 6)
Industrial Growth in the United States during 1860 to 1900 was highly influenced by robber barons, the American government (mainly presidents) and new immigrants as well as the American people. Robber Barons made large companies and brought massive amounts of money to the economy and government. They believed that because of this they could run the country and do as they pleased. The American government at the age was very corrupt and supported the robber barons. They had laissez fair capitalism views and protected the robber barons by stopping strikes. New immigrants were like the replacement of American workers. They worked for low wages and long hours making industrialization rise.

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