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Month: February 2017

The History of Disease

February 27, 2017 • admin

Running Head: The History of Disease

The History of Disease
Disease has dated back sense the beginning of time and is one of the leading factors that have wiped out several civilizations. Diseases are abnormal changes or symptoms that occur in the body. Diseases are closely related to homeostasis because during homeostasis the body is trying to remain stable; but the disease will not allow it. In addition, disease goes hand in hand with disorders, as well as syndromes. Many diseases were discovered in fossils and are now being prevented by immunizations and several other technical advantages.
Among these fossils, signs of osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, rickets, and bone tumors were present diseases. According to history, the early Egyptians had many remedies which they practiced to treat illness. Spells, incantations, and magic were important parts of their medicine. Many of the remedies Egyptians practiced are still used today. Egyptians are recognized as the first to practice disease systematically. Common drugs used during this era were castor oil, olive oil, opium, and saffron. Egyptians considered the heart to be the vital organ and respiration to be the most important function. The treatments used by the early Egyptian doctors were based on what they perceived as the cause of the disease. Chinese medicine also contributed to the remedies in use today. Like the Egyptians, the Chinese used magic and superstition as a part of the development of medicine in China. Over 100 remedies and the invention of the acupuncture technique was identified and credited. The Chinese used iron to treat anemia and the use of opium as a narcotic to reduce pain.
Hippocrates had a great contribution to medicine and is considered the father of medicine. He believed that the body contained four fluids or humors. The four fluids are blood, yellow, bile, phlegm, and black bile. If these humors or fluids were not in balance Hippocrates believed it could cause disease. The respect of the human body was shared by the Romans and Greeks which shared similar beliefs. Romans adopted health measurements that prevented some diseases. Marcus Terentius Varro was able to describe small creatures that were invisible to the eyes. An imperial physician by the name of Galen wanted to use dissection to prove his theories, however, the religion did not believe in this. The fall of Rome affected the scientific knowledge which caused many diseases such as the Bubonic Plague, leprosy, cholera and syphilis. During the Renaissance era, Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius contributed to the advances in medicine. During the renaissance modern anatomy was developed and the most significant invention of the sixteenth century, the microscope, was invented.
Throughout the history of disease, new infections have suddenly appeared. Three diseases that have emerged in the past twenty years are AIDS, H1N1, and tuberculosis. Of these three emerging diseases the most rapidly growing disease is AIDS. AIDS is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system. The first cases of AIDS were reported in 1981. Since then, this devastating infection has been found to be caused by a virus that attacks the core of the body??™s defense system. There is still no known cure for the immune deficiency that AIDS causes. However, some success of treating the drug has been met by treating the disease with drugs that stops the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
According to statistics, AIDS is the fifth leading causes of death among people ages 25-44 in the United States. About 25 million people worldwide have died from this infection since the start of the epidemic, and in 2006, there were approximately 40 million people around the world living with HIV/AIDS. Almost all people infected with HIV, if not treated, will develop AIDS. There is a small group of patients who develop AIDS very slowly, or never at all. These patients are called nonprogressors, and many seem to have a genetic difference that prevents the virus from damaging their immune system.
Ways that the CDC and WHO are addressing the problem of emerging disease is through the objectives of the Healthy People 2010 and making sure all citizens are receiving the necessary vaccinations to help prevent the spread of these infectious diseases. Some technologies and techniques used to diagnose and treat disease today would be early detection through skin tests, blood tests, etc. For AIDS, a new technique used to detect the disease would be the 20 minute cotton swab test.
In conclusion, science has always been around and was first noticed by the arrival of diseases. Also, diseases are constantly on the rise; but if we take a look back into the past, we might be able to figure out the problems of the future. Knowing the origin of a disease or infection can help determine future outcomes of possible treatments for cures towards such diseases.


Hamann, R. (2007) Disease. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Columbus, OH

Neighbors, M., Tannehill-Jones, R. (2006) Human Diseases, Thomson Delmar Learning, Florence, KY

Goldman, L, Ausiello D., eds. Cecil Medicine. 23 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: sect XXIV.

Categories: General

Pluralism vs. Elitism

February 26, 2017 • admin


Pluralism vs. Elitism
John L. Payne
January 13, 2010
University of Phoenix
This paper will give my judgment on to which theory best describes wealth and power in the United States, pluralism or elitism

Pluralism vs. Elitism
As described by Domhoff, an elitist is a person or group of people who use their influence to sway the opinion of those who make public policy. The elite of our time serve as board of directors, CEOs and trustees of some of the biggest and most successful businesses in the world (Domhoff, 2006). Pluralists believe that there should be a balance within government giving all a voice to express their opinion and then make public policy. Pluralists ideas were a key factor in setting up a check and balances system within our government. James Madison was a key figure in the process. Although these checks and balances exist, it is my belief that the elitist method is the method used to make most of the major decisions in our nation today. Those that have power in America today can get what they want done.
Many of the decisions made by our government are based on the attitudes and wishes of those in power. This includes big businesses, political action groups, special interest groups and lobbyist who persuade those in government to vote in favor or against issues which affect their certain group. Even though our government is structured to encourage checks and balances between the Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches, this is not always the case. The group with the most power, money and influence usually get what they want.
In November of 2007 I participated in an effort to pass Proposition 15 on the Texas voting ballot. Proposition 15 would secure $3 billion over the next 10 years in cancer research and prevention programs in the state of Texas, and create the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas. Susan G. Komen for the Cure, the world??™s largest private breast cancer organization persuaded their supporters in Texas that this proposition was vital to our state and with their supporters help Proposition 15 was successful. In my opinion, the power of Susan G. Komen for the Cure was a big reason why the proposition passed. The organization set up meetings with Congressman and women from all districts in Texas as well as State Representatives to express their support of the proposition and support of those would help get it passed. In Tennessee, a change in the legislature has eased gun laws in the state and the National Rifle Association has had a big part in making it happen. Gun owners won the right to carry firearms into sporting events, onto playgrounds and temporarily into bars.
Many other states have followed suit mainly because of a pig push by the NRA. Through successful lobbying, the NRA has been successful in blocking attempts by the government to make gun laws tougher on gun owners. ???This is all a coordinated approach to respect that human, God-given right of self defense by law-abiding Americans,” says Chris W. Cox, the NRAs chief lobbyist. “Well rest when all 50 states allow and respect the right of law-abiding people to defend themselves from criminal attack” (Schelzig, 2009). Because of its power and large amount of supporters, the NRA can yield its power in Washington and get laws eased or passed in favor of gun owners across America. This, in my opinion is a prime example of the elite, running our country. Without the lobbying of the NRA and the pressure of its members put on our representatives in Washington, gun laws would be much stricter and left up to lawmakers to decide.
Although we like to believe that the checks and balances built into our governmental structure works effectively, there are groups that exist in our country who have the power to get want they want. Whether is be by hiring lobbyist, supporting a certain candidate or investing large amounts of money in an ad campaign to support a cause, those in power have the resources to get what they deem important passed. The checks and balances that exist for our three branches of government do not exist for these elitist groups. They are able to use their influence to sway the opinion of those able to get laws passed.
James Madison, sometimes referred to as the father of the U.S. Constitution, believed in a system of checks and balances for a balanced government. Madison believed that these checks and balances were necessary to ensure the personal rights of the citizens or the United States. If Madison were alive today, I doubt that he would approve of the way our government decides what laws to pass and who decides what groups to support. Madison believed that it was better for many groups to support republican values than just a few. It is clear that the opposite is now the case in America; a few interest groups have all the power. Madison wrote to the people of the State of New York, that the check and balances of departments of the government was essential to the liberty of all Americans (Madison, 1788). Unfortunately, Americans are not always involved in the decisions made by our elected officials because they would rather listen to those who can get them re-elected. As discussed in Who Rules America. Challenges to Corporate and Class Dominance 6th Edition, members of the Business Round Table is made up of directors of a few companies and they decide what issues will be discussed.
As American citizens we should be concerned with who is really running our country and influencing what laws our lawmakers are creating and passing. We should stop and consider if voting for our officials is true representation of our beliefs. With the power that many businesses and interest groups have, are we truly being governed by our elected officials or by special interests groups

Domhoff, G. W. (2010). Who Rules America. Challenges to Corporate and Class Dominance (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Madison, J. (1788). The Federalist #51. Independent Journal.
Schelzig, Erik. (2009, December 9). NRA quietly winning battles for looser gun laws. The
Huffington Post.

Categories: General

The History of Chinese American Immigration

February 26, 2017 • admin

Since the first immigrant reached to the American during the gold rush in 1849, among the past 160 years, the population of Chinese-American has dramatically increased. Now, Chinese Americans become the largest ethnic minority among the Asian American and represented about 24% of the Asian population. However, there is an unusual phenomenon that different from the other nation. The majority of the Chinese Americans are still immigrants. The domain Chinese American people are composed by first and second generation, while most Italian Americans and Japanese Americans have already had their fourth generation.(Zhou 3) According to the American Census 2000, 70% of the Chinese Americans are foreign born. At the same time, the second generation only occupies 20% of the total population. The third generation, which means their parents are also born in America, account for only 10 percent of Chinese American population. From the history of Chinese immigration, the phenomenon can be closely connected the American immigration policy.
In 1849, a piece of news spread through the south China that there were gold mountains in the America. During that time, Chinese were suffered in all kinds of wars. On one hand, China was defeated by the Britain in the Opium war which begun from 1840. On the other hand, a civil war called Tai Ping Rebelling broken out in 1850. Although leaving China was illegal during Qing Dynasty, homeless people bought the tickets to go to the United States to search for better economic opportunities. By 1851, over 25000 Chinese immigrants had left their home and moved to California. (Chinese Immigration par 3) The port they arrived is San Francisco which is still called Old Gold Mountain in China. However, when they finally reached to the California, they found the gold dream was an illusion. Mining was uncertain work and the gold area was not enough with the local people. (Chinese Immigration par 5) Either because Chinese looked strange or they worked hard, they were harassed in many ways. Unlike the European immigrants, the purpose of Chinese immigrants was to make enough money then go back to China. In this case, most Chinese immigrants found it is difficult to survive through mining, not mention to afford the tickets for going back to China.
When they finally realized their gold dream was collapsed, the first generation of Chinese Americans commenced to find other ways to earn their living. Most of the labors were young male from the rural area of China. Therefore, they were less educated and the most important thing was they can??™t speak English. Apart from these disadvantages, Chinese immigrants had differences from the European immigrants. It was obvious that a Chinese labor received many difficulty changes during that period from east to west, from Confucian culture to Christian world. Owing to these difficulties, Chinese immigrant had to find jobs required little English facility and required skills could be learned quickly. (Chinese Immigration Par 6) On the other hand, there were almost no women in California in those days. Chinese labors found they could do some women??™s work such as do the laundry and set up the restaurant for the white people. These jobs were actually popular during that time because they do meet the needs of white man. Even now, when people talked about Chinese American in the United States, they always associate them with restaurant and laundries.
In 1860s, there were more labors came from China. According to the book Chinese Immigrants written by Mary Coolidge, there were 25000 Chinese in California in 1852 and it reached to 50000 in 1867. Some other scholars pointed out that the number of Chinese in 1860 was 34933. Then it increased dramatically to 62736 in 1870. (Huang Par 6) Although the number cited above was different, it was an indisputable fact that the rates of the Chinese American growth were high. The number of Chinese immigrants increased so fast because a considerable Chinese were imported as labors for the transcontinental railroads during that period. In February, 1865, the Central Pacific decided to try a new labor pool. Charles Crocker, chief of construction persuaded his company to employ Chinese immigrants, arguing that the people who build the Great Wall of China and invented gunpowder could certainly build a railroad. (Building the Railroad Par 5) Chinese labors, accounted for nearly 90% of total labors, made great contribution to the railroad. In the first three years, the Central Pacific had only put down less than 100 miles of track. Obviously, the participation of Chinese immigrants fastened the process of rail road building which was finally completed in 1869. Despite the skepticism that was expressed about their physical strength, Chinese soon became the backbone of the labor not only for unskilled tasks but for highly demanding and dangerous ones as well. (Chan 31) At the same time, Chinese were paid less than the white labors. In the beginning, a Chinese was paid 1 dollar a work way or 26 dollars a month. Later, pay was raised to 30 and finally 35 a month, achieving the same rate as white. However, the white were give food and housing to their pay whereas Chinese labors had to feed and house themselves. Also, the company use the Chinese do the skilled labor such as masonry, track-laying, blacksmithing, hand explosives which they should pay white 3 to 5 dollars per day. The Central Pacific saved about 5.5 millions by hiring Chinese instead of white unskilled labor. (Meltzer 7) In addition, Chinese always did the dangerous work. Only from the winter 1885 to 1886, there were almost 1200 Chinese immigrants died from accidents, avalanches, and explosions. Due to these characters, these workers quickly earned a reputation as tireless and extraordinarily reliable workers–“quiet, peaceable, patient, industrious, and economical.” (Building the Railroad par 7)
However, when the transcontinental railroad was completed, Chinese immigrants received even more hostility than before. The Central Pacific dismissed most labors which rendering almost 10000 Chinese lost their job. These former employees were not even allowed to ride the trains free of charge back to California. (Chan 32) Thereby, they had to find jobs wherever they could. Meanwhile, more and more Euro-American appeared to California and they had to compete with Chinese for jobs. Due to the less money the Chinese asked for, they were always in the ascendant. Unfortunately the factors also led to the anti-Chinese movement. There were both legal and illegal harassment towards to the Chinese. In San Francisco, which became metropolis of Chinese American, a variety of municipal ordinances put special taxes on their livelihood, fined them for living in overcrowd tenement, and even required arrested Chinese to have their heads shaved.(Daniels and Cliffs 22) On the other hand, the other labors found the Chinese immigrants were threaten because of their less pay. The most significant anti-Chinese event was the movement ???The Chinese must go??? led by Kearney. One of Kearney??™s working??™s party manifestos was:
Before the world we declare that the Chinaman must leave our shores. We declared that while man, and women, and boys, and girls, cannot live as the people of the great republic should live and compete with the single Chinese coolie in the labor market. We declare that we cannot hope to drive the Chinaman away by working cheaper than he does. None but an enemy would expect if of us; none but an idiot could hope for success: none but a degraded coward and slaves would make the effort. To an American, death is preferable to life on a par with Chinaman.
(qtd. in Daniels and Cliffs 23)

What was worse, Chinese immigration underwent sometimes violence attacks. From Settle to Los Angeles, from Wyoming to the small towns of California, immigrants from China were forced out of business, run out of town, beaten, tortured, lynched, and massacred, usually with little hope of help from the law. (Chinese Immigration par 10) The root cause of these problems was money. Euro American thought Chinese asked for so little money that they had no way to compete with them. However, considering that almost all the Chinese immigrants were from the rural area of China, the wage was quite a lot of money for them. That??™s why they could tolerate all of these unfair treatments. As a Chinese farmer said, “I work on four-mou land [less than one acre, a larger than average holding] year in and year out, from dawn to dusk, but after taxes and providing for your own needs, I make $20 a year. You make that much in one day. No matter how much it cost to get there, or how hard the work is, America is still better than this.”(The Chinese Par 10)
Nevertheless, the anti-Chinese voices culminated in 1882. In that year congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which is the first significant restriction law on free immigration in United States history. All Chinese people– except travelers, merchants, teachers, students, and those born in the United States??”were forbidden to enter the country. Also, the Act prohibited the Chinese residents from naturalized citizens. The Act lasted for ten years, and in 1892 the Geary Acts extended these exclusion laws for another decade, and in 1902 the exclusion of Chinese immigration was extended indefinitely. (Daniels and Cliffs 11) The implement to the Chinese Exclusion Act not only made the Chinese immigrants had a harsh time in the United States, but also made the number of Chinese population declined steadily.
Chinese in the US 1890-1920 |
Year | Number |
1890 | 107.620 |
1900 | 89.863 |
1910 | 71.531 |
1920 | 61.639 |
Source: United States Bureau of Census
The situation didnt ameliorate until the year of World War II. In 1943, considering the allied relationship between China and the US, congress repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act. President Roosevelt also admitted, ???By the repeal of the Chinese exclusion laws we can correct a historic mistake??? (President par 10) However, the 1943 maintained racist elements. Though it allowed 105 immigrants from China annually, a Chinese born in Canada would still be charged to the Chinese quota whereas a white native Canada could enter as a non-quota immigrants. There were several subsequent policies relaxing immigration restrictions. In 1946, congress approved a law that placed Chinese wives of American citizens on a non-quota basis. In 1952, congress passed McCarren-walter Act, making all national origin groups eligible for naturalization and eliminating race as a bar to immigration. Even though, the construction of the American population won??™t be changed without the promulgation of the Hart-Cellar Act in 1965, which was also known as immigration law. The main reasons for promoting immigration act could be summarized in the follow sentences. In the post-world-war II era, global and domestic forces moved the nation toward liberalizing its immigration laws. (Paul and John 155) Internally, the civil right movements made state-support racism less tenable than before. It was impossible and dangerous to continue the discrimination on the immigration area. On the other side, the global forced the United States to make change on the immigration policy. To maintain the world hegemony against the Soviet Union, and to present U.S image as leader of ???free world???, it was high time to eliminate racial barriers and accept large numbers of immigrants. Moreover, in the context of the Cold War period, The United States required lots of foreign experts and technical personnel, especially in the field of military and economy. Meanwhile, the decline of the European immigrants also led to the shortage of labor market. Hence, the U.S government intended to expand the number of eastern immigration to compensate.
The basis of Immigration Act 1965 was family reunion and technological priority. Although the Chinese quota was the same as the western countries, the U.S government didn??™t expect the number of Chinese immigrants would increase so rapidly. From 1965 to 1978, most of Chinese immigrants were form Tai Wang and Hong Kong because the U.S didn??™t accept China Mainland as an independent country. In 1979, China and The United States established the diplomatic relation. U.S government added quota of 20000 immigrants to Chinese Mainland. Thus, the total quota of Chinese immigrants was enviable 60000, 20000 for Chinese Mainland, Tai Wang, and Hong Kong respectively. In addition, the parents and children of American citizen can enter United States as non-quota immigrants. As Chinese people emphasis on family relationship at all time, they took full advantage of the immigration law to go to America. As for the technical personnel, there also a large number of students immigration. Most students chose to stay in United States after they graduated. Moreover, once they became American citizen, they began to apply immigration for their parents, spouses, sibling, and children. As a result of so-called ???family migration???, Chinese formed a tremendous immigration wave.

Works cited
Chan, Sucheng. Asain Americans-an Interpretive History. Boston: Boston Publishing, 1991
Daniels, Roger, and Englewood Cliffs. Asian Americans-Emerging Minorities. New Jersey: New Jersey Publishing, 1988
Meltzer, Milton. The Chinese Americans. New York: Signet, 1980
Min, Zhou. ????????? [The Transformation of Chinese American]. Shanghai: Sanlian of Shanghai, 2006
Annian, Huang. Chinese Labors in San Francisco, 22 March, 2010
4 rch 2010 Publishing 1988rities. New Jersey The Chinese, 14 March. 2010,
Chinese Immigration, 22 March, 2010
Chinese Immigrants and the Building of the Transcontinental Railroad, 22 March, 2010,
President Urges Congress Repeal Chinese Exclusion Act as War Aid, 23 March. 2010,

Categories: General