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Month: February 2017

The History of the International Rules and Trade Terms in International Trade Practices

February 28, 2017 • admin

In 1921, in order to provide a uniform rules for trade terms in the international trade, International Chamber of Commerce authorized “the Committee of Trade Terms” to collect the regulations of trade terms form every country in London.
In 1928, International Law Association, meeting in Warsaw, Poland, established uniform rules relating to CIF sales contract, named as the “Warsaw 1928 Rules” by 1932. After the Oxford meeting of the Warsaw rules were amended, named as the “Warsaw 1932 — Oxford Rules??? of a total 21 full texts. This rule is mainly to explain the nature and characteristics of CIF contract of sale, and specifies use of CIF trade terms.
After several years of consultations and seminars, in June 1936, International Chamber of Commerce established rules for trade terms, named as the INCOTERMS l936, and which had made a contribution to the development of trade terms.
In 1941, Revised American Foreign Trade Definitions 1941 was established by nine business groups in American. And the Revised American Foreign Trade Definitions 1941 made a definition for six international trade terms:
1. Ex (Point of Origin)
2. FOB (Free on Board)
3. FAS (Free Along Side)
4. C&F (Cost and Freight)
5. CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight)
6. Ex Dock (Named Port of Importation)
With the development of international trade, International Chamber of Commerce was formulated in 1936 and revised in 1953. INCOTERMS l953, as amended for the eight types of trade terms, in 1967, added two trade terms, namely, “Delivered at Frontier” (DAF) and “Delivered Duty Paid” (DDP); 1976 years and added that the “shipment airports delivery “(FOA); 1980 years and increase the” goods for the carrier “(FRC) and the” freight, insurance, attached to the (destination) “(CIP), to 1980, the Fourth Amendment INCOTERMS 1980, have 14 kinds of trade terms. INCOTERMS l990 came into effect in July 1, 1990, a total of 13 kinds of trade terms. And INCOTERMS 2000 was promulgated in Journey 1, 2000 and which is the most comprehensive rules for trade terms by now.

Categories: General

The History of Tattoo and Piercing

February 28, 2017 • admin

Tattoos and Piercings

By:

Michael Dunn

Com 150

Introduction

Some people may not know the history behind Tattoos and Piercings, so I am here to feel you in on everything. There are so many reasons behind why individuals get them and I think after you read this you might be amazed at how much you can learn.

Thesis Statement

Some people may believe that Tattoos and Piercings are a waste of their money and time, but it is simply a way for individuals to express themselves through art. Some people may regret them but they are here to stay, unless you are willing to pay some big money.

I want to begin by telling you things about tattoos that you may not have known. First of all they have been around for many years. They were first discovered in Egypt. In 2000 B.C. tattooing was making its way around the world. George Burchett was the leading tattooist in London for more than 50 years. (George Burchett, 1958) states that his clients were actresses, doctors, judges, a bishop, and assorted royalty including King George V of England and the late King Frederick of Denmark.

The earliest record of tattooing in the United States was written by seamen in the nineteenth century. ( Steve Gilbert,1958) claims that the first American tattoo artist was C. H. Fellowes, who designs were discovered in 1966 by a Rhode Island antique dealer and are now in the collection of the Mystic Seaport Museum in Mystic Connecticut. Today tattoos are more popular than ever. There are a lot of individuals in this world that have at least one or more tattoos. They are a work of art. Some get them for personal reasons like a death in the family. They get their loved ones names tattooed on their body. Some get tattoos because it is a way for them to express themselves through art, while others may get them to just fit in with their friends. You have to be at least 18 yrs of age to get a tattoo in the world today. In the older days kids as young as 10 were getting tattoos. The used them as a mark to show their culture or heritage. Some even had tattoos covering their entire face. Most kids then did not have a choice. It was something that was passed on from generation to generation. There are still countries in this world that still do that.

Although there are some who love tattoos there are also ones who are against them. Some believe you should not destroy the body that god gave you by getting tattoos. They believe that you were born into this world without tattoos on your body and you should leave this world with no tattoos. Tattoos can be very expensive. They can range from $50 to as high as $1000. There are some tattoos that can cost way more than that. I myself have two tattoos, one is dolphins on my tailbone and the other is an angel with ribbons underneath it with my kids name in the ribbons. I think tattoos are really neat. The way someone can just draw something like that on your body is amazing. It takes a lot of hard work and years of practice.

The process of tattooing starts with the customer deciding what he or she would like the artist to do. Some artist has several different designs that individuals would like. If there is something that you would prefer they would be happy to draw it up for you. Some artist may like your drawing so much that they might even ask your permission to take a picture of it after it is done. They could add to their collection and maybe someone else might want the same tattoo. (Tracey Wilson) explains that the Tattoo machines have several components:

*A sterilized needle

* A tube system, which draws the ink through the machine.

* An electric motor

* A foot petal, like those used on sewing machine, which controls the vertical movement of the needle.

(Tracey Wilson) explains that the machine moves the needle up and down to puncture the skin between 50 and 3,000 times per minute. The needle penetrates the skin by about a millimeter and deposits a drop of insoluble ink into the skin with each puncture. Have you ever watched someone get a tattoo (Tracey Wilson) states if you have you are seeing the ink through what is called epidermis, which is the outer layer of the skin. The ink is actually in the dermis, which is the second layer of skin. I never knew this. I always thought it was the outer layer. (Tracey Wilson) The cells in the dermis are more stable that it protects the tattoo from fading.

It takes an artist a few hours to finish a tattoo. Some may take longer and some may take less depending n how big it is and how much detail you have. (Karen Hudson, 1999) states first the tattoo artist will clean the area that is being tattooed with alcohol and depending if there is hair he or she will shave the area with a razor. He or she will then rub some ointment over the tattoo area to help the needle slide along the skin better.

The artist will then begin by drawing or tracing the tattoo onto your body part. The first part of the tattoo is the outline. This process takes the longest depending on how big or how much detail you are getting. By the time the outline is done you are so numb that the coloring in does not hurt at all. Usually, I tell people if they can tolerate having a baby or even having a toothache, then getting a tattoo is not as painful. At least I did not think so. I do not have a high tolerance for pain but my tattoos did not hurt as bad as I thought. A few parts that hurt the worse are getting tattoos on your tailbone, neck, your

back, your palms, and along your spine. They are all different for everyone. Some might hurt more for others. What it mainly comes down to is how high your tolerance for pain is.

There are a lot good things about tattoos just like they can sometimes be dangerous. You have to be very careful when getting a tattoo. You never want to go somewhere they do not sanitize their tools or even use the same needles. This is a way that diseases can be spread. There are a lot of people who can not afford to have their own shop, so they give tattoos out of their house. These are the ones you want to be careful of. Not only of their sanitation but you also have to be careful that you know they do not give tattoos to minors. Some individuals just care about making a dollar they do not really care if the child is underage. So just make sure when you are deciding to get tattoo, you make sure you find out about their work and who they give tattoos to. It is always good to ask your friends and family (if they have tattoos) could they refer you to someone. Another subject I would like to interest you in is Piercings.

Piercings, like Tattoos have been around for a very long time. Ancient tribes would get piercings to keep the evil spirits away. You might think that girls were more likely to have piercings but in the older days boys were. ???The mom and dad would each pierce an ear as a ritual of puberty, to symbolize their son??™s dependence. There are many types of different piercings. There are ear, nose, tongue, and lip. Nose piercings was required for Indian woman. Australian??™s used a long stick to pierce the nose because they thought it was a way to flatten the nose. Papua New Guinea pierced their noses as a male coming of age ritual. Nose piercings are still very common today and a lot more woman are getting them.(Wikipedia) states that tongue piercing was first practiced by the Aztecs and other Pre-Columbian cultures as a ritual symbol; the tongue was pierced to draw blood and induce an altered state of consciousness. (Wikipedia) claims in the Dogon tribe of Mali lip rings were worn for spiritual reasons, while the Saras-Djinjas tribe of Chad pierced a women??™s lip upon marriage to show the male??™s ownership of her. There are many different reasons why people still today get piercings. Most of the reasons are not the same as in the ancient times, but there still are some cultures who still believe that is they way piercings should be done.

Conclusion

I hope after reading this essay some might feel differently about Tattoos and Piercings. Some may even realize that tattoos and piercings are not just something that people get to make themselves look cool. There really is a reason behind Tattoos and Piercings you just have to take the time to find out what that reason is.

References:

Stephen G. Gilbert (1958), the Tattoo History Book from

http://tattoos.com/jane/steve/index.html

George Burchett, Memoirs of a Tattooist from

http://www.tattoo-sourc.com/bd-history_blogs/burchett-memoirs.html

Wikipedia, Tattoos from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tattoos

Karen L. Hudson (1999) Complete Guide to Getting a Tattoo for Beginners from

http://tattoo.about.com/od/tattoo101/p/tattoobasics.htm

Tracey V. Wilson, How Tattoos Work from

http://health.howstuffworks.com/tattoo.htm

Categories: General

Pneumonia

February 28, 2017 • admin

Older Men More Susceptible to Death by Pneumonia Than Women
According to a new study, old men are far more likely to die after being hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) than their female counterparts. The reason for this may be attributable to the differing biological response to infection between males and females. The findings may have important implications for understanding sex differences in life expectancy.

“Our study found that men with CAP were less likely to survive after an infection compared to women and this was not explained by differences in demographics, health behaviour, chronic health conditions or quality of care,” said Sachin Yende, M.D., assistant professor in the Department of Critical Care Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and corresponding author of the study.

The researchers measured blood levels of inflammatory indicators, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukins 6 and 10, coagulation indicators including Factor IX, and fibrinolysis indicators including D-dimer concentrations.

They found patterns in these biomarkers that suggest men generate a stronger inflammatory and coagulation response and, perhaps, break up blood clots more quickly than women in response to infection.

“These differences in inflammatory, coagulation and fibrinolysis biomarkers among men may explain the reduced short-term and long-term survival,” said Dr. Yende.

Data were gathered from the multicenter Genetic and Inflammatory Markers of Sepsis (GenIMS) study. Participants were enrolled upon emergency department admission at 28 academic and community hospitals in Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Michigan and Tennessee from 2001 to 2003.

The study[pic]
included 2,320 subjects, with a mean age of 64.9 years, 1,136 of whom were men. The men were sicker on admission, more likely to be smokers, and had at least one chronic health condition, such as cardiac disease or cancer. Severe sepsis occurred in 588 (31 percent) subjects. Of these, about half had severe sepsis on their first day of hospitalization.

The researchers found that men had a higher risk than women of death at 30 days (7 percent vs. 4.5 percent), 90 days (11.4 percent vs. 8.6 percent) and one year (21 percent vs. 16 percent).

“Even compared to women with an equivalent illness severity, men were more likely to die. Survival differences persist up to one year after the initial hospitalization, when most patients had recovered from the pneumonia and left the hospital,” Dr. Yende said.

Nursing Interventions

Interventions: Elevate head of the bed, change position frequently.

Rationale: Lowers diaphragm, promoting chest expansion and expectoration of secretions.

Interventions: Assist patient with deep breathing exercises.

Rationale: Deep breathing facilitates maximum expansion of the lungs and smaller airways.

Interventions: Demonstrate or help patient learn to perform activity like splinting chest and effective coughing while in upright position.

Rationale: Coughing is a natural self cleaning mechanism. Splinting reduces chest discomfort, and an upright position favors deeper, more forceful cough effort.

Interventions: Force fluids to at least 3000 ml per day and offer warm, rather than cold fluids.

Rationale: Fluids especially warm liquids aid in mobilization and expectoration of secretions.

Interventions: Administer medications as prescribe: mucolytics or expectorants.

Rationale: Aids in reduction of bronchospasm and mobilization of secretions.

Interventions: Provide supplemental fluids.

Rationale: Fluids are required to replace losses and aid in mobilization of secretions.

Medical Management

Depending on the organism treatment for Pneumonia is undertaken. For Pneumonia caused by bacteria Pneumococcus, Streptococcus Pneumonia, Hemophilus Influenza, Penicillin or Erythromicin group of derived antibiotics like ampicillin (augmentin) can be used.

Categories: General

Pm Fundamentals

February 28, 2017 • admin

Purpose of the report

This report is prepared for Exxon Mobil Board and US Congressional Oversight Committee for acceptance of the Strategic Cooperation Agreement under which the two organisations plan to undertake joint exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources in Russia, the United States and other countries throughout the world, and commence technology and expertise sharing activities.

Project Background

Exxon Mobil has formed an Arctic exploration partnership with Rosneft, the Russian state oil company. In return, Exxon, the world??™s largest oil company by market capitalisation, will give the state-controlled Russian group minority stakes in projects in the US Gulf of Mexico, in onshore fields in Texas and elsewhere. The deal underscores international oil companies??™ determination to explore and develop the Russian Arctic, one of the few places in the world with large, untapped oil and gas reserves, and Russia??™s recognition that it needs international help to exploit those resources. (The Financial Times 2011)

Figure 1: Kara sea operation area

Objectives

The aim is to develop strategic partnership between Exxon and Rosneft in exploration of Russian Arctic and Black sea. This cooperation is as important for companies businesses as it is significant politically for both countries relationship.
First production from Kara Sea blocks to be started in next decade (Market Watch 2011)

Scope

Initial step of the project is a $3.2b exploration program on Prinovozemelsky blocks in Kara Sea and Tuapse block in Black Sea.
The Prinovozemelsky blocks of the Kara Sea have been explored using 2D seismic. Estimated recoverable oil resources in the three blocks stand at 6.2 billion tons and hydrocarbon resources at up to 20.9 billion tons of oil equivalent (Rosneft 2011). First exploration well is scheduled for drilling in 2015. Data received from the exploration phase to be analyzed and option for further field development chosen.
Exxon will invest $1b in exploration program in Tuapse block which has also potentially huge hydrocarbon deposits. 2D seismic done by Rosneft revealed approximately 70 prospective structures in a sea depth varying from 1,000 to 2,000 meters.
Exxon and Rosneft agreed to establish a joint Arctic Research and Design Centre for Offshore Development in St. Petersburg.

Benefits and Incentives of Exxon-Rosneft Deal

Exxon gets access to the one of the potentially largest untapped oil and gas reserves on the planet. Fossil fuel is still the dominant energy source in the world and Exxon access to the world??™s largest oil discoveries will help the company maintain leading position in the industry
Russia has no limitation??™s on drilling in the areas of Arctic while it??™s forbidden elsewhere else in this region.
The deal also demonstrates that the “reset” in relations sought by President Barak Obama has worked in reducing significant political barriers for U.S. business opportunities in Russia. Agreement is supported by Prime Minister Putin, which has the Russian government highest level of backing to avoid any political issues. Furthermore Putin announced he will contest in 2012 Presidential elections and putting a public endorsement on the deal shows him as a reformer and is in support of the ???Reset??? project between US and Russia. (NYTimes 2011).
Having watched BP failure of pending partnership with Rosneft earlier this year, Exxon should be able to learn lessons and avoid a few pitfalls.
15 years partnership with Rosneft is a big advantage to Exxon which will help to realize future projects having past experience. Exxon completed Sakhalin 1 project in 2010 on time and on budget.
Exxon-Rosneft deal is not a shares swap deal. Exxon is only providing Rosneft opportunity to participate in six projects. Rosneft access to US resources will not be the first Russian businesses operating in US. For example Lukoil owns approximately 2000 gas stations all over the East Coast, Norilsk Nickel had a big mine in the north of the US, and one of the biggest steel companies in US are Severstal and Evraz.

Rosneft participation in Exxon??™s US and other projects

Rosneft is lacking of technological expertise and Exxon Mobil will help russian company in bringing its deepwater and offshore technological expertise to projects in the Kara and Black Seas as well as allowing to participate in some Texas and possibly Canada projects. The fact that most of the projects Rosneft is going to participate are in exploratory phase showing that for Rosneft it??™s more important to get knowledge rather than financial benefits. Those operations could include two of the industry??™s most contentious oil extraction methods ??” drilling for oil in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico and using the so-called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, technique on land. The Russians want to learn about both types of drilling for use at home. (The New York Times 2011)

Project Deliverables

??? Open Arctic Research and Design Centre for offshore developments by 2014
??? First exploration well which is scheduled to be drilled in 2015
??? Offshore infrastructure in Kara sea to be developed by 2023
??? First oil from Arctic sea in January 2026

Project appraisal

A comprehensive and rigorous appraisal process is important to meet policy, project requirements and standards. It provides an opportunity to fully assess the economic, social and environmental impact of options.

Following conformation of hydrocarbon presence and evaluation of field capacity the following options to be considered:
1. Proceed with development
2. Sell the discover. In which case further valuation will be required.
3. Do nothing.

The ???Do Nothing??™ alternative refers to the option of not implementing the proposed Development. This option would compromise the long term operation of this nationally important gas facility, and is therefore not considered a viable option.

Benefits of ???Proceed to development??? option

??? Exxon Mobil experience. Exxon Mobil is an operator will bring required expertise to the project development. Exxon experience from Sakhalin and other ???Arctic??? location projects. Access to Exxon experts across the group.
??? Work in collaboration with partners to ensure: Country alignment working in partnership with Rosneft??™s
??? In a long term, successful development the one of the world??™s most promising oil & gas reservoirs will help Exxon to hold the leading position in the industry.

Option selected:

This option for development of Kara sea field is based on successful Exxon operated Hibernia project which has the similar climatic conditions and technological issues.

Offshore platform

The Kara sea field will be developed using special gravity base structure (GBS) consisting of concrete caisson, constructed using high-strength concrete, reinforced with steel rods and pre-stressed tendons. This structure is supposed to be strong enough to withstand a collision with million tons icebergs. GBS caisson will have up to 1 million barrels of oil storage capacity.
Topsides will include: Accommodation module, Process area, Drilling rig and Utilities.

Transportation and infrastructure

Oil stored in GBS will be exported by means of an offshore loading system (OLS) consisting of subsea pipelines, a subsurface buoy and flexible loading hoses, feeding a purpose-built shuttle tanker. Network of oil transmission pipelines on the ocean floor will be encased in concrete for protection against icebergs passing over. A redundant OLS system will be in place to serve as an auxiliary, in the unlikely event that the other system is damaged.
The other infrastructure supporting the field production will include platform support facilities, shorebase facility, Warehouse Complex facility, transshipment terminal and a remotely operated vehicle.

Identified Areas of Further Research

??? Consider the requirements of the client, potential solutions, feasibility study, objectives and the Exxon??™s capability of delivering the proposed project.
??? Examine different solution options(option appraisal) and present a preferred solution
Understand the rationale, objectives and benefits of the project and detailing the preferred option for the project and ensuring that it meets all the project requirements.
??? Use PID requirements such as Project Scope Definition, Planning, Budgeting, Scheduling, Contracting and Procurement, Risk and Issue Management, Change Management Plan, Quality Management Plan, Safety and the Environment Plan
Project Business Case
??? Examine the business benefits, costs and the risks of the project and demonstrate that benefits outweigh project costs, considering the following: Option Appraisal, Risks, Rationale for the Project including the business benefits ,Contractual provision, Description of the Scope, Estimated costs and Schedule, Investment appraisals, Success Criteria, Identification of constraints, assumptions and considerations.

Investment Appraisal
??? Examine Techniques such as Payback period, Accounting rate of return, Net present value ??“ a discounted cash flow approach. Most preferably the Net present value ??“ a discounted cash flow approach, because it is a superior approach to decision-making, in that it takes account of the ???time value??™ of money. Cash flow profiles are in effect discounted to express them all in terms of their value at the start of the project . Projects are accepted or rejected on their ability to generate a positive return (i.e. a positive net present value) at the chosen discount rate.

High level Business case

Initial investment in exploration phase of the project agreed to be $3.2b. Further investments into development phase are estimated to be between $200b and $300b and $200b to be spent during production. Companies are to agree on how these expenditures to be allocated between them.
Kara sea field contains 36 billion barrels of recoverable oil resource and assuming oil prices for the next two decades stay around $100, generated cash flow after 15 years of production will be $3600b. As it was agreed, Exxon will get 33.3% in the blocks while the rest 66.7% will be Rosneft??™s share. Final Exxon benefit at the end of the project could be $500-600b.

The Field Life Cycle & Cumulative Cash Flows

Project Network Diagram

Project Budgeting

Table below shows estimation of funds to be allocated by both companies to the project under Exxon-Rosneft financial agreement.
Project Stage Cost $ Funding Period
Gaining Access Phase February 2012 – February 2013
Exploration Phase $3.2b March 2013 ??“ March 2017
Appraisal Phase $1b March 2017 ??“ March 2020
Development Phase $240b March 2020 ??“ December 2025
Production Phase(Opex) $300b January 2026 ??“ January 2040
Project Estimation $534.2b

Schedule Summary/Milestones

The table below shows high level activities schedule for the project.
Milestone Duration Start date Finish Date
Start December 2011
Gaining Access Phase 2 years February 2012 February 2013
Final Agreement to carry out exploration in Kara sea December 2012
Collaboration has fully backing of US and Russian government December 2012
Investment agreement for exploration phase January 2013
Agreement to open Arctic Research and Design Centre for offshore developments January 2013
Exploration Phase 4 years March 2013 March 2017
Analysis of Geological history of the area 6 month March 2013 September 2013
Carry out field work(magnetic, gravity, seismic surveys) 2 years September 2013 September 2015
Drilling starts for appraisal wells September 2015 March 2017
Appraisal Phase 3 years March 2017 March 2020
Options selection basing on data from exploration Phase December 2017
Develop technology strategy for selected option March 2020
Investment agreement for development stage May 2018
Prepare PSCM Strategy for selected option March 2020
Development Phase 5 years March 2020 December 2025
Complete engineering and develop work packages for fabrication/construction 10 month March 2020 January 2021
Place order for long lead items 10 month March 2020 January 2021
Conduct Hazard and Operability studies August 2022
Start drilling production wells March 2020 December 2024
Implement PSCM Plan November 2022
Offshore infrastructure construction February 2021 January 2023
Subsea pipeline infrastructure construction November 2022 December 2024
Transportation and installation rigs offshore 1 year December 2024 December 2025
Commissioning activities December 2025
Production Phase 15 years
First oil from Kara sea January 2026
Total:40 years

Project Organization

As Exxon experience and knowledge level is much higher comparing to Rosneft??™s, project organization will be formed on basis of crucial positions will be held by Exxon employees. The typical organizational structure will be as follows:

Contracting and Procurement

??? Prepare PSCM plan for selected option
??? Place order for long lead items to allow fabrication and construction activities start on schedule.
??? Implement PSCM plan during development phase

Change Management Plan

Change management is an important part of successful project management. A change management process defines the steps used to identify and make changes to a project including its scope. The elements included in a change management process include the purpose of the change management plan, change control procedures, roles and responsibilities for managing change, a change request form, and a change request log (Collegiate Project Services).
Change request form

Risks and Issues management

Political issues
There are always risks in partnership with a Russian state-controlled entity, with all the underlying political risks, instability and inefficiencies that are implied.
As Vladimir Frolov, president of LEFF Group, a government relations and PR firm based in Moscow, states in his interview ??? For Exxon, political risk is much reduced compared to what BP faced- there are no Russian oligarchs in the Exxon deal structure. ??? Putin made clear he was the key figure behind Rosnefts deal with Exxon by attending the signing ceremony on Tuesday and saying it would open “new horizons.” (Real Clear World 2011)

Country issues
Exxon to conduct its business in compliance with Russia??™s legal, environmental, economic and other regulatory systems.

Market/Commercial context
Falling crude oil prices and fears of another global economic recession could potentially impact the project. Another issue could be discrepancy between Russian state policy and American private policies. There will be a lot of difference between a state owned and private facility, but through a clear outlined contract as well as the proper policy market control by a state entity will not affect the market.

Final investment decision delay
There is disparity between Exxon and Rosneft in terms of investment required though both companies seem to agree it??™s very large. (Engineer Live 2011). Russias Prime Minister Putin has suggested that the Exxon-Rosneft deal could ultimately call for the investment of $500-billion — including a direct investment of between $200 billion to $300 billion (Market Watch 2011).

HSSE issues

Ice management program to be developed to reduce a risk of ice formations impact to offshore structures.

Technical challenge
To design offshore structure that will strong enough to withstand iceberg collision and at the same time be constructible, transportable and economically feasible.
Find a reliable and economical construction method for underwater pipelines/transportation means for extracted hydrocarbons.

Climatic challenges
Exploration in the arctic area will be done in water depth of between 40 meters and 350 meters, under complicated ice conditions, with winter temperatures as low as minus 50.8 F. The Hibernia offshore project in Canada, in which Exxon Mobil participates, is reportedly similar in terms of its climatic conditions (Market Watch 2011).

Safety and Environmental

Main Concerns:

??? Spills
??? Global Warming
??? Offshore structures damage by ice packs and icebergs

While drilling is strictly forbidden in the other areas of Arctic region due to environmental concerns, there are no such limitations in the Russia??™s sector of Kara sea. However there remains much risk during exploration, drilling and production. The ice pack and icebergs pose threats to drilling rigs and crews. And if oil were spilled in the winter, cleanup would take place in the total darkness that engulfs the region during those month( New York Times 2011)

Main Considerations:

??? A full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) will be carried out to document the potential physical, biological, social and health effects of planned activity. Exxon-Rosneft will employ the best leading environmental technology at each of their sites. Rosneft and ExxonMobil experts will pay special attention to environmental safety and interaction with the regions indigenous population. Research and Design Center for Offshore Developments. It will be used to monitor and evaluate the impact of each shelf project on the environment as well as monitor and prevent emergencies.
??? A Mobile Emergency Prevention and Rapid Reaction Centre to be formed. Past experiences such as the Valdez Exxon incident in 1989 has left valuable information for spill clean up. Also, this information has improved through out the years to be the leading technology in spill clean up.
??? There have been extreme measures enforced by the Russian government upon heavy industry. This resulted in 30% emission reduction. Russia is open to analyze western environmental practices. Due to the Kyoto protocol ratification, any possible climate consequences have been addressed and will not represent any harm to global climate.

References
??? TRAMMELL, ELIZABETH. Russian Political Reactions to a Changing Climate: Environmental Cases in the Arctic and Siberian Hydrosphere. Published Thesis, Wesleyan University.
??? THE NEW YORK TIMES 2011. Exxon Reaches Arctic Oil deal with Russians. (Online) : http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/31/business/global/exxon-and-rosneft-partner-in-russian-oil-deal.htmlpagewanted=all Accessed 15 November 2011
??? ROSNEFT 2011, Russia??™s Arctic Seas. (Online) : http://www.rosneft.com/Upstream/Exploration/arctic_seas/ Accessed 12 December 2011
??? REAL CLEAR WORLD 2011. Analysis: Exxon deal sets stage for Putin return to Kremlin.(Online):http://www.realclearworld.com/news/reuters/international/2011/Aug/31/analysis__exxon_deal_sets_stage_for_putin_return_to_kremlin.html Accessed 9 December 2011
??? ENGINEER LIVE 2011. Exxon Mobil strikes Arctic exploration deal with Rosneft. (Online): http://www.engineerlive.com/Oil-and-Gas- 2011Engineer/Exploration_Drilling/ExxonMobil_strikes_Arctic_exploration_deal_with_Rosneft/23663 Accessed 25 November 2011
??? MARKET WATCH 2011. Wall Street Journal. Rosneft: Exxon Deal Expected to Close in 2012. (Online) : http://www.marketwatch.com/story/rosneft-exxon-deal-expected-to-close-in-2012-2011-08-31 Accessed 10 December 2011
??? THE FINANCIAL TIMES 2011. Exxon and Rosneft sign Arctic deal (Online): http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/ffa9d962-d319-11e0-9aae-00144feab49a.html#axzz1gPhwEef8 Accessed 10 December 2011
??? REUTERS 2011. Rosneft and ExxonMobil to Join Forces for Development of Arctic and Black Sea Resources, Expand Technology Sharing and Implement Joint International Projects (Online) : http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/30/idUS159107+30-Aug-2011+BW20110830
??? OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY 2011. Hibernia, Canada (Online): http://www.offshore-technology.com/projects/hibernia/ Accessed 12 December 2011
??? COLLEGIATE PROJECT SERVICES. Project Scope & Change Management (Online) http://www.collegiateproject.com/articles/Preliminary%20Change%20Management%20Plan.pdf. Accessed 13 December 2011

Categories: General

The History of Organized Labor

February 28, 2017 • admin

Trista Kennicker
1,234 words
The History of Organized Labor
The first national labor unions were formed during the 1850??™s. These groups of workers were the typesetters, iron molders, hat finishers, stonecutters, and cigar makers. Locomotive engineers formed a union in 1863 and conductors formed a union in 1868. In 1866, the National Labor Union began in Baltimore. The National Labor Union was many different unions all under the leadership of William Sylvis. They eventually got Congress to pass an eight hour work day for Federal workers. When Williams Sylvis died in 1969 the National Labor Union fell apart and only 10 of the 30 unions remained.
A union of shoemakers formed in 1867. They were called The Knights of St. Crispin, but because of new machines that could make the shoes, the union ended after 10 years. The Knights of Labor began in 1869. Membership was opened to all people no matter what race, sex, or profession. By the 1880??™s the Knights of Labor had almost 750,000 members, but that number began to decline after the Haymarket Square Riots. The Haymarket Square Riots was when The Knights of Labor were accused of throwing a bomb that killed some police officers. The union fell apart because of the enormous amount of negative publicity they received from the Haymarket Square Riots.
In 1886, The American Federation of Labor was founded by Samuel Gompers. It was a union for skilled workers only. In 1894, the Pullman Strike occurred at the Pullman plant in Chicago. The American Railroad Union went on strike because of the handling of the Pullman??™s parlor and sleeping car that were on the railroads. 125,000 railroad workers were on strike but eventually the Supreme Court voted with an injunction to end the strike. Another well-known strike occurred in 1902. This strike was the United Mine Workers. More than 100,000 miners from Pennsylvania started a strike on May 12 and kept the mines closed for the whole summer. President Theodore Roosevelt took charge on October 3rd and on October 16th he appointed a commission of mediation and arbitration. On October 21st the miners returned to their jobs and five months later the Presidential Commission awarded the miners a 10 percent wage increase as well as shorter work days.
Many labor laws passed after the Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire in 1911. 146 people, mostly women, were killed because the company had locked the main exit doors in order to keep the employees from leaving during the work day. The first African American union was the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. In the 20??™s more than 20,000 African Americans worked as porters at the Pullman Company. The company would fire people who tried to organize labor unions for fewer hours and more pay, as a result, in 1925, the porters went to Philip Randolph, who was an African American who wasn??™t employed by the Pullman Company. Randolph then created the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and in 1936 it was formally accepted by the American Federation of Labor. In 1937, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters received its first labor contract, which decreased work hours and increased wages. It was a huge stepping stone for African Americans and the American labor union.
After World War I union membership dropped significantly from 5 million, in 1921, to only 3.4 million, in 1929. The dramatic decrease in membership was due to a few different things. Communists looking for power in the unions tested the leadership during this time. Also, employers were doing anti-union activities such as giving benefits like health insurance to nonunion workers, which made people who otherwise would??™ve joined the union, second guess that so they could have health insurance. Unions lost members during the Great Depression, but the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the start of the New Deal were both positives things for organized labor. The Federal Government worked on getting people back to work and in 1938, minimum wages and maximum hours were legislated.
In 1935, the Social Security Act was passed which provided unemployment insurance and elderly and survivors??™ insurance. The National Labor Relations Board was started so workers could organize and negotiate without the interference of their employers, thus membership in unions increased considerably. In November 1935, the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was created and lead by John Lewis. He worked to organize automobile and steel workers. The CIO started sit-down strikes, where workers refused to leave the factories or do work. Employers were not able to bring in strikebreakers, who were people companies brought in to take the place of the workers that had went on strike, to continue production during these sit-down strikes. The CIO merged with the AFL (American Federation of Labor) in New York on December 5, 1955 to be the AFL-CIO. The merging of the AFL-CIO practically got rid of all of the arguments between different unions, so the unions could move forward to try and gain more rights for workers. Over the past forty years union membership has little by little declined because of employers keeping their companies union-free, and many more woman and teenagers are working for lower wages.
Still, organized labor has had a great impact on the work place. Workers have much safer working conditions than they used to have. Unions ended child labor and brought upon the 40 hour work week. They also got people breaks during their work day. People now get paid for their overtime hours they put in, which would be nonexistent without unions. Workers can now file grievances for jobs that they feel may be unsafe to them or about an issue they have with their job or work environment. Employees are provided with or required to wear certain types of clothing and shoes in order to prevent them from injury.
The social impact of organized labor has been great as well. Workers used to work 10 hour days for 6 days a week. Children as young as eight years old were working instead of going to school. Men and women received no benefits when they retired. Women who became pregnant were often fired. Now, workers have high wages and better hours. Workers receive medical coverage and paid vacation. There is now workman??™s compensation for if a worker would hurt themselves on the job the company must pay for your medical bills as well as pay you a percentage of your wage while you are unable to work. The union has brought not only union workers wages up but has also brought up wages of all American workers.
Organized labor unions are a very important aspect of the history of the American worker. The unions went through many ups and downs and have faced many obstacles throughout their push towards better working conditions and benefits for workers. If not for organized labor, workers today would not receive the higher wages and better hours amongst other things that they do. People would still be working with very few benefits from they??™re backbreaking jobs. I myself have been raised in a family that believes very strongly in what unions can do for the American worker. I believe in what a union can do and provide for an individual who otherwise wouldn??™t be able to get much accomplished by themselves. Unions have come a long way and we can only hope that they keep doing what they??™ve strived to do, over the years, for the average American worker.

Bibliography
???organized labor.??? American History. 2006. ABC-CLIO. 17 March 2010
http://www.americanhistory.abc-clio.com.

The Social Studies Help Center. ???The Labor Union Movement In America.??? 2010. 17
March 2010. https://ssl.myhostcenter.com/afge1504.org/page6.php.

Ushistory.org. ???Organized Labor.??? U.S. History Online Textbook. 2010. 17 March 2010.
http://ushistory.org/us/37.asp.

Categories: General

Pm 571 Week 1

February 27, 2017 • admin

Project Management Concepts and Applications Paper
University of Phoenix
PM 571 Project Management
December 13, 2010

National City Community Appreciation Day is a project where National City Bank closes 100 branches midday, to allow 700 bank employees to volunteer to work for 23 community organizations on that day. The goal of Community Appreciation day is to strengthen the banks ties to the local community. This project helps builds community relations, performs goodwill and improves the National City??™s image within surrounding communities.
Project Description
Liberty House is one of the 23 partnering with National City for Community Appreciation Day. Liberty House provides assisted living arrangements for low income elderly and disabled citizens (Battaglia, 2008). The Liberty House project involves 30 National City volunteers from four Western Wayne County District National City branches. The objective of this project is to rehabilitate a Liberty House property. The project consists of painting parts of the home, landscaping, and minor repairs to the homes. Materials for the project include donations from Sherwin Williams, National City, and Green Tomato Greenhouse.
Customer Appreciation Day is a complex project that consists of several smaller projects. On this day, 30 employees start the day with the goal of improving the lives and living conditions of the residents at Liberty House. Five hours were set aside on this day. The employee had to use the five hours to complete project tasks. The project is complete once the painting of the rooms and the yard work are finished and all debris and trash are cleaned up. The smiles of the residents are the measures or success for this project.
Organization
National City??™s mission statement is ???National City Corporation will be a premier diversified financial services company providing customers with advice, information and services to meet their financial needs. We will achieve superior levels of financial performance as compared to our peers and provide stockholders with an attractive return on their investment over time.???(2007) Being a good corporate citizen is an important part of National City living up to the mission statement. Annually National City donates $45 million dollars to charities across its footprint. (Battaglia, 2008, CL4)
Customer Appreciation Day has a specific objective of giving back to the local communities that make National City possible every day of the year. National City wants to send the message that the company cares about the community. The success of the project is not easily measurable in quantitative figures. Positive media coverage and customer community feedback are the best indicators of the projects accomplishments. The smaller groups are given certain tasks to complete. These tasks are the responsibility of the groups. The project requires plenty of work to accomplish. With 30 volunteers working as a single unit, five hours is a realistic timeframe.
Organizational Structure
Management support helps make this project possible. National City has a functional management structure. The market manager communicates the corporate vision and goals to the district manager. The market manager is responsible for overseeing 8-12 district managers. Each district manager delegates the corporate agenda to the branch managers. Each district manager is responsible for the activities of 6-10 branch managers. The branch manager has majority control within the branch. Employees work hard to complete daily tasks that managers delegate to them (Gary & Larson, 2008). The National City employees have daily routines and responsibilities. A project that requires employees to perform special tasks is second in priority to the daily responsibilities of the office.
The project benefits from the functional manage structure because of the flexibility of organizing 700 employees from different branches and departments to work for 23 charities. The day following the project, teams easily transitioned back to their branches and departments to work as usual. The large and diverse backgrounds of the volunteers made completing the large project feasible. Unlike many functional structures, branch managers were accountable for the work of their teams.
Project managers have little authority over staff members. If the manager does not make time for the staff to participate then the project will fail. Customer Appreciation day project has the support of all levels of corporate management. It is an annual project that is a part of a great corporate strategy to give back to the community. Community Appreciation Day is used as a tool to better community relations and improves the company??™s image. The project manager??™s success in selling the benefits of the project to the senior management is a factor in the success of the project. The project manager was able to influence the managers to support this cause. Closing 100 branches is not possible without the ok of top management. The project manager must convince the management of the benefits of such a risky proposal
Organizational Culture
National City is a giving culture. In 2008, National City donated $43 million to the United Way. Several million more were donated to local causes in all seven states in which the bank operates. Giving is a part of the member identity of the employees. Of the $43 million donated to the United Way $3 million was donated by the employees (Battaglia, 2008). Most of the banking functions in a bank branch can be completed individually, but the organization??™s has team based approach encourages employees work together. Interdepartmental competitions, community services, or special projects, employees use a team based approach. It is normal for employees to work to the greater goal of the team. This culture is a positive for the Community Appreciation Day. Employees volunteered to give a half days pay to work as a team to better the community (Battaglia, 2008).
National City has a very conservative behavioral culture. Strict dress codes and zero tolerance policies for certain types of behaviors have created an environment responsibility, accountability, discipline, and guidance (Gary & Larson, 2008). The employees follow directions well and execute given directions in a timely, professional manner. In less than five hours, three rooms and a garage, and a wooden fence had been painted. The grass was cut, bushes and shrubs were pruned, and new flowers where planted. Volunteers weeded the lawn and the broken front step was replaced. The project manager managed the time and process and provide refreshments, encouragement, and while working aside the team.
Conclusion
National City Banks Customer Appreciation Day is a project that highlights to giving nature of the company and the employees of this organization. The management structure and organizational culture influences National City??™s ability to create and complete this project. National City??™s ability to manage this project while staying in line with the organization corporate strategy are all important factors that helped make Customer Appreciation day a success.

References
Battaglia, T, S. (2008, June 29). Helping Hands: Volunteers Fix Up Home in Redford
Township. Detroit Free Press, pp. CL 4
Gray, C. F. & Larson, E. W (2008), Project management: The managerial process (4th ed.).
NewYork: McGraw-Hill
National City Corp. (2007). 10K Annual Report. Retrieved from
http://sec.edgar-online.com/national-city-corp/10-k-annual
report/2007/02/08/Section22.aspx

Categories: General

The History of Operations Management

February 27, 2017 • admin

The field of Operations emerged in the 1800??™s but with each decade has grown and developed into the technologically advanced field it is today, committed to producing innovative quality products and services. According to Heizer & Render (2008) Operations Management is ???the set of activities that creates value in the form of goods and services by transforming inputs into outputs.???
This paper examines the evolution of Operations management and its various contributors, from the early concepts where the focus was on cost and includes, the scientific and mass production era to focusing on quality and the lean production era. The final section of this paper focuses on customization in the mass customization era.

EARLY CONCEPTS 1776-1800

Agriculture was the predominant industry in most countries worldwide for many centuries. At the end of the 18th century, advances began to be made in various agricultural techniques that resulted in increases in food and raw material. There were also changes in industrial organization and advances in technology which resulted in increased production, efficiency and profits. These and other conditions resulted in the industrial revolution. As a result some individuals began to look at more efficient way to increase production and profits. These include the following:

LABOR SPECIALIZATION:

Labor specialization refers to the dividing up of tasks so that they are completed by a larger number of persons who perform specialized skills as opposed to one person completing the entire job.

Adam Smith (1723-1790)

Adam Smith was a philosopher and economist who is one of the individuals credited with recognizing the importance of labor specialization.
He illustrated its importance in his book The Wealth of Nations (1776), using pin making to establish his point.
Smith states:
???One man draws out the wire, another straights it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds it; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations, to put it on is another peculiar business, to whiten the pin is another, it is even a trade by itself to put them into paper???.(as cited in Beardshaw & Brewster et al (2001)
Smith noted that with specialization each labourer is able to produce 2400 time as much as each working separately without specialization and separation. (Niederhoffer, 2006) He believed that specialization led to:
a. increased skill in workers who with repetition of one particular task became expert in that area.
b. time saved since the person who becomes skilled will be able to perform the task more quickly.
c. An increase in the use of machinery
d. Increased skill and time saved would lead to an increase in productivity.

STANDARDIZED PARTS (Eli Whitney 1765-1825)

Standardized parts are almost identical, made that way so that they are interchangeable and can fit into any device of the same type. This was developed around 1798 by Eli Whitney who recognized that if one part can replace another, allowing for easy assembly of the new part without each replacement or new part having to be custom made to fit the device, the time and skill needed to do this task would be greatly minimized. Whitney used the concept of standardized parts to build ten guns which contained the same parts and mechanism. He took the parts to the US congress where he reassembled them. The congress was so impressed that an order was given for all US equipment to have these interchangeable parts.

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT ERA 1880 – 1910

Kreitner & Kinicki ( 2008) describes scientific management as: ???using research and experimentation to find the most efficient way to perform a job???. It was conceptualized by Frederick Taylor and involves five steps:

Use time and motion studies to develop standard methods for performing tasks.

Select employees with the necessary abilities to perform these tasks

Train the employees in the standard methods

Lend support to the workers and reduce any interruptions that would prevent the workers from performing the tasks.

Provide incentives that would help to reinforce performance.

Contributions to this era which are Gantt Charts, Motion and Time Studies, Process Analysis and The Queuing Theory.

GANTT CHARTS (Charles Gantt: (1861 ??“ 1919)

[pic]

Henry Gantt, an American mechanical engineer and management consultant, developed the Gantt charts in the 1910??™s. The charts were designed to show the progression of a project. The horizontal axis of the chart shows the time scale for the expected completion of the project and the vertical refers to the tasks to be done or that have already been complete. The horizontal rows of bars show the beginning and ending date of each task in the project.

MOTION & TIME STUDIES (Frank B. Gilbreth (1868 -1924)

Frank B. Gilbreth was born July, 7 1868 in Fairfield, Maine U.S.A. His professions included bricklayer, building contractor and management engineer. In his capacity as a bricklayer he observed that other bricklayers had their individual ways of working that were not duplicated by another worker. He also noted that people did not always employ the same motions while doing their work. He determined that some time was lost in the movements or motions of these individuals. These observations caused Gilbreth to seek a better way to perform tasks. The studies conducted came to be known as motion and time studies and are usually only appropriate for repetitive tasks.

Time and motion studies is the method for establishing employee productivity standards in which a complete task is broken down into small simple steps. The sequence of movements taken by the employee in performing those steps is carefully observed to detect and eliminate redundant or wasteful motion and precise time taken for each movement is measured. From these measurements, production and delivery times and prices can be computed and incentive times devised (???Time and motion studies,??? n.d.).

PROCESS ANALYSIS (Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)

Another method of reducing the time taken to produce is by using process analysis. Process analysis is used to analyze a job by looking at the various processes involved in the completing of the job. The process can be analyzed from the top down or from the bottom up. It is broken down into a number of steps that includes an explanation of how these steps are to be carried out in order to complete the task.

QUEUING THEORY (Agner Krarup Erlang (1978-1939)

In 1908, A.K. Erlang, a Danish mathematician, statistician and engineer began studying the problem of telephone congestion in a manually operated telephone system. The study consisted of:

The average time a customer had to wait.

The chance that the customer would get immediate service,

The effect on the customer if there is a change in operators or any other conditions.

Erlang determined that if more operators were employed or the service offered was speeded up the waiting period for the customers would be reduced. However if these measures were implemented the operations would be more expensive to maintain, He indicated that it was important to find a reasonable balance. This theory is used to make decisions about resources needed to provide service.

Examples of uses of the queuing theory are:

First In First Out (FIFO) ??“ customers are served one at a time and the customer that was waiting the longest is served first

Last In First Out (LIFO) ??“ Customers are also served one at a time but the customer who was waiting for the shortest time will be served first.

Process Sharing ??“ Customers are served equally

Priority ??“ Customers are served in order of priority.

MASS PRODUCTION ERA (1910-1980)

Mass production focuses on economies of scale where large quantities of products are produced. Mass production manufactures believe that if large batches of products are produced the machines will be used more efficiently and it will be less time consuming for the machine operators. The productions are based on a forecast of future needs, where the manufacturer seeks to anticipate the market for the goods. This however can cause a surplus of supplies caused by over production, which leads to reduced productivity.

Contributors and contributions to the mass production era include:

MOVING ASSEMBLY LINE (Henry Ford (1863-1947 and

Charles EmilSorenson (1881-1968)

The model T Ford was first produced by Ford Motor Company in1908. It was only affordable by the elite and Henry Ford wanted to find a way to produce the car more efficiently and make it available to the average man. He and his team which included Charles E. Sorenson an employee, did some investigations and deduced that in order to achieve their goal they needed interchangeable parts, continuous flow of the process, specialized labor and reduced wasting of time.

They determined that using interchangeable part meant that any valve could fit any engine and any steering wheel any chassis. It also meant improving machinery and cutting tools used to make these parts and then employing lower-skilled labourers to replace the skilled craftsmen who made the parts by hand. They also realized that the work needed to be arranged so that as soon as one task was completed another could begin, thus reducing time spent in the manufacturing process. Eventually the labor process was broken down into 84 individual steps and each worker was trained to do just one of these steps. Then in 1923 the first moving assembly ever used in large scale manufacturing was introduced at Ford Motors. Cars could now be produced more efficiently, resulting in reduced cost to the customer, while still realizing a profit for the company.

STATISTICAL SAMPLING (Walter A. Shewhart (1891-1967)

Statistical sampling is selecting one or more representative units of a population in an effort to understand the characteristics of the overall population (???Statistical sampling???. n.d.). It is used to draw conclusions about a population without examining all the items comprising the population.

Statistical sampling was engineered by Walter A. Shewhart an American physicist, engineer and statistician. He noted that any variations in the production process could be attributed to a common cause (caused by some unknown factor e.g man power) or a special cause (caused by known factors e.g earthquake). He introduced a control chart to distinguish between the two causes. Shewhart believed that in order to predict future output and maintain an economical process it was important to have the production in a state of statistical control where there is only common-cause variation. (???Walter A. Shewhart??? 2010).

ECONOMIC ORDER QUALITY (F.W. Harris)

The model for calculating the economic order quantity was developed by F.W. Harris in 1913.

It is used by most companies who use large volumes of stock. The Economic order quantity is used to determine the most adequate level of inventory needed for production. At the same time it also calculates the best point at which the cost for holding inventory and ordering is lowest, so that operating managers can determine the number of units of stock that needs to be ordered to adequately restock, without running the risk of overstocking.

LINEAR PROGRAMMING PERT/CPM (DuPont)

Linear programming is a mathematical process of taking certain inequalities relating to a particular situation and finding a way to get the best outcome from the situation. For example a manufacturer may have materials, labor and machinery available but is not sure of the best method to use in production. The company can use linear programming to determine the best production levels and ways in which profits can be maximized under these conditions.

PROGRAM EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT)

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) was developed and used in the construction of the Polaris submarine by the U.S. Navy in 1958. It is a management tool for planning, coordinating and controlling large complex projects.

The Pert technique is made up of a diagram of arrows and circles which represent the series or sequence of activities necessary for the completion of any project. The arrows represent activities or tasks. These activities and tasks require time and resources. On the other hand the circles represent points in time in the project where an activity has been completed. PERT uses three time estimates to compute expected values and standard deviations for each activity.

A PERT CHART

[pic]

CRITICAL PATH METHOD ( duPont)

The Critical Path Method is an important part of PERT. According to Heizer and Render (2008) the ???Critical Path Method (CPM) is a project management technique that uses only one time factor per activity???. It was developed in 1957 by Morgan R. Walker of DuPont and James E. Kelly Jr. of Remington Rand and like PERT is used to help managers schedule, monitor and control large and complex projects. A path is a sequence of activities and a critical path is the route that will require the greatest amount of time. In order to speed up the project, so that it finishes on time, activities along the critical path will have to be shortened.

Heizer and Render states that PERT and CPM follow six basic steps:

Define the project and prepare the work breakdown structure

Develop the relationship among the activities. Decide which activities must precede and which must follow others

Draw the network connecting all the activities

Assign time and/or cost estimates to each activity

Compute the longest timepath through the network. This is called the critical path

Use the network to help plan, schedule, monitor and control projects???.

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PLANNING

This is a computerized inventory system that was designed in the 1940??™s and 1950??™s to assist production managers in scheduling and placing orders for what is known as dependent demand items. These are items that are related in to the demand for another item such as raw materials and parts. As soon as management knows or are able to estimate the demand for the final product they are able to order the materials or parts necessary to complete the product in a specified time frame.

Materials requirement planning determines what is needed, how much is needed and when it is needed. The materials or inventory needed are then broken down into planning periods so that production can be completed on time. At the same time inventory levels and other costs can be kept at a minimum.

LEAN PRODUCTION ERA (1980 ??“ 1995)

In the lean production era the focus shifted to quality. It objectives includes

reducing the time between the customer??™s order and shipment, thereby eliminating

waste and reducing cost. This was achieved by producing what the customer

wanted instead of production which was based on a forecast of customer??™s future

needs as was the case in the mass production era. The lean production era also sought

to provide high quality functional products at affordable prices.

JUST-IN-TIME

According to Horngren, Harrison and Bamber (2005), Just-In-Time is ???a system in which a company produces just in time to satisfy needs. Suppliers deliver materials just in time to begin production and finished units are completed just in time for delivery to customers.???

Since supplies are delivered only when needed there is no need for storage or any other costs that it entails. With the Just-in Time system goods are produced on demand and not only is waste eliminated but better quality products are produced at lower costs.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) – is the use of computer software for the design and creation of models of products to be tested. Since these are virtual products CAD results in a reduction in the cost of product development as well as a reduction in the time required to run tests using actual products. Any errors in the designs can be modifies as the tests are administered.

ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE ??“ is used by businesses to exchange information electronically. This exchange of data is between or within an organization where information is transferred from a computer in one location to a computer in another location without having to re-enter the information. The benefits of EDI are:

It saves time and money since transactions can be sent from one system to another, eliminating printing and paper handling.

It is easier for customers and distributors to place orders and the company benefits since being able to cater quickly to stakeholders need means that the customers are more likely to remain with the company instead of going to its competitors.

It eliminates time delays where paper documents transported manually may take many days to reach its destination.

Labor cost usually associated with manual processing is reduced.

Information is more accurate since there are fewer points where errors can be introduced into the system.

A larger numbers of users have access to a great amount of data received in a timely manner.

Less storage space is required.

The use of EDI results in the production of a better product and improved customer service.

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Total Quality Movement is an organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement and customer satisfaction (???Kreitner & Kincki???, 2008). The organization??™s functions are geared specifically towards constantly improving the quality of products, services and business processes

BALDRIGE AWARD – The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award was

established by the U.S. congress in 1987 and is presented annually by the president of

the United States to organizations that demonstrate excellence in quality and

performance. It is designed to encourage manufacturers, service businesses, and small

businesses, educational and healthcare institutions to strive for quality and recognizes

those businesses that have successfully implemented quality management systems.

The award is named after the late U.S. Secretary of Commerce Malcolm Baldrige

who was a proponent of quality management. Organizations that apply for the

Baldrige Award are judged in the area of leadership, strategic planning, customer and

market focus, measurement analysis and knowledge, human resource, process

management and business performance results.

EMPOWERMENT

In today??™s society it is recognized that human capital is an extremely important resource in an organization. Employees with the right skills, knowledge and motivation can be essential to the growth and development of any organization. The prudent manager must do all in his power to utilize this resource, by empowering the workers, allowing them to be involved in the decision making processes of the organization.

Empowerment includes

Building communication networks that include employees

Developing open, supportive supervisors

Moving responsibility from both managers and staff to production employees

Building high-morale organizations

Creating formal organization structures such as teams and quality circles

KANBAN

Kanban is a system of continuous supply of component parts and supplies, such that workers have what they need, where they need it and when they need it. It is a means of achieving Just-In-Time product and works on the basis that each process on a production line pulls just the right number and type of components that the process requires at just the right time (???What is Kaban??? n.d.).

MASS CUSTOMIZATION ERA (1995 -2010)

Mass customization involves customizing and personalizing of products and services. With the evolution of this era in operations management customers are able through the help of the world-wide web, to interact with a company in almost any part of the world and specify their unique requirements, which are then manufactured by automated systems. Benefits of mass customization include lower costs and higher profits. In addition, because the products are made to customer specifications they are able to compete with other similar products at the same or similar cost.

GLOBALIZATION ??“ is the interaction and integration among peoples, companies and governments of different nations (???Globalization???, n.d). The basis for it is informational technology which allows easy access and makes the world a global village. Globalization affords the prudent manager the opportunity to tap into the vast resources that are available in other countries. Companies are also able with the use of the internet to broaden their customer base. This affords customers the opportunity to customize their orders and be reasonably assured that the products and even services will be made readily available to them.

INTERNET/E-COMMERCE

E-Commerce refers to the ability of businesses to exchange information using the electronic means. The technologies used in E-commerce can cater to almost any situation and includes Electronic Data Interchange, email, electronic bulletin boards, fax transmissions and electronic transfers. It also refers to internet shopping and online stocks and bonds. The internet allows customers controlled access to a company??™s computer system and business is done faster and better.

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING ??“ is a process that brings together all the departments and functions in an organization into a single computer system that meets the needs of each department. Since it is a single system all information necessary for decision making is readily available electronically across all departments. This results in efficient customer management and companies are able to deliver goods and services that meet customer expectations.

LEARNING ORGANIZATION

Yukl (2006) notes that

???the term learning organization has been used to describe organizations that learn rapidly and use knowledge to become more effective. In these organizations the values of learning, innovation, experimentation, flexibility and initiative are firmly embedded in the culture of the organization.

Leaders are involved in the development of tools and models for understanding how things work, how to adapt to the environment and how to achieve the organization??™s success. Learning organizations empower workers who are then able to deal with problems and find better ways to do the work??? .

INTERNATIONAL QUALITY STANDARDS ??“ focuses on establishing quality management procedures. The standards are set up based on leadership, detailed documentation, work instructions and recordkeeping. The ISO 9000 which is a set of quality standards developed by the International Organisation of Standardization has international recognition. In order for companies to become ISO 9000 certified, they must go through a process that involves the documentation of quality procedures, an on-site assessment and an ongoing series of audits of their products and services. Companies must also be listed in the ISO directory in order to do business internationally.

FINITE SCHEDULING

Finite scheduling is an approach used by companies to determine how much work can be accomplished in a given time period. The goal is for work to proceed at an even pace at every point in the production process. Types of finite scheduling tools are:

Electronic scheduling board (ESB) ??“ this provides a graphical view of all jobs currently in production. It calculates performance times automatically and gives a warning it a bottleneck occurs.

Order-based scheduling (OBS) ??“ the scheduler, decides which work will be completed first by only selecting the orders that meet the criteria pre-set by the company.

Constraint-based schedulers (CBS) ??“ the bottlenecks in the line are used to determine the schedule for the rest of the components in the system.

Discrete Events Simulation ??“ models random events and predicts the domino effect one event would have on the rest of the system

Genetic algorithms ??“ New schedules are developed using characteristics from previous schedules (???finite capacity scheduling???, n.d.).

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT is ???management of activities that procure materials and services, transforming them into intermediate goods and final products, and delivering the products through a distribution system??? (Kreitner & Kiniciki, 2008).

The aim is to increase competitiveness through product customization, high quality, cost reductions and the speed at which the products reach the market. Companies can gain a competitive advantage in the market by having strong relationships with their suppliers.

BUILD TO ORDER- is a production process where products are built as soon as a confirmed order is received. It is used for highly customized or low volume products.

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empowerment.html.[pic]

Categories: General

Plutonium and Turtles

February 27, 2017 • admin

Man this is nothing
Uploaded Fake Essay! Blah!
Fo Twenti Nigga
I like tutrttkes hello mo hi hi hi hi a a a a ai ai fi d onufat dinf aoug aufbuafh hello may I please be be be ebe e be excused about formanl night gigbber ifnf fha heia heirachy tits to yo man whats up hi hi hihi ih ih ihi hi hi hhi hi hi a ha ih iat otny anuaf agu I cant belie vhe ehow are youh a hcahfnia g8gh u7a thghg abeli e ve how decide to join us us us s us join beatehea medicine food eat food sensitivity s chicken plate bonjour feeling well life tiem average chicken neerver touches doom ground dance tawlk slap yo face moo for cray world so woman shot 3 ladies house on fire my sons sik hes fine dad! Youre de pres,. , eod a17 cents naver made a peep never dbe depressed glue factory mom sell home back upstairs joke wah boo mouth he ehe e eje aoaoia sdbas old aldy nee er fcoming back carayz akd iafog uia f aubfiga7 a ksfhiashf a s fag g get the picture this is a fake essay filled with gibberish so I could join! Don??™t read this waaaaaaaaaaagagagagaga la. Daaaah im making up werd shomie and typing gibberish to make this go quicker massss typos weee here t aywee wgo man can you trevne treathis this shit tohjhimine bo dagugf7a a fia lfjvua7v a7akl jca. Lo,olol idiot jk buddy just joshin.

Categories: General

The History of Halloween

February 27, 2017 • admin

We are all familiar with the sights of children dressed as ghosts, goblins, witches, and zombies on October 31, but few of us really know the origins of the day now known by all as Halloween. Halloween??™s origins can be traced back to the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain. The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundary between the alive and the dead dissolved, allowing the deceased to walk the earth once again. Costumes and masks were often worn at festivals on this day to imitate the spirits of the deceased. The name ???Halloween??? comes from ???All Hallows??™ Eve???, which refers to the night before ???All Hallows??™ Day???, which is now more commonly known as All Saints??™ Day.
The custom of carving a pumpkin into a ???jack-o??™-lantern??? also comes from early Celtic practices. Since they believed that the head of the body contained both the spirit and knowledge, the Celts used the ???head??? of a pumpkin or turnip to frighten any evil spirits. The name ???Jack-o??™-lantern??? itself refers to a character from Irish legend who was cursed by the devil after tricking him into climbing a tree and then marking it with a cross, making it impossible for Satan to climb down. Halloween finally became popular in the United States during the Irish Potato Famine.
Every year on October 31, millions of children, dressed as all sorts of ghouls, creatures, skeletons, witches, and popular movie characters, trick-or-treat from house to house, hoping to fill their bags with loads of candy and other treats. Front lawns of houses are transformed into spooky graveyards filled with spider webs, tombstones, and zombies rising from the dead. Halloween can be enjoyed by people of all ages as a festive night to come together and have some supernatural fun.

Categories: General

Plutarch and the Relationship Between Cleopatra and Anthony

February 27, 2017 • admin

Plutarch was born in Greece and had a firm admiration for the political and cultural beliefs of Rome. Prejudice against women during this time is reflected in his literature alongside his firm alliance with the Romans.
Plutarch suggests that Cleopatra never gave Antony a moment??™s peace as she continuously kept him occupied by her need for his attention. He uses the word ???tutelage??™ meaning guided, as if Antony was being controlled by Cleopatra. The phrase, ???released him neither night nor day??™ suggests he is like a prisoner to her. The reference to playing games, hunting and drinking with Antony shows how she included herself in activities usually enjoyed by men. In contrast, Plutarch describes the games the couple played at the expense of the common people for their personal amusement. He explains how Antony ???reaped a harvest of abuse??™ which suggests he believes Antony deserved such punishment due to his taunting behaviour.
Plutarch writes an account of the day Antony goes fishing but is unsuccessful in his catch. Antony is angry that Cleopatra has witnessed this. Rather than look weak in front of her, he orders some fishermen into the water to attach fish to his line as if he has caught them. At this point in the story, Plutarch refers to Cleopatra as ???the Egyptian??™ as she has seen through the lie Antony has played. By calling her this he is suggesting that she has the typical reputation of a deceitful and cunning Egyptian. Some one that could not be tricked, as she is the untrustworthy one.
Cleopatra humiliates Antony by pretending she admires his fishing skills but the following day plays her own trick on him. Plutarch explains how she invited spectators to witness the trick. He uses the words ???great numbers of them??™ to describe the amount of people at the scene. This could be an exaggeration to make the reader believe Cleopatra went to great lengths to humiliate Antony. This would not only teach Antony a lesson but would also be Cleopatra??™s way of warning people that she will not be fooled and if challenged, will win.
Plutarch tells how Cleopatra referred to Antony as ???Imperator??™ in front of spectators. This would be her way of keeping his pride intact. She refers to him as being a great hunter politically, not as a mere fisherman. Plutarch may have written this to show her controlling behaviour.
By writing such accounts, Plutarch contributes to the negative image of Cleopatra. He would have despised the idea of a woman keeping a man as her prisoner and controlling his every move. He depicts Cleopatra as a cunning and manipulative character and as an Egyptian can not be trusted. They are purely the alliteration of a biased man who wishes to keep the reputation of Rome intact. Plutarch provides the reader with a sense that Anthony is happy to be in Cleopatra??™s control and that as a man he has lost all sense of what being a great Roman leader is.

Categories: General